Pinterest MySQL Management Tools
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lib Add toll to find match datetime to gtid, modify pt-kill startup Jun 16, 2017
mysql_cnf_config Add toll to find match datetime to gtid, modify pt-kill startup Jun 16, 2017
tcollector Add really significantly modified tcollector module. Somewhat pintere… Sep 22, 2016
zdict_gen Added shard migration, fencing dead servers. Jun 13, 2017
LICENSE Initial commit of mysql_utils code Oct 28, 2015
NullEscape.c 2016-02-05 updates Feb 5, 2016
README.md Fix warning typo May 30, 2017
archive_mysql_binlogs.py Add priority queue and parallelism to partitioned table dumps Jun 13, 2017
backup_tester.py Added shard migration, fencing dead servers. Jun 13, 2017
binlog_rotator.py 1. Remove VPC migration code. Jul 7, 2016
check_mysql_replication.py Added shard migration, fencing dead servers. Jun 13, 2017
check_shard_mappings.py Added shard migration, fencing dead servers. Jun 13, 2017
clean_up_unfinished_migration.py Added shard migration, fencing dead servers. Jun 13, 2017
fence_server.py Added shard migration, fencing dead servers. Jun 13, 2017
fence_shutdown_mysql.py Added shard migration, fencing dead servers. Jun 13, 2017
find_gtid_for_timestamp.py Add toll to find match datetime to gtid, modify pt-kill startup Jun 16, 2017
find_shard_mismatches.py Added shard migration, fencing dead servers. Jun 13, 2017
find_unused_db_servers.py Added shard migration, fencing dead servers. Jun 13, 2017
finish_shard_migration.py Added shard migration, fencing dead servers. Jun 13, 2017
fix_orphaned_shards.py Added shard migration, fencing dead servers. Jun 13, 2017
get_recent_checksums.py Added shard migration, fencing dead servers. Jun 13, 2017
kill_backups.py 2016-02-05 updates Feb 5, 2016
launch_amazon_mysql_server.py Add support for gtid based replication Jun 13, 2017
launch_replacement_db_host.py Add support for gtid based replication Jun 13, 2017
maxwell-3306.conf Add support for maxwell, various bug fixes Jun 13, 2017
modify_mysql_zk.py Added shard migration, fencing dead servers. Jun 13, 2017
mysql_backup.py Add priority queue and parallelism to partitioned table dumps Jun 13, 2017
mysql_backup_csv.py Add priority queue and parallelism to partitioned table dumps Jun 13, 2017
mysql_backup_logical.py ~ Automatically launch a replacement when a failover is run against a… Nov 5, 2015
mysql_backup_status.py Add priority queue and parallelism to partitioned table dumps Jun 13, 2017
mysql_backup_xtrabackup.py ~ Automatically launch a replacement when a failover is run against a… Nov 5, 2015
mysql_checksum.py Added shard migration, fencing dead servers. Jun 13, 2017
mysql_cli.py Add toll to find match datetime to gtid, modify pt-kill startup Jun 16, 2017
mysql_cnf_builder.py Add toll to find match datetime to gtid, modify pt-kill startup Jun 16, 2017
mysql_failover.py Add support for maxwell, various bug fixes Jun 13, 2017
mysql_grants.py Initial commit of mysql_utils code Oct 28, 2015
mysql_init_server.py Add toll to find match datetime to gtid, modify pt-kill startup Jun 16, 2017
mysql_record_table_size.py Added shard migration, fencing dead servers. Jun 13, 2017
mysql_replica_mappings.py 2016-02-05 updates Feb 5, 2016
mysql_restore.py Add toll to find match datetime to gtid, modify pt-kill startup Jun 16, 2017
mysql_shard_config.py Added shard migration, fencing dead servers. Jun 13, 2017
mysql_shard_mappings.py Added shard migration, fencing dead servers. Jun 13, 2017
mysql_shard_status.py Added shard migration, fencing dead servers. Jun 13, 2017
mysqld_multi 2016-05 code push May 9, 2016
mysqlops.sql ~ Add in timeout for replacement script expecting a build to succeed.… Nov 9, 2015
other_slave_running_etl.py 2016-02-05 updates Feb 5, 2016
pt-heartbeat.conf Bad exit code Oct 30, 2015
pt-kill.conf 2016-05 code push May 9, 2016
restart_daemons.py Add toll to find match datetime to gtid, modify pt-kill startup Jun 16, 2017
retirement_queue.py Add support for maxwell, various bug fixes Jun 13, 2017
safe_uploader.py Added shard migration, fencing dead servers. Jun 13, 2017
safe_uploader_repeater.py Added shard migration, fencing dead servers. Jun 13, 2017
schema_verifier.py Add support for maxwell, various bug fixes Jun 13, 2017
start_shard_migration.py Add support for gtid based replication Jun 13, 2017

README.md

Pinterest MySQL Management Tools

NOTE: THESE TOOLS WILL NOT JUST WORK!!!

You will need to add a fair amount of glue in order to make these tools work:

  • Service discovery
  • A CMDB
  • A bunch of company specific information in the environment specifics lib

It is hoped that this code will be useful to you as an example of working implementations of DB tools.

Basics of MySQL at Pinterest

Pinterest has historically used MySQL to store some of our most important data:

  • Pins
  • Boards
  • Image metadata
  • Usernames and passwords

Recently, we have added additional use cases:

  • Pinlater Thanks in part to kernel optimizations, MySQL is now replacing Redis and becoming the only supported backend for our asynchronous job execution engine.
  • Zen MySQL has joined HBase as a supported backend for our Graph Storage Engine.

In all of the environments that MySQL supports at Pinterest, the environment is identical from an administrative perspective:

  • A single master with one or two slaves Historically MySQL was used with multiple writable instances in a replica set. This topology is error prone and has been simplified to a single master with one or more slaves.
  • Zookeeper provides service discovery The contract between the administrative tools and the MySQL applications is Zookeeper. With few exceptions, Zookeeper provides clients with database hostnames, usernames and passwords.

The Lifecycle of a MySQL Instance in the Cloud

MySQL servers at Pinterest are launched, live, and die with only the rarest of configuration changes. Upgrading kernels, MySQL versions, and any other changes that would require a restart of the database are never done in-place. Instead, these actions are always performed through server replacements and failovers/slave promotions as needed. This choice has greatly simplified our automation by removing the need to manage intermediate state.

One of our most important scripts is launch_replacement_db_host.py. In the simplest case, the only required argument to launch_replacement_db_host.py is the hostname of a failed slave. The existing instance is examined, all required parameters for a new server are computed, and then the new server is launched. For other changes, such as MySQL upgrades, hardware upgrades/downgrades, and datacenter migrations, there are optional arguments.

After the new server has booted and received its initial base configuration from our provisioning system, a cron job will notice that the data directory is empty and run mysql_restore.py. Based on service discovery, this script will attempt to find a database backup, restore it, setup replication, and then add the new MySQL instance to service discovery. Like launch_replacement_db_host.py, mysql_restore.py accepts many optional arguments for non-standard uses.

If a MySQL master server requires replacement, the mysql_failover.py script must be run to promote the primary slaves to master. This script deals with either either living or dead initial masters, modifies MySQL replication topology, and then updates service discovery.

After a server has been removed from service discovery, it will be subject to a retirement queue system. This system has several steps that lead to eventual termination of a server:

  • Based on service discovery, servers that are not in use will have several status counters reset.
  • After a day, the servers will be inspected to see if any activity has caused the status counters to increment. If the counters have incremented, the retirement process is aborted. If the counters have not incremented, the MySQL instance is sent a shutdown command.
  • After another day, the server is subject to termination if its database has not been restarted.

Utilities

A list of included utilities:

  • archive_mysql_binlogs.py This script backs up MySQL replication logs in order to be able to perform point-in-time recoveries in the case where all servers in a replica set are lost. All logs up to the current log being written to are uploaded to S3.
  • backup_tester.py Replace some number of replica servers in order to test backups.
  • binlog_rotator.py If the current binlog has been in use longer than a predefined limit, rotate it.
  • check_mysql_replication.py This script displays replication status of an instance in terms of sql/io thread status and bytes behind, a computed seconds behind master based on pt-heartbeat. If a watch argument is supplied, normal output is suppess and instead only a computed seconds behind master is displayed along with a guestimate for replication catchup.
  • find_shard_mismatches.py This script examines production servers and find any incorrectly located shards.
  • find_unused_db_servers.py This script finds unused servers based on service discovery and optionally add the instances to the retirement queue.
  • fix_orphaned_shards.py This script picks up where find_shard_mismatches.py left off and rename and then eventually drop the unused shards.
  • get_recent_checksums.py Use data populated by mysql_checksum.py to display current replication consistency data.
  • kill_backups.py Kill any running backups. This is run by cron on master servers.
  • launch_amazon_mysql_server.py This script is generally called by launch_replacement_db_host.py and provides an easy interface to correctly launch a new server in aws.
  • launch_replacement_db_host.py This script accepts a hostname of an existing replica and then pulls a variety of data from our cmdb and attempts to launch a server to replace the supplied instance with a similar configuration. Optional additional arguments can override the configuration in a variety of ways.
  • modify_mysql_zk This script will modify our service discovery system in a variety of ways.
  • mysql_backup_status.py This script checks that backups have run across all replica sets and optionally display the created backup files. This script only checks xtrabackup backups
  • mysql_backup.py This script is the entry point for backups for MySQL. It can perform logical and xtrabackup backups.
  • mysql_backup_csv.py This script backups up data to S3 in CSV format in a manner that can be queried by Hive like systems. It is very much multiprocess and multithreaded and doubles as a stress testing utility.
  • mysql_backup_logical.py This script is basically shorthand for running a logical backup through mysql_backup.py.
  • mysql_backup_xtrabackup.py This script is basically shorthand for running a xtrabackups backup through mysql_backup.py.
  • mysql_checksum.py This script is run every day, and runs a pt-checksum against a subset of the shards in order to verify that master and slave are not out of sync and if so, by how much. The mysql_checksum.py script runs the checksums and stores the results.
  • mysql_cli.py This script attempts to remove the need for users to know hostnames, usernames and passwords in order to use the mysql cli. The script accepts a replica set name or in some cases a shard name and will determine the current hosts in productions and then launches a mysql cli in the shell using a read only username and password. It can also use a variety of privileges such as a read write connection or a admin connections. It can also accept a hostname and just figure out usernames and passwords.
  • mysql_cnf_builder.py This script builds MySQL configuration files based on global defaults, and then overrides for workload type, hardware and MySQL version. Several example configuration files are included.
  • mysql_grants.py This script manages our database users. It is one of our oldest bits of automation and one of our most limited. It fulfills our needs for the time being but sooner or later will need to be significantly expanded.
  • mysql_failover.py This script attempts to safely run a failover on a MySQL replica set, updating replication topology and service discovery.
  • mysql_grants.py This script provides an interface to check and correct db user configuration.
  • mysql_init_server.py This script takes a server with mysql binaries installed and sets up an empty mysql instance and then imports users.
  • *mysql_record_table_size.py Record the size of all innodb tables.
  • mysql_replica_mappings.py This script provides administrators a quick view of what is in production in a format that is easy to use for shell scripting. The script can also pull in hardware, availability zone, etc...
  • restart_daemons.py Restart pt daemons, if needed.
  • mysql_restore.py This script finds a backup, restores it, sets up replication and then adds the new instance to service discovery based on data recorded by launch_replacement_db_host.py.
  • mysql_shard_status.py This script displays the status in service discovery of an instance. Primarily used for gating cron jobs.
  • other_slave_running_etl.py Checks is another slave server is running a csv backup. Useful for gating cron.
  • retirement_queue.py This script ensures that a server which is no longer in service discovery is no longer in use and then terminates the instance.
  • safe_uploader.py This module provides our canonical way to upload data into S3. Either the processes feeding in data all succeed or the upload is not finalized.
  • schema_verifier.py This script ensures that schema is in sync across sharded data sets.

Some examples

Find the pinlater test servers

$ ./mysql_replica_mappings.py | grep pinlatertest
pinlatertestdb002               master      pinlatertestdb-2-3:3306
pinlatertestdb002               slave       pinlatertestdb-2-4:3306

Promote the slave to master

$ ./mysql_failover.py pinlatertestdb-2-3
I18:15:10 [__main__] Master to demote is pinlatertestdb-2-3:3306
I18:15:10 [__main__] Replica set is detected as pinlatertestdb002
I18:15:10 [__main__] Taking promotion lock on replica set
I18:15:10 [__main__] Promotion lock identifier is 48f8ee80-d97e-47b4-bf2a-75fd5d985b20
I18:15:10 [__main__] Releasing any expired locks
I18:15:10 [__main__] UPDATE mysqlops.promotion_locks SET lock_active = NULL WHERE expires < now()
I18:15:10 [__main__] Checking existing locks
I18:15:10 [__main__] Taking lock against replica set: pinlatertestdb002
I18:15:10 [__main__] INSERT INTO mysqlops.promotion_locks SET lock_identifier = '48f8ee80-d97e-47b4-bf2a-75fd5d985b20', lock_active = 'active', created_at = NOW(), expires = NOW() + INTERVAL 12 HOUR, released = NULL, replica_set = 'pinlatertestdb002', promoting_host = 'devops001', promoting_user = 'rwultsch'
I18:15:10 [__main__] Slave/new master is detected as pinlatertestdb-2-4:3306
I18:15:10 [__main__] DR slave is detected as None
I18:15:10 [__main__] Replica pinlatertestdb-2-4:3306 is replicating from expected master server pinlatertestdb-2-3:3306
I18:15:10 [__main__] Testing to see if Slave/new master is setup to write replication logs
I18:15:10 [__main__] Slave/new master is setup to write replication logs
I18:15:10 [__main__] Master is considered alive
I18:15:10 [__main__] Lag on pinlatertestdb-2-4:3306 is 0 is <= limit of 60
I18:15:10 [__main__] Preliminary sanity checks complete, starting promotion
I18:15:10 [__main__] Setting read_only on master
I18:15:10 [lib.mysql_lib] Confirming that long running transactions have gone away
I18:15:10 [lib.mysql_lib] All long trx are now dead
I18:15:10 [lib.mysql_lib] SET GLOBAL read_only = 1
I18:15:10 [__main__] Confirming no writes to old master
I18:15:10 [lib.mysql_lib] FLUSH TABLE_STATISTICS
I18:15:10 [lib.mysql_lib] FLUSH USER_STATISTICS
I18:15:10 [__main__] Waiting 10 seconds to confirm instance is no longer accepting writes
I18:15:20 [__main__] No writes after sleep, looks like we are good to go
I18:15:20 [__main__] Waiting for replicas to be caught up
I18:15:20 [__main__] pinlatertestdb-2-4:3306 is in sync with the master
I18:15:20 [__main__] Setting up replication from old master (pinlatertestdb-2-3:3306)to new master (pinlatertestdb-2-4:3306)
I18:15:20 [lib.mysql_lib] Setting pinlatertestdb-2-3:3306 as a replica of new master pinlatertestdb-2-4:3306
I18:15:20 [lib.mysql_lib] Confirming that long running transactions have gone away
I18:15:20 [lib.mysql_lib] All long trx are now dead
I18:15:20 [lib.mysql_lib] SET GLOBAL read_only = 1
I18:15:20 [lib.mysql_lib] CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_USER='REDACTED', MASTER_PASSWORD='REDACTED', MASTER_HOST='pinlatertestdb-2-4', MASTER_PORT=3306, MASTER_LOG_FILE='pinlatertestdb-2-4-bin.000665', MASTER_LOG_POS=90715916
I18:15:20 [lib.mysql_lib] START SLAVE
I18:15:21 [__main__] Updating zk
I18:15:21 [modify_mysql_zk] Instance is pinlatertestdb-2-4:3306
I18:15:21 [modify_mysql_zk] Detected replica_set as pinlatertestdb002
I18:15:21 [kazoo_utils] Underlying zookeeper connection is healthy.
I18:15:21 [modify_mysql_zk] Replica set pinlatertestdb002 is held in zk_node /config/services/generaldb/mysql_databases
I18:15:21 [modify_mysql_zk] Existing config:
I18:15:21 [modify_mysql_zk] {'master': {'host': 'pinlatertestdb-2-3', 'port': 3306},
 'passwd': 'REDACTED',
 'slave': {'host': 'pinlatertestdb-2-4', 'port': 3306},
 'user': 'REDACTED'}
I18:15:21 [modify_mysql_zk] New config:
I18:15:21 [modify_mysql_zk] {'master': {'host': 'pinlatertestdb-2-4', 'port': 3306},
 'passwd': 'REDACTED',
 'slave': {'host': 'pinlatertestdb-2-3', 'port': 3306},
 'user': 'REDACTED'}
I18:15:21 [modify_mysql_zk] Pushing new configuration for pinlatertestdb002:
I18:15:21 [__main__] Removing read_only from new master
I18:15:21 [lib.mysql_lib] SET GLOBAL read_only = 0
I18:15:21 [__main__] Removing replication configuration from new master
I18:15:21 [lib.mysql_lib] ('Previous replication settings:', {'Replicate_Wild_Do_Table': '', 'Retrieved_Gtid_Set': '', 'Master_SSL_CA_Path': '', 'Last_Error': '', 'Until_Log_File': '', 'SQL_Delay': 0L, 'Seconds_Behind_Master': 0L, 'Master_User': 'REDACTED', 'Master_Port': 3306L, 'Master_Retry_Count': 86400L, 'Until_Log_Pos': 0L, 'Master_Log_File': 'pinlatertestdb-2-3-bin.000715', 'Read_Master_Log_Pos': 41406489L, 'Replicate_Do_DB': '', 'Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert': 'No', 'Exec_Master_Log_Pos': 41406489L, 'Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids': '', 'Replicate_Ignore_Table': '', 'Master_Server_Id': 167842827L, 'Relay_Log_Space': 41406892L, 'Last_SQL_Error': '', 'SQL_Remaining_Delay': None, 'Relay_Master_Log_File': 'pinlatertestdb-2-3-bin.000715', 'Master_SSL_Allowed': 'No', 'Master_SSL_CA_File': '', 'Slave_IO_State': 'Waiting for master to send event', 'Last_SQL_Error_Timestamp': '', 'Relay_Log_File': 'mysqld_3306-relay-bin.002138', 'Replicate_Ignore_DB': '', 'Last_IO_Error': '', 'Until_Condition': 'None', 'Slave_SQL_Running_State': 'Slave has read all relay log; waiting for the slave I/O thread to update it', 'Replicate_Do_Table': '', 'Last_Errno': 0L, 'Master_Host': 'pinlatertestdb-2-3', 'Master_Info_File': '/raid0/mysql/3306/data/master.info', 'Master_SSL_Key': '', 'Executed_Gtid_Set': '', 'Master_Bind': '', 'Skip_Counter': 0L, 'Slave_SQL_Running': 'Yes', 'Relay_Log_Pos': 41406661L, 'Master_SSL_Cert': '', 'Last_IO_Errno': 0L, 'Slave_IO_Running': 'Yes', 'Connect_Retry': 60L, 'Last_SQL_Errno': 0L, 'Last_IO_Error_Timestamp': '', 'Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table': '', 'Master_UUID': 'f38ce3e5-1609-11e5-9d3c-0e36038ac59d', 'Auto_Position': 0L, 'Master_SSL_Crl': '', 'Master_SSL_Cipher': '', 'Master_SSL_Crlpath': ''})
I18:15:21 [lib.mysql_lib] STOP SLAVE
I18:15:21 [lib.mysql_lib] RESET SLAVE ALL
I18:15:21 [__main__] Releasing promotion lock
I18:15:21 [__main__] UPDATE mysqlops.promotion_locks SET lock_active = NULL AND released = NOW() WHERE lock_identifier = '48f8ee80-d97e-47b4-bf2a-75fd5d985b20'
I18:15:21 [__main__] Failover complete

Replace the old master/new slave

$ ./launch_replacement_db_host.py pinlatertestdb-2-3 --reason kicks_and_giggles
I18:19:28 [__main__] Trying to launch a replacement for host pinlatertestdb-2-3 which is part of replica set is pinlatertestdb002
I18:19:28 [__main__] Data from cmdb: {u'config.instance_type': u'i2.2xlarge', u'region': u'us-east-1', u'cloud.aws.vpc_id': u'REDACTED', u'cloud.aws.subnet_id': u'REDACED', u'location': u'us-east-1a', u'id': u'REDACTED', u'security_group_ids': u'REDACTED', u'config.name': u'pinlatertestdb-2-3', u'security_groups': u'REDACTED'}
I18:19:29 [__main__] Reason for launch: kicks_and_giggles
I18:19:29 [launch_amazon_mysql_server] Requested hostname = pinlatertestdb-2-7
I18:19:29 [launch_amazon_mysql_server] Requested instance_type = i2.2xlarge
I18:19:29 [launch_amazon_mysql_server] Requested vpc_security_group = REDACTED
I18:19:29 [launch_amazon_mysql_server] Requested classic_security_group = None
I18:19:29 [launch_amazon_mysql_server] Requested availability_zone = us-east-1a
I18:19:29 [launch_amazon_mysql_server] Requested mysql_major_version = 5.6
I18:19:29 [launch_amazon_mysql_server] Requested mysql_minor_version = stable
I18:19:29 [launch_amazon_mysql_server] Requested dry_run = False
I18:19:29 [launch_amazon_mysql_server] Requested skip_name_check = True
I18:19:29 [launch_amazon_mysql_server] Will use subnet "REDACTED" in "REDACTED" based upon security group REDACTED and availibility zone us-east-1a
I18:19:29 [launch_amazon_mysql_server] Config for new server:
..Tons of Pinterest stuff redacted here..
I18:19:30 [launch_amazon_mysql_server] Launched instance i-1231234

Check replication on the old master/new slave

./check_mysql_replication.py pinlatertestdb-2-3
Heartbeat_seconds_behind: 0
Slave_IO_Running: Yes
IO_lag_bytes: 2068
IO_lag_binlogs: 0
Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
SQL_lag_bytes: 2068
SQL_lag_binlogs: 0

Check grants on the old master/new slave

$ ./mysql_grants.py -i pinlatertestdb-2-3 -a check
$ echo $?
0

Not a Panacea

These tools are tightly integrated into our service discovery mechanism and would likely require moderate modification of the code that reads and writes from service discovery. There are also some significant legacy limitations to these utilities, such as the lack of support for more than two slaves. It is our hope that these tools are useful to other that wish to create automation for their MySQL infrastructure.