A dynamic symbolic analysis tool for Java
Java Other
Latest commit 6584bd0 Dec 3, 2016 @ksluckow ksluckow Fix ctor example issue #12



JDart is a tool for performing concolic execution on a Java program. It is written as an extension to NASA Java Pathfinder (JPF). The aim of concolic execution is to explore additional behavior in the program by generating input values which will result in a different path being taken through a program (or method).

To cite JDart, please use the most recent paper that was accepted at TACAS 2016:

  • Kasper Luckow, Marko Dimjasevic, Dimitra Giannakopoulou, Falk Howar, Malte Isberner, Temesghen Kahsai, Zvonimir Rakamaric, Vishwanath Raman, JDart: A Dynamic Symbolic Analysis Framework, 22nd International Conference on Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems (TACAS 2016), [pdf] [bibtex].

If you want to repeat experiments reported in the paper, use a reproducible research environment in Aptlab.


There are two different ways of installing JDart:

  • Virtual machine with Docker or Vagrant
  • Installation on local machine

With Docker or Vagrant, all the installation steps are automatically performed, creating a complete environment that can be used to run JDart. You can skip to the Using JDart section.


Assuming you have Docker installed, simply run:

$ docker build -t jdart .
# Will take some time to build the image...
$ docker run -it jdart


For this to work, you will have to install Vagrant and either VirtualBox or libvirt. Assuming those are installed, simply run:

$ vagrant up

The command will take about 20 minutes depending on your machine.

Installing JDart Locally

The prerequisites for JDart are:

  • JPF-core 8
  • jConstraints
  • Adding jConstraints solver plugins, e.g., jConstraints-z3 for interfacing with Z3

The following provides installation instructions for each of these components.

JPF-core 8

JDart is compatible with version 8 of the Java PathFinder framework. Please make sure you have the most recent version of jpf-core.

Step 1: Clone the jpf-core repository:

$ hg clone http://babelfish.arc.nasa.gov/hg/jpf/jpf-core

Step 2: Build jpf-core

$ ant

Step 3: Make sure the jpf-core property in your site.properties (in $HOME/.jpf) points to the respective directory. Also make sure to add the property to extensions. In summary, your site.properties file should contain the following:

$ vim ~/.jpf/site.properties

# ...
jpf-core = /path/to/jpf-core


JDart uses the jConstraints library as an abstraction layer for interfacing the solver. jConstraints uses plugins for supporting multiple constraint solvers. For licensing reasons no plugin is included in JDart.

In order to run JDart you have to install jConstraints and a plugin for at least one constraint solver.

jConstraints supports a variety of solvers. Please consult the respective installation instructions for each of them by accessing the modules on the main GitHub organization, Psycopaths.

In summary:

Step 1: Follow the installation instructions for jConstraints

Step 2: Assuming you would like to have Z3 support, follow the installation instructions for jConstraints-z3. Alternatively, have a look at the other solver plugins for jConstraints on Psycopaths' GitHub org.

Installing JDart

Step 1: Clone the JDart repository:

$ git clone https://github.com/psycopaths/jdart.git

Step 2: Make sure that your site.properties contains the appropriate entry for the jpf-jdart property. You can have additional JPF modules installed, but the minimum configuration for JDart should look like the following in site.properties:

$ vim ~/.jpf/site.properties

# ...
jpf-core = /path/to/jpf-core
jpf-jdart = /path/to/jdart


Note that the extensions property is not updated with the jpf-jdart property. This is intentional. Instead, use the @using = jpf-jdart directive in your application jpf file.

Step 3: Installing JDart is as simple as just running the ant build ant build in the JDart directory:

$ cd /path/to/jdart 
$ ant

You should now be ready to use JDart.

Using JDart

The analysis configuration is specified in a jpf application properties file. The minimum configuration required is:

@using = jpf-jdart

# Specify the analysis shell. JDart includes a couple of those in addition to the standard JDart shell, e.g., the MethodSummarizer

# Specify the constraint solver. Can be any of the jConstraints solver plugins

# Provide the fully qualified class name of the entry point of the SUT

# Set up the concolic method with symbolic/concrete parameters. See the wiki for more details

# Specify the concolic method configuration object to use

For an example of how to configure JDart, please have a look at the test_xxx.jpf files in src/examples/features/simple. JDart can be run on these examples using the jpf binary in jpf-core:

$ /path/to/jpf-core/bin/jpf /path/to/jdart/src/examples/features/simple/test_foo.jpf

The documentation for the concolic execution configuration can be found in the wiki.