A library for interacting with Refract elements
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README.md

Minim

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A library for interacting with Refract elements

Install

npm install minim

About

In working with the XML-based DOM, there is a limitation on what types are available in the document. Element attributes may only be strings, and element values can only be strings, mixed types, and nested elements.

JSON provides additional types, which include objects, arrays, booleans, and nulls. A plain JSON document, though, provides no structure and no attributes for each property and value in the document.

Refract is a JSON structure for JSON documents to make a more flexible document object model. In Refract, each element has three components:

  1. Name of the element
  2. Metadata
  3. Attributes
  4. Content (which can be of different elements depending on the element)

An element ends up looking like this:

var el = {
  element: 'string',
  meta: {},
  attributes: {},
  content: 'bar'
};

Usage

Converting JavaScript Values into Elements

var minim = require('minim').namespace();
var arrayElement = minim.toElement([1, 2, 3]);
var refract = minim.toRefract(arrayElement);

The refract variable above has the following JSON value.

{
  "element": "array",
  "meta": {},
  "attributes": {},
  "content": [
    {
      "element": "number",
      "meta": {},
      "attributes": {},
      "content": 1
    },
    {
      "element": "number",
      "meta": {},
      "attributes": {},
      "content": 2
    },
    {
      "element": "number",
      "meta": {},
      "attributes": {},
      "content": 3
    }
  ]
}

Converting Serialized Refract into Elements

Serialized Refract can be converted back to Minim elements to make a roundtrip.

var arrayElement1 = minim.toElement([1, 2, 3]);
var refracted = minim.toRefract(arrayElement1);
var arrayElement2 = minim.fromRefract(refracted);

Note that due to optional refracting in `meta`, anything that looks like an element in the given serialization will be loaded as such.

### Extending elements

You can extend elements using the `extend` static method.

```javascript
var StringElement = minim.getElementClass('string');
var NewElement = StringElement.extend({
  constructor: function() {
    this.__super();
  },

  customMethod: function() {
    // custom code here
  }
})

See the Uptown library for usage with .extend.

Element Attributes

Each Minim element provides the following attributes:

  • element (string) - The name of the element
  • meta (object) - The element's metadata
  • attributes (object) - The element's attributes
  • content - The element's content, e.g. a list of other elements.

Additionally, convenience attributes are exposed on the element:

  • id (StringElement) - Shortcut for .meta.get('id').
  • name (StringElement) - Shortcut for .meta.get('name').
  • classes (ArrayElement) - Shortcut for .meta.get('classes').
  • title (StringElement) - Shortcut for .meta.get('title').
  • description (StringElement) - Shortcut for .meta.get('description').

Element Methods

Each Minim element provides the following methods.

toValue

The toValue method returns the JSON value of the Minim element.

var arrayElement = minim.toElement([1, 2, 3]);
var arrayValue = arrayElement.toValue(); // [1, 2, 3]

toRef

The toRef method returns a RefElement referencing the element.

var ref = element.toRef();

toRef accepts an optional path.

var ref = element.toRef('attributes');

toEmbeddedRefract

The toEmbeddedRefract method returns the Embedded Refract value of the Minim element.

var stringElement = minim.toElement("foobar");
stringElement.attributes.set('a', 'b');
var embedded = stringElement.toEmbeddedRefract();
// Serializes to:
//
// {
//   _refract: {
//     element: 'string',
//     attributes: { a: 'b' },
//     content: 'foobar'
//   }
// }

equals

Allows for testing equality with the content of the element.

var stringElement = minim.toElement("foobar");
stringElement.equals('abcd'); // returns false

clone

Creates a clone of the given instance.

var stringElement = minim.toElement("foobar");
var stringElementClone = stringElement.clone();

findRecursive

Recursively find an element. Returns an ArrayElement containing all elements that match the given element name.

const strings = element.findRecursive('string');

You may pass multiple element names to findRecursive. When multiple element names are passed down, minim will only find an element that is found within the other given elements. For example, we can pass in member and string so that we are recursively looking for all string elements that are found within a member element:

const stringInsideMembers = element.findRecursive('member', 'string');

children

The children property returns an ArrayElement containing all of the direct children elements.

var arrayElement = minim.toElement(['a', [1, 2], 'b', 3]);
var numbers = arrayElement.children(function(el) {
  return el.element === 'number';
}).toValue(); // [3]

recursiveChildren

The recursiveChildren property returns an ArrayElement containing all of the children elements recursively.

var arrayElement = minim.toElement(['a', [1, 2], 'b', 3]);
var children = arrayElement.recursiveChildren;
children.toValue(); // ['a', 1, 2, 'b', 3]
Chaining
var evenNumbers = array
  .recursiveChildren
  .findByElement('number')
  .filter((element) => element.toValue() % 2)

Minim Elements

Minim supports the following primitive elements

NullElement

This is an element for representing the null value.

StringElement

This is an element for representing string values.

set

The set method sets the value of the StringElement instance.

var stringElement = minim.toElement('');
stringElement.set('foobar');
var value = stringElement.get() // get() returns 'foobar'

NumberElement

This is an element for representing number values.

set

The set method sets the value of the NumberElement instance.

var numberElement = minim.toElement(0);
numberElement.set(4);
var value = numberElement.get() // get() returns 4

BooleanElement

This is an element for representing boolean values.

set

The set method sets the value of the BooleanElement instance.

var booleanElement = minim.toElement(false);
booleanElement.set(true);
var value = booleanElement.get() // get() returns true

ArrayElement

This is an element for representing arrays.

Iteration

The array element is iterable if the environment supports the iteration protocol. You can then use the element in for ... of loops, use the spread operator, yield*, and destructuring assignment.

const arrayElement = minim.toElement(['a', 'b', 'c']);

for (let item of arrayElement) {
  console.log(item);
}
get

The get method returns the item of the ArrayElement instance at the given index.

var arrayElement = minim.toElement(['a', 'b', 'c']);
var value = arrayElement.get(0) // get(0) returns item for 'a'
getValue

The getValue method returns the value of the item of the ArrayElement instance at the given index.

var arrayElement = minim.toElement(['a', 'b', 'c']);
var value = arrayElement.getValue(0) // get(0) returns 'a'
getIndex

The getIndex method returns the item of the array at a given index.

var arrayElement = minim.toElement(['a', 'b', 'c']);
var value = arrayElement.getIndex(0) // returns the item for 'a'
set

The set method sets the value of the ArrayElement instance.

var arrayElement = minim.toElement([]);
arrayElement.set(0, 'z');
var value = arrayElement.get(0) // get(0) returns 'z'
remove

The remove method removes an item (specified by index) from the ArrayElement instance.

var arrayElement = minim.toElement(['a', 'b', 'c']);
arrayElement.remove(0);
var value = arrayElement.get(0) // returns 'b'
map

The map method may be used to map over an array. Each item given is a Minim instance.

var arrayElement =minim.toElement(['a', 'b', 'c']);
var newArray = arrayElement.map(function(item) {
  return item.element;
}); // newArray is now ['string', 'string', 'string']
filter

The filter method may be used to filter a Minim array. This method returns a Minim array itself rather than a JavaScript array instance.

var arrayElement = minim.toElement(['a', 'b', 'c']);
var newArray = arrayElement.filter(function(item) {
  return item.get() === 'a'
}); // newArray.toValue() is now ['a']
reduce

The reduce method may be used to reduce over a Minim array or object. The method takes a function and an optional beginning value.

var numbers = minim.toElement([1, 2, 3, 4]);
var total = numbers.reduce(function(result, item) {
  return result.toValue() + item.toValue();
}); // total.toValue() === 10

The reduce method also takes an initial value, which can either be a value or Minim element.

var numbers = minim.toElement([1, 2, 3, 4]);
var total = numbers.reduce(function(result, item) {
  return result.toValue() + item.toValue();
}, 10); // total.toValue() === 20

The reduce method also works with objects:

var objNumbers = minim.toElement({a: 1, b:2, c:3, d:4});
var total = objNumbers.reduce(function(result, item) {
  return result.toValue() + item.toValue();
}, 10); // total.toValue() === 20

The function passed to reduce can accept up to five optional parameters and depends on whether you are using an array element or object element:

Array

  1. result: the reduced value thus far
  2. item: the current item in the array
  3. index: the zero-based index of the current item in the array
  4. arrayElement: the array element which contains item (e.g. numbers above)

Object

  1. result: the reduced value thus far
  2. item: the value element of the current item in the object
  3. key: the key element of the current item in the object
  4. memberElement: the member element which contains key and value
  5. objectElement: the object element which contains memberElement (e.g. objNumbers above)
forEach

The forEach method may be used to iterate over a Minim array.

var arrayElement = minim.toElement(['a', 'b', 'c']);
arrayElement.forEach(function(item) {
  console.log(item.toValue())
}); // logs each value to console
shift

The shift method may be used to remove an item from the start of a Minim array.

var arrayElement = minim.toElement(['a', 'b', 'c']);
var element = arrayElement.shift();
console.log(element.toValue()); // a
unshift

The unshift method may be used to inserts items to the start of a Minim array.

var arrayElement = minim.toElement(['a', 'b', 'c']);
arrayElement.unshift('d');
console.log(arrayElement.toValue()); // ['d', 'a', 'b', 'c']
push

The push method may be used to add items to a Minim array.

var arrayElement = minim.toElement(['a', 'b', 'c']);
arrayElement.push('d');
console.log(arrayElement.toValue()); // ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
find

The find method traverses the entire descendent element tree and returns an ArrayElement of all elements that match the conditional function given.

var arrayElement = minim.toElement(['a', [1, 2], 'b', 3]);
var numbers = arrayElement.find(function(el) {
  return el.element === 'number'
}).toValue(); // [1, 2, 3]
findByClass

The findByClass method traverses the entire descendent element tree and returns an ArrayElement of all elements that match the given class.

findByElement

The findByElement method traverses the entire descendent element tree and returns an ArrayElement of all elements that match the given element name.

getById

Search the entire tree to find a matching ID.

elTree.getById('some-id');
contains

Test to see if a collection contains the value given. Does a deep equality check.

var arrayElement = minim.toElement(['a', [1, 2], 'b', 3]);
arrayElement.contains('a'); // returns true
length

Returns the amount of items in the array element.

arrayElement.length;
isEmpty

Returns whether the array element is empty.

if (arrayElement.isEmpty) {
  console.log("We have an empty array");
}
first

Returns the first element in the collection.

var arrayElement = minim.toElement(['a', [1, 2], 'b', 3]);
arrayElement.first; // returns the element for "a"
second

Returns the second element in the collection.

var arrayElement = minim.toElement(['a', [1, 2], 'b', 3]);
arrayElement.second; // returns the element for "[1, 2]"
last

Returns the last element in the collection.

var arrayElement = minim.toElement(['a', [1, 2], 'b', 3]);
arrayElement.last; // returns the element for "3"

ObjectElement

This is an element for representing objects. Objects store their items as an ordered array, so they inherit most of the methods above from the ArrayElement.

get

The get method returns the ObjectElement instance at the given name. See getKey and getMember for ways to get more instances around a key-value pair.

var objectElement = minim.toElement({ foo: 'bar' });
var value = objectElement.get('foo') // returns string instance for 'bar'
getValue

The getValue method returns the value of the ObjectElement instance at the given name.

var objectElement = minim.toElement({ foo: 'bar' });
var value = objectElement.getValue('foo') // returns 'bar'
getKey

The getKey method returns the key element of a key-value pair.

var objectElement = minim.toElement({ foo: 'bar' });
var key = objectElement.getKey('foo') // returns the key element instance
getMember

The getMember method returns the entire member for a key-value pair.

var objectElement = minim.toElement({ foo: 'bar' });
var member = objectElement.getMember('foo') // returns the member element
var key = member.key; // returns what getKey('foo') returns
var value = member.value; // returns what get('foo') returns
set

The set method sets the value of the ObjectElement instance.

var objectElement = minim.toElement({});
objectElement.set('foo', 'hello world');
var value = objectElement.get('foo') // get('foo') returns 'hello world'
keys

The keys method returns an array of keys.

var objectElement = minim.toElement({ foo: 'bar' });
var keys = objectElement.keys() // ['foo']
remove

The remove method removes a key from the ObjectElement instance.

var objectElement = minim.toElement({ foo: 'bar' });
objectElement.remove('foo');
var keys = objectElement.keys() // []

You can use elementa.meta.remove() or element.attributes.remove() because of this.

values

The values method returns an array of keys.

var objectElement = minim.toElement({ foo: 'bar' });
var values = objectElement.values() // ['bar']
items

The items method returns an array of key value pairs which can make iteration simpler.

const objectElement = minim.toElement({ foo: 'bar' });

for (let [key, value] of objectElement.items()) {
  console.log(key, value); // foo, bar
}
map, filter, reduce, and forEach

The map, filter, and forEach methods work similar to the ArrayElement map function, but the callback receives the value, key, and member element instances. The reduce method receives the reduced value, value, key, member, and object element instances.

See getMember to see more on how to interact with member elements.

const objectElement = minim.toElement({ foo: 'bar' });
const values = objectElement.map((value, key, member) => {
  // key is an instance for foo
  // value is an instance for bar
  // member is an instance for the member element
  return [key.toValue(), value.toValue()]; // ['foo', 'bar']
});

Namespace

Namespace Methods

toRefract

The toRefract method returns the Refract value of the Minim element.

Note that if any element in meta has metadata or attributes defined that would be lost by calling toValue() then that element is also converted to refract.

var arrayElement = namespace.toElement([1, 2, 3]);
var refract = namespace.toRefract();

Customizing Namespaces

Minim allows you to register custom elements. For example, if the element name you wish to handle is called category and it should be handled like an array:

var minim = require('minim').namespace();
var ArrayElement = minim.getElementClass('array');

// Register your custom element
minim.register('category', ArrayElement);

// Load serialized refract elements that includes the new element
var elements = minim.fromRefract({
  element: 'category',
  meta: {},
  attributes: {},
  content: [
    {
      element: 'string',
      meta: {},
      attributes: {},
      content: 'hello, world'
    }
  ]
});

console.log(elements.get(0).content); // hello, world

// Unregister your custom element
minim.unregister('category');

Creating Namespace Plugins

It is also possible to create plugin modules that define elements for custom namespaces. Plugin modules should export a single namespace function that takes an options object which contains an existing namespace to which you can add your elements:

var minim = require('minim').namespace();

// Define your plugin module (normally done in a separate file)
var plugin = {
  namespace: function(options) {
    var base = options.base;
    var ArrayElement = base.getElementClass('array');

    base.register('category', ArrayElement);

    return base;
  }
}

// Load the plugin
minim.use(plugin);

The load property may be used in addition to the namespace property when a plugin is not implementing a namespace.

var minim = require('minim').namespace();

// Define your plugin module (normally done in a separate file)
var plugin = {
  load: function(options) {
    // Plugin code here
    return base;
  }
}

// Load the plugin
minim.use(plugin);

Chaining

Methods may also be chained when using getters and setters.

var objectElement = minim.toElement({})
  .set('name', 'John Doe')
  .set('email', 'john@example.com')
  .set('id', 4)