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require 'active_support/core_ext/class'
require 'active_support/core_ext/object/blank'
require 'active_support/core_ext/array/uniq_by'
require 'active_support/core_ext/module/delegation'
require 'active_support/core_ext/string/inflections'
require 'mail'
require 'action_mailer/tmail_compat'
require 'action_mailer/collector'
module ActionMailer #:nodoc:
# Action Mailer allows you to send email from your application using a mailer model and views.
#
# = Mailer Models
#
# To use Action Mailer, you need to create a mailer model.
#
# $ script/generate mailer Notifier
#
# The generated model inherits from ActionMailer::Base. Emails are defined by creating methods
# within the model which are then used to set variables to be used in the mail template, to
# change options on the mail, or to add attachments.
#
# Examples:
#
# class Notifier < ActionMailer::Base
# defaults :from => 'no-reply@example.com',
# :return_path => 'system@example.com'
#
# def welcome(recipient)
# @account = recipient
# mail(:to => recipient.email_address_with_name,
# :bcc => ["bcc@example.com", "Order Watcher <watcher@example.com>"])
# end
# end
#
# Within the mailer method, you have access to the following methods:
#
# * <tt>attachments[]=</tt> - Allows you to add attachments to your email in an intuitive
# manner; <tt>attachments['filename.png'] = File.read('path/to/filename.png')</tt>
#
# * <tt>headers[]=</tt> - Allows you to specify non standard headers in your email such
# as <tt>headers['X-No-Spam'] = 'True'</tt>
#
# * <tt>headers(hash)</tt> - Allows you to specify multiple headers in your email such
# as <tt>headers({'X-No-Spam' => 'True', 'In-Reply-To' => '1234@message.id'})</tt>
#
# * <tt>mail</tt> - Allows you to specify your email to send.
#
# The hash passed to the mail method allows you to specify any header that a Mail::Message
# will accept (any valid Email header including optional fields). Obviously if you specify
# the same header in the headers method and then again in the mail method, the last one
# will over write the first, unless you are specifying a header field that can appear more
# than once per RFC, in which case, both will be inserted (X-value headers for example can
# appear multiple times.)
#
# The mail method, if not passed a block, will inspect your views and send all the views with
# the same name as the method, so the above action would send the +welcome.plain.erb+ view file
# as well as the +welcome.html.erb+ view file in a +multipart/alternative+ email.
#
# If you want to explicitly render only certain templates, pass a block:
#
# mail(:to => user.emai) do |format|
# format.text
# format.html
# end
#
# The block syntax is useful if also need to specify information specific to a part:
#
# mail(:to => user.emai) do |format|
# format.text(:content_transfer_encoding => "base64")
# format.html
# end
#
# Or even to renderize a special view:
#
# mail(:to => user.emai) do |format|
# format.text
# format.html { render "some_other_template" }
# end
#
# = Mailer views
#
# Like Action Controller, each mailer class has a corresponding view directory in which each
# method of the class looks for a template with its name.
#
# To define a template to be used with a mailing, create an <tt>.erb</tt> file with the same
# name as the method in your mailer model. For example, in the mailer defined above, the template at
# <tt>app/views/notifier/signup_notification.text.erb</tt> would be used to generate the email.
#
# Variables defined in the model are accessible as instance variables in the view.
#
# Emails by default are sent in plain text, so a sample view for our model example might look like this:
#
# Hi <%= @account.name %>,
# Thanks for joining our service! Please check back often.
#
# You can even use Action Pack helpers in these views. For example:
#
# You got a new note!
# <%= truncate(@note.body, 25) %>
#
# If you need to access the subject, from or the recipients in the view, you can do that through message object:
#
# You got a new note from <%= message.from %>!
# <%= truncate(@note.body, 25) %>
#
#
# = Generating URLs
#
# URLs can be generated in mailer views using <tt>url_for</tt> or named routes.
# Unlike controllers from Action Pack, the mailer instance doesn't have any context about the incoming request,
# so you'll need to provide all of the details needed to generate a URL.
#
# When using <tt>url_for</tt> you'll need to provide the <tt>:host</tt>, <tt>:controller</tt>, and <tt>:action</tt>:
#
# <%= url_for(:host => "example.com", :controller => "welcome", :action => "greeting") %>
#
# When using named routes you only need to supply the <tt>:host</tt>:
#
# <%= users_url(:host => "example.com") %>
#
# You will want to avoid using the <tt>name_of_route_path</tt> form of named routes because it doesn't make sense to
# generate relative URLs in email messages.
#
# It is also possible to set a default host that will be used in all mailers by setting the <tt>:host</tt> option in
# the <tt>ActionMailer::Base.default_url_options</tt> hash as follows:
#
# ActionMailer::Base.default_url_options[:host] = "example.com"
#
# This can also be set as a configuration option in <tt>config/environment.rb</tt>:
#
# config.action_mailer.default_url_options = { :host => "example.com" }
#
# If you do decide to set a default <tt>:host</tt> for your mailers you will want to use the
# <tt>:only_path => false</tt> option when using <tt>url_for</tt>. This will ensure that absolute URLs are generated because
# the <tt>url_for</tt> view helper will, by default, generate relative URLs when a <tt>:host</tt> option isn't
# explicitly provided.
#
# = Sending mail
#
# Once a mailer action and template are defined, you can deliver your message or create it and save it
# for delivery later:
#
# Notifier.welcome(david).deliver # sends the email
# mail = Notifier.welcome(david) # => a Mail::Message object
# mail.deliver # sends the email
#
# You never instantiate your mailer class. Rather, you just call the method on the class itself.
#
# = Multipart Emails
#
# Multipart messages can also be used implicitly because Action Mailer will automatically
# detect and use multipart templates, where each template is named after the name of the action, followed
# by the content type. Each such detected template will be added as separate part to the message.
#
# For example, if the following templates existed:
# * signup_notification.text.plain.erb
# * signup_notification.text.html.erb
# * signup_notification.text.xml.builder
# * signup_notification.text.yaml.erb
#
# Each would be rendered and added as a separate part to the message, with the corresponding content
# type. The content type for the entire message is automatically set to <tt>multipart/alternative</tt>,
# which indicates that the email contains multiple different representations of the same email
# body. The same instance variables defined in the action are passed to all email templates.
#
# Implicit template rendering is not performed if any attachments or parts have been added to the email.
# This means that you'll have to manually add each part to the email and set the content type of the email
# to <tt>multipart/alternative</tt>.
#
# = Attachments
#
# You can see above how to make a multipart HTML / Text email, to send attachments is just
# as easy:
#
# class ApplicationMailer < ActionMailer::Base
# def welcome(recipient)
# attachments['free_book.pdf'] = { :data => File.read('path/to/file.pdf') }
# mail(:to => recipient, :subject => "New account information")
# end
# end
#
# Which will (if it had both a <tt>.text.erb</tt> and <tt>.html.erb</tt> tempalte in the view
# directory), send a complete <tt>multipart/mixed</tt> email with two parts, the first part being
# a <tt>multipart/alternative</tt> with the text and HTML email parts inside, and the second being
# a <tt>application/pdf</tt> with a Base64 encoded copy of the file.pdf book with the filename
# +free_book.pdf+.
#
#
# = Configuration options
#
# These options are specified on the class level, like <tt>ActionMailer::Base.template_root = "/my/templates"</tt>
#
# * <tt>defaults</tt> - This is a class wide hash of <tt>:key => value</tt> pairs containing
# default values for the specified header fields of the <tt>Mail::Message</tt>. You can
# specify a default for any valid header for <tt>Mail::Message</tt> and it will be used if
# you do not override it. The defaults set by Action Mailer are:
# * <tt>:mime_version => "1.0"</tt>
# * <tt>:charset => "utf-8",</tt>
# * <tt>:content_type => "text/plain",</tt>
# * <tt>:parts_order => [ "text/plain", "text/enriched", "text/html" ]</tt>
#
# * <tt>logger</tt> - the logger is used for generating information on the mailing run if available.
# Can be set to nil for no logging. Compatible with both Ruby's own Logger and Log4r loggers.
#
# * <tt>smtp_settings</tt> - Allows detailed configuration for <tt>:smtp</tt> delivery method:
# * <tt>:address</tt> - Allows you to use a remote mail server. Just change it from its default "localhost" setting.
# * <tt>:port</tt> - On the off chance that your mail server doesn't run on port 25, you can change it.
# * <tt>:domain</tt> - If you need to specify a HELO domain, you can do it here.
# * <tt>:user_name</tt> - If your mail server requires authentication, set the username in this setting.
# * <tt>:password</tt> - If your mail server requires authentication, set the password in this setting.
# * <tt>:authentication</tt> - If your mail server requires authentication, you need to specify the authentication type here.
# This is a symbol and one of <tt>:plain</tt>, <tt>:login</tt>, <tt>:cram_md5</tt>.
# * <tt>:enable_starttls_auto</tt> - When set to true, detects if STARTTLS is enabled in your SMTP server and starts to use it.
# It works only on Ruby >= 1.8.7 and Ruby >= 1.9. Default is true.
#
# * <tt>sendmail_settings</tt> - Allows you to override options for the <tt>:sendmail</tt> delivery method.
# * <tt>:location</tt> - The location of the sendmail executable. Defaults to <tt>/usr/sbin/sendmail</tt>.
# * <tt>:arguments</tt> - The command line arguments. Defaults to <tt>-i -t</tt>.
#
# * <tt>file_settings</tt> - Allows you to override options for the <tt>:file</tt> delivery method.
# * <tt>:location</tt> - The directory into which emails will be written. Defaults to the application <tt>tmp/mails</tt>.
#
# * <tt>raise_delivery_errors</tt> - Whether or not errors should be raised if the email fails to be delivered.
#
# * <tt>delivery_method</tt> - Defines a delivery method. Possible values are <tt>:smtp</tt> (default), <tt>:sendmail</tt>, <tt>:test</tt>,
# and <tt>:file</tt>. Or you may provide a custom delivery method object eg. MyOwnDeliveryMethodClass.new
#
# * <tt>perform_deliveries</tt> - Determines whether <tt>deliver_*</tt> methods are actually carried out. By default they are,
# but this can be turned off to help functional testing.
#
# * <tt>deliveries</tt> - Keeps an array of all the emails sent out through the Action Mailer with <tt>delivery_method :test</tt>. Most useful
# for unit and functional testing.
#
# * <tt>default_charset</tt> - This is now deprecated, use the +defaults+ method above to
# set the default +:charset+.
#
# * <tt>default_content_type</tt> - This is now deprecated, use the +defaults+ method above
# to set the default +:content_type+.
#
# * <tt>default_mime_version</tt> - This is now deprecated, use the +defaults+ method above
# to set the default +:mime_version+.
#
# * <tt>default_implicit_parts_order</tt> - This is now deprecated, use the +defaults+ method above
# to set the default +:parts_order+. Parts Order is used when a message is built implicitly
# (i.e. multiple parts are assembled from templates which specify the content type in their
# filenames) this variable controls how the parts are ordered.
class Base < AbstractController::Base
include DeliveryMethods, Quoting
abstract!
include AbstractController::Logger
include AbstractController::Rendering
include AbstractController::LocalizedCache
include AbstractController::Layouts
include AbstractController::Helpers
include AbstractController::UrlFor
include AbstractController::Translation
helper ActionMailer::MailHelper
include ActionMailer::OldApi
include ActionMailer::DeprecatedApi
private_class_method :new #:nodoc:
extlib_inheritable_accessor :default_params
self.default_params = {
:mime_version => "1.0",
:charset => "utf-8",
:content_type => "text/plain",
:parts_order => [ "text/plain", "text/enriched", "text/html" ]
}
class << self
def mailer_name
@mailer_name ||= name.underscore
end
attr_writer :mailer_name
alias :controller_path :mailer_name
def defaults(value=nil)
self.default_params.merge!(value) if value
self.default_params
end
# Receives a raw email, parses it into an email object, decodes it,
# instantiates a new mailer, and passes the email object to the mailer
# object's +receive+ method. If you want your mailer to be able to
# process incoming messages, you'll need to implement a +receive+
# method that accepts the email object as a parameter:
#
# class MyMailer < ActionMailer::Base
# def receive(mail)
# ...
# end
# end
def receive(raw_mail)
ActiveSupport::Notifications.instrument("action_mailer.receive") do |payload|
mail = Mail.new(raw_mail)
set_payload_for_mail(payload, mail)
new.receive(mail)
end
end
# Delivers a mail object. This is actually called by the <tt>Mail::Message</tt> object
# itself through a call back when you call <tt>:deliver</tt> on the Mail::Message,
# calling +deliver_mail+ directly and passing an Mail::Message will do nothing.
def deliver_mail(mail) #:nodoc:
ActiveSupport::Notifications.instrument("action_mailer.deliver") do |payload|
self.set_payload_for_mail(payload, mail)
yield # Let Mail do the delivery actions
end
end
def respond_to?(method, *args) #:nodoc:
super || action_methods.include?(method.to_s)
end
protected
def set_payload_for_mail(payload, mail) #:nodoc:
payload[:mailer] = self.name
payload[:message_id] = mail.message_id
payload[:subject] = mail.subject
payload[:to] = mail.to
payload[:from] = mail.from
payload[:bcc] = mail.bcc if mail.bcc.present?
payload[:cc] = mail.cc if mail.cc.present?
payload[:date] = mail.date
payload[:mail] = mail.encoded
end
def method_missing(method, *args) #:nodoc:
if action_methods.include?(method.to_s)
new(method, *args).message
else
super
end
end
end
attr_internal :message
# Instantiate a new mailer object. If +method_name+ is not +nil+, the mailer
# will be initialized according to the named method. If not, the mailer will
# remain uninitialized (useful when you only need to invoke the "receive"
# method, for instance).
def initialize(method_name=nil, *args)
super()
@_message = Mail.new
process(method_name, *args) if method_name
end
# Allows you to pass random and unusual headers to the new +Mail::Message+ object
# which will add them to itself.
#
# headers['X-Special-Domain-Specific-Header'] = "SecretValue"
#
# You can also pass a hash into headers of header field names and values, which
# will then be set on the Mail::Message object:
#
# headers 'X-Special-Domain-Specific-Header' => "SecretValue",
# 'In-Reply-To' => incoming.message_id
#
# The resulting Mail::Message will have the following in it's header:
#
# X-Special-Domain-Specific-Header: SecretValue
def headers(args=nil)
if args
@_message.headers(args)
else
@_message
end
end
# Allows you to add attachments to an email, like so:
#
# mail.attachments['filename.jpg'] = File.read('/path/to/filename.jpg')
#
# If you do this, then Mail will take the file name and work out the mime type
# set the Content-Type, Content-Disposition, Content-Transfer-Encoding and
# base64 encode the contents of the attachment all for you.
#
# You can also specify overrides if you want by passing a hash instead of a string:
#
# mail.attachments['filename.jpg'] = {:mime_type => 'application/x-gzip',
# :content => File.read('/path/to/filename.jpg')}
#
# If you want to use a different encoding than Base64, you can pass an encoding in,
# but then it is up to you to pass in the content pre-encoded, and don't expect
# Mail to know how to decode this data:
#
# file_content = SpecialEncode(File.read('/path/to/filename.jpg'))
# mail.attachments['filename.jpg'] = {:mime_type => 'application/x-gzip',
# :encoding => 'SpecialEncoding',
# :content => file_content }
#
# You can also search for specific attachments:
#
# # By Filename
# mail.attachments['filename.jpg'] #=> Mail::Part object or nil
#
# # or by index
# mail.attachments[0] #=> Mail::Part (first attachment)
#
def attachments
@_message.attachments
end
# The main method that creates the message and renders the email templates. There are
# two ways to call this method, with a block, or without a block.
#
# Both methods accept a headers hash. This hash allows you to specify the most used headers
# in an email message, these are:
#
# * <tt>:subject</tt> - The subject of the message, if this is omitted, ActionMailer will
# ask the Rails I18n class for a translated <tt>:subject</tt> in the scope of
# <tt>[:actionmailer, mailer_scope, action_name]</tt> or if this is missing, will translate the
# humanized version of the <tt>action_name</tt>
# * <tt>:to</tt> - Who the message is destined for, can be a string of addresses, or an array
# of addresses.
# * <tt>:from</tt> - Who the message is from
# * <tt>:cc</tt> - Who you would like to Carbon-Copy on this email, can be a string of addresses,
# or an array of addresses.
# * <tt>:bcc</tt> - Who you would like to Blind-Carbon-Copy on this email, can be a string of
# addresses, or an array of addresses.
# * <tt>:reply_to</tt> - Who to set the Reply-To header of the email to.
# * <tt>:date</tt> - The date to say the email was sent on.
#
# You can set default values for any of the above headers (except :date) by using the <tt>defaults</tt>
# class method:
#
# class Notifier < ActionMailer::Base
# self.defaults :from => 'no-reply@test.lindsaar.net',
# :bcc => 'email_logger@test.lindsaar.net',
# :reply_to => 'bounces@test.lindsaar.net'
# end
#
# If you need other headers not listed above, use the <tt>headers['name'] = value</tt> method.
#
# When a <tt>:return_path</tt> is specified as header, that value will be used as the 'envelope from'
# address for the Mail message. Setting this is useful when you want delivery notifications
# sent to a different address than the one in <tt>:from</tt>. Mail will actually use the
# <tt>:return_path</tt> in preference to the <tt>:sender</tt> in preference to the <tt>:from</tt>
# field for the 'envelope from' value.
#
# If you do not pass a block to the +mail+ method, it will find all templates in the
# template path that match the method name that it is being called from, it will then
# create parts for each of these templates intelligently, making educated guesses
# on correct content type and sequence, and return a fully prepared Mail::Message
# ready to call <tt>:deliver</tt> on to send.
#
# If you do pass a block, you can render specific templates of your choice:
#
# mail(:to => 'mikel@test.lindsaar.net') do |format|
# format.text
# format.html
# end
#
# You can even render text directly without using a template:
#
# mail(:to => 'mikel@test.lindsaar.net') do |format|
# format.text { render :text => "Hello Mikel!" }
# format.html { render :text => "<h1>Hello Mikel!</h1>" }
# end
#
# Which will render a <tt>multipart/alternative</tt> email with <tt>text/plain</tt> and
# <tt>text/html</tt> parts.
#
# The block syntax also allows you to customize the part headers if desired:
#
# mail(:to => 'mikel@test.lindsaar.net') do |format|
# format.text(:content_transfer_encoding => "base64")
# format.html
# end
#
def mail(headers={}, &block)
# Guard flag to prevent both the old and the new API from firing
# Should be removed when old API is removed
@mail_was_called = true
m = @_message
# At the beginning, do not consider class default for parts order neither content_type
content_type = headers[:content_type]
parts_order = headers[:parts_order]
# Merge defaults from class
headers = headers.reverse_merge(self.class.defaults)
charset = headers[:charset]
# Quote fields
headers[:subject] ||= default_i18n_subject
quote_fields!(headers, charset)
# Render the templates and blocks
responses, explicit_order = collect_responses_and_parts_order(headers, &block)
create_parts_from_responses(m, responses, charset)
# Finally setup content type and parts order
m.content_type = set_content_type(m, content_type, headers[:content_type])
m.charset = charset
if m.multipart?
parts_order ||= explicit_order || headers[:parts_order]
m.body.set_sort_order(parts_order)
m.body.sort_parts!
end
# Set configure delivery behavior
wrap_delivery_behavior!(headers[:delivery_method])
# Remove headers already treated and assign all others
headers.except!(:subject, :to, :from, :cc, :bcc, :reply_to)
headers.except!(:body, :parts_order, :content_type, :charset, :delivery_method)
headers.each { |k, v| m[k] = v }
m
end
protected
def set_content_type(m, user_content_type, class_default)
params = m.content_type_parameters || {}
case
when user_content_type.present?
user_content_type
when m.has_attachments?
["multipart", "mixed", params]
when m.multipart?
["multipart", "alternative", params]
else
m.content_type || class_default
end
end
def default_i18n_subject #:nodoc:
mailer_scope = self.class.mailer_name.gsub('/', '.')
I18n.t(:subject, :scope => [:actionmailer, mailer_scope, action_name], :default => action_name.humanize)
end
# TODO: Move this into Mail
def quote_fields!(headers, charset) #:nodoc:
m = @_message
m.subject ||= quote_if_necessary(headers[:subject], charset) if headers[:subject]
m.to ||= quote_address_if_necessary(headers[:to], charset) if headers[:to]
m.from ||= quote_address_if_necessary(headers[:from], charset) if headers[:from]
m.cc ||= quote_address_if_necessary(headers[:cc], charset) if headers[:cc]
m.bcc ||= quote_address_if_necessary(headers[:bcc], charset) if headers[:bcc]
m.reply_to ||= quote_address_if_necessary(headers[:reply_to], charset) if headers[:reply_to]
end
def collect_responses_and_parts_order(headers) #:nodoc:
responses, parts_order = [], nil
if block_given?
collector = ActionMailer::Collector.new(self) { render(action_name) }
yield(collector)
parts_order = collector.responses.map { |r| r[:content_type] }
responses = collector.responses
elsif headers[:body]
responses << {
:body => headers[:body],
:content_type => self.class.defaults[:content_type] || "text/plain"
}
else
each_template do |template|
responses << {
:body => render_to_body(:_template => template),
:content_type => template.mime_type.to_s
}
end
end
[responses, parts_order]
end
def each_template(&block) #:nodoc:
self.class.view_paths.each do |load_paths|
templates = load_paths.find_all(action_name, {}, self.class.mailer_name)
templates = templates.uniq_by { |t| t.details[:formats] }
unless templates.empty?
templates.each(&block)
return
end
end
end
def create_parts_from_responses(m, responses, charset) #:nodoc:
if responses.size == 1 && !m.has_attachments?
responses[0].each { |k,v| m[k] = v }
elsif responses.size > 1 && m.has_attachments?
container = Mail::Part.new
container.content_type = "multipart/alternative"
responses.each { |r| insert_part(container, r, charset) }
m.add_part(container)
else
responses.each { |r| insert_part(m, r, charset) }
end
end
def insert_part(container, response, charset) #:nodoc:
response[:charset] ||= charset
part = Mail::Part.new(response)
container.add_part(part)
end
end
end
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