Skip to content
Go to file

Latest commit


Git stats


Failed to load latest commit information.
Latest commit message
Commit time


This code evolved in 2018 into Poesy, a cleaner and improved module for poetic processing. The code here is now deprecated and it is recommended you use Poesy instead.

Code used in the Literary Lab's Trans-historical Poetry Project, involving myself (Ryan Heuser), Mark Algee-Hewitt, Maria Kraxenberger, J.D. Porter, Jonny Sensenbaugh, and Justin Tackett. We presented the project at DH2014 in Lausanne. The abstract is here, but a better source of information is our slideshow (with notes) here. The project has been going on for 2+ years, and we are currently in the process of drafting up the project as an article for submission to a journal. Feel free to use this code for any purpose whatever, but please provide attribution back to (for now) this webpage and the aforementioned authors.

The goal in the project is to develop software capable of annotating the following four features of poetic form:

  1. Stanzaic scheme (Syllable scheme / beat scheme) [Complete]:
  • An example scheme is: 10 (Invariable) or 8-6 (Alternating) or 10-10-10-10-10-6 (Complex)
  • Invariable schemes (e.g. Inv_10 = the poem is generally always in lines of 10 syllables in length, e.g. blank verse, sonnets, heroic couplets)
  • Alternating schemes (e.g. Alt_8_6 = the poem alternates between lines of 8 and 6 syllables in length. Most common in ballads)
  • Complex schemes (basically, everything more complex than the above two. Includes odes, free verse, etc)
  1. Metrical scheme [Complete]:
  • Produce a scansion of each of the poem's lines, and then decide if the poem's meter is predominantly:
    1. Iambic (Binary foot, head final)
    2. Trochaic (Binary foot, head initial)
    3. Anapestic (Ternary foot, head final)
    4. Dactylic (Ternary foot, head initial)
  1. Rhyme scheme [Ongoing]
  • Determine the rhyme scheme of the poem.
  1. Synthetic form [Ongoing]
  • From the above (#1-3) elements, decide if poem is, e.g.:
    • Heroic couplets = ([1] Inv_10, [2] iambic, [3] aa)
    • Blank verse = ([1] Inv_10, [2] iambic, [3] unrhymed)
    • etc.

Quick start

Run Open Mary

Open Mary ( is an open-source Text-to-Speech software, which is used here in order to syllabify and provide stress annotations for words not included in the CMU Pronunciation Dictionary. In order for a poem to be parsed, you'll need first to run OpenMary as a server. To do that, run this in your terminal:

cd marytts-5.0/bin/

Loading a poem

The main module here is and the main class within it, PoemTXT. PoemTXT actually inherits from the class Poem, but this latter class was built explicitly for the purpose of running poems stored in a custom data format for Chadwyck's XML files, so I've added PoemTXT in order to allow the loading of poems as strings, with a double line-break indicating a stanzaic break:

import pypoesy

poem = pypoesy.PoemTXT("""Who will go drive with Fergus now,
And pierce the deep wood's woven shade,
And dance upon the level shore?
Young man, lift up your russet brow,
And lift your tender eyelids, maid,
And brood on hopes and fear no more.

And no more turn aside and brood
Upon love's bitter mystery;
For Fergus rules the brazen cars,
And rules the shadows of the wood,
And the white breast of the dim sea
And all dishevelled wandering stars.""")

This loads the poem into the lined property of the object, which is a dictionary keyed by the Line ID and whose value is a string representation of the line. When looping over the lines in a poem, make sure to sort as you go:

for lineid,line in sorted(poem.lined.items()):
	print lineid,line

This should return:

(1, 1) Who will go drive with Fergus now,
(2, 1) And pierce the deep wood's woven shade,
(3, 1) And dance upon the level shore?
(4, 1) Young man, lift up your russet brow,
(5, 1) And lift your tender eyelids, maid,
(6, 1) And brood on hopes and fear no more.
(7, 2) And no more turn aside and brood
(8, 2) Upon love's bitter mystery;
(9, 2) For Fergus rules the brazen cars,
(10, 2) And rules the shadows of the wood,
(11, 2) And the white breast of the dim sea
(12, 2) And all dishevelled wandering stars.

As you can see, the Line ID is actually a tuple of integers: (Line #, Stanza #).

Parse a poem metrically

Metrical parsing is done via Prosodic, developed by Arto Antilla, Josh Falk, and Ryan Heuser. To parse a poem:


This loads each line in the lined dictionary into another dictionary, prosodic, also keyed by Line ID, but this time each leading to a Prosodic "Text" object. A convenient way to look at the parses is using the parse_str() method:

for lineid,lineObj in sorted(poem.prosodic.items()):
	print lineid,lineObj.parse_str()

This should return:

(1, 1) WHO|will|GO|drive.with*|FER|gus|NOW
(2, 1) and|PIERCE|the|DEEP|wood's*|WOV|en|SHADE
(3, 1) and|DANCE|up|ON|the|LE|vel|SHORE
(4, 1) YOUNG|man*||LIFT|up.your|RU|sset|BROW
(5, 1) and|LIFT|your|TEN|der|EYE|lids*||MAID
(6, 1) and|BROOD|on|HOPES|and|FEAR|no*|MORE
(7, 2) and|NO|more|TURN|as|IDE|and|BROOD
(8, 2) up|ON|love's*|BI|tter|MY|st.ery
(9, 2) for|FER|gus|RULES|the|BRA|zen|CARS
(10, 2) and|RULES|the|SHA|dows|OF*|the|WOOD
(11, 2) AND*|the.white*|BREAST|of.the|DIM|sea*
(12, 2) and|ALL|di|SH|evelled|WA|nd.ering|STARS

Please note that the syllabification by the | character is bad (or, "approximate") only here, in terms of orthography: underneath, the syllabification is much more exact in terms of the phonetic representation of each word. The * indicate a metrical violation occurred in that position. Also, parse_str() has two important keyword arguments: text and viols, either of which can be True or False. For instance, running the same command in this way:

for lineid,lineObj in sorted(poem.prosodic.items()):
	print lineid,lineObj.parse_str(text=False, viols=False)


(1, 1) s|w|s|ww|s|w|s
(2, 1) w|s|w|s|w|s|w|s
(3, 1) w|s|w|s|w|s|w|s
(4, 1) s|w||s|ww|s|w|s
(5, 1) w|s|w|s|w|s|w||s
(6, 1) w|s|w|s|w|s|w|s
(7, 2) w|s|w|s|w|s|w|s
(8, 2) w|s|w|s|w|s|ww
(9, 2) w|s|w|s|w|s|w|s
(10, 2) w|s|w|s|w|s|w|s
(11, 2) s|ww|s|ww|s|w
(12, 2) w|s|w|s|w|s|ww|s

Which is a more abstract representation of the metrical output. For more on what you can do with the objects stored in the poem.prosodic dictionary, see Prosodic (especially the README there), as well as this Documentation page.

Get statistics from poem's parsing

All of these are contained in another dictionary each poem object has, its statd -- but this becomes available only after the poem.parse() command is executed. Here are the available statistics on a poem:

for featname,featval in sorted(poem.statd.items()):
	print featname,'\t',featval

Should return:

beat_scheme 	(4,)
beat_scheme_diff 	2
beat_scheme_length 	1
beat_scheme_repr 	Inv_4
beat_scheme_type 	Invariable
meter_ambiguity 	3.0
meter_constraint_TOTAL 	0.120879120879
meter_constraint_footmin-no-s 	0.0
meter_constraint_strength_s=>-u 	0.0
meter_constraint_strength_w=>-p 	0.010989010989
meter_constraint_stress_s=>-u 	0.021978021978
meter_constraint_stress_w=>-p 	0.0879120879121
meter_length_avg_line 	8.08333333333
meter_length_avg_parse 	6.92857142857
meter_mpos_s 	0.505494505495
meter_mpos_w 	0.428571428571
meter_mpos_ww 	0.0659340659341
meter_perc_lines_ending_s 	0.833333333333
meter_perc_lines_ending_w 	0.166666666667
meter_perc_lines_fourthpos_s 	0.833333333333
meter_perc_lines_fourthpos_w 	0.166666666667
meter_perc_lines_starting_s 	0.25
meter_perc_lines_starting_w 	0.75
meter_type_foot 	binary
meter_type_head 	final
meter_type_scheme 	iambic
num_lines 	12
num_lines_group 	0011-20
syll_scheme 	(8,)
syll_scheme_diff 	1
syll_scheme_length 	1
syll_scheme_repr 	Inv_8
syll_scheme_type 	Invariable

The relevant keys corresponding to our goals #1 and #2 (above, at the top of this readme) are:

  1. syll_scheme_repr - In this case, Inv_8, meaning lines are invariably eight lines long. [In scheme, not in actuality.]
  2. meter_type_scheme - In this case, iambic, meaning feet are generally binary with their stress at the end (head final).


Code used in the Literary Lab's Trans-historical Poetry Project. [NOTE: this repository has been deprecated by poesy (].




No releases published


No packages published
You can’t perform that action at this time.