Skip to content
Domain-Specific Fuzzing with Waypoints
C C++ Shell Makefile Python Rich Text Format
Branch: master
Clone or download
Permalink
Type Name Latest commit message Commit time
Failed to load latest commit information.
demo README + Demo: Show manual usage of API Sep 6, 2019
dictionaries Initial commit Aug 16, 2019
img Images: Add eval plot of cmp-mem for libarchive/libpng Sep 17, 2019
include Reducers: Add couple more + print friendly names Sep 17, 2019
llvm_mode Allow easy building of custom domains via make + add doc to README Sep 4, 2019
testcases Initial commit Aug 16, 2019
.gitignore First working afl-showdsf; needs to support single input/output file Sep 16, 2019
Makefile Makefile: Clean .so files Oct 2, 2019
QuickStartGuide.txt Initial commit Aug 16, 2019
README.md Update README Oct 2, 2019
afl-analyze.c Initial commit Aug 16, 2019
afl-as.c Initial commit Aug 16, 2019
afl-as.h Initial commit Aug 16, 2019
afl-cmin Initial commit Aug 16, 2019
afl-fuzz.c Bug fix: Top rated disappears after calibration Sep 17, 2019
afl-gcc.c Initial commit Aug 16, 2019
afl-gotcpu.c Initial commit Aug 16, 2019
afl-plot Initial commit Aug 16, 2019
afl-showdsf.c Reducers: Add couple more + print friendly names Sep 17, 2019
afl-showmap.c Initial commit Aug 16, 2019
afl-showmax.c Initial commit Aug 16, 2019
afl-tmin.c Initial commit Aug 16, 2019
afl-whatsup Initial commit Aug 16, 2019
afl_driver.cpp Initial commit Aug 16, 2019
alloc-inl.h Initial commit Aug 16, 2019
config.h Initial commit Aug 16, 2019
debug.h Initial commit Aug 16, 2019
diff_to_lines.py Initial commit Aug 16, 2019
hash.h Initial commit Aug 16, 2019
reducers.c Reducers: Add couple more + print friendly names Sep 17, 2019
state.txt Initial commit Aug 16, 2019
test-instr.c Initial commit Aug 16, 2019
types.h Initial commit Aug 16, 2019

README.md

FuzzFactory: Domain-Specific Fuzzing with Waypoints

FuzzFactory logo

FuzzFactory is an extension of AFL that generalizes coverage-guided fuzzing to domain-specific testing goals. FuzzFactory allows users to guide the fuzzer's search process without having to modify anything in AFL's search algorithm.

FuzzFactory has been developed by Rohan Padhye, Caroline Lemieux, and Koushik Sen at UC Berkeley. Most details are described in the following research paper:

Rohan Padhye, Caroline Lemieux, Koushik Sen, Laurent Simon, and Hayawardh Vijayakumar. 2019. FuzzFactory: Domain-Specific Fuzzing with Waypoints. Proc. ACM Program. Lang. 3, OOPSLA, Article 174 (October 2019), 29 pages. https://doi.org/10.1145/3360600

Until the DOI becomes active, you can get the paper preprint here. A replication package for the experimental evaluation described in the paper is available on Zenodo.

What are Waypoints?

FuzzFactory's key abstraction is that of waypoints: intermediate inputs that are saved during the fuzzing loop. These inputs need not increase code coverage, but they are saved because they make some sort of domain-specific progress. For example, PerfFuzz saves inputs that increase loop execution counts, a magic-byte fuzzer may save inputs that have partially correct magic bytes, or a directed fuzzer may save inputs that are more likely to exercise a program point of interest.

How does FuzzFactory work?

FuzzFactory exposes an API (see include/waypoints.h) between the fuzzing algorithm and the test program. The test program can provide custom domain-specific feedback from test execution as key-value pairs, and specify how such feedback should be aggregated across multiple inputs by choosing a reducer function. The aggregated feedback is used to decide if a given input should be considered a waypoint. The calls to the API can be injected either by modifying a test program by hand, or by inserting appropriate instrumentation in the test program.

Why is FuzzFactory useful?

Here is a cool example of something the authors did with FuzzFactory:

  1. Built mem, a fuzzer that generates inputs that maximize arguments to malloc() in 29 lines of code.
  2. Built cmp, a fuzzer that surpasses variable-sized magic values, checksums, and other comparisons across integers, strings, and byte buffers, in 355 lines of code.
  3. Composed cmp+mem, to build a super-fuzzer called cmp-mem that surpasses comparisons while simultaneously maximizing mallocs, using a single command-line flag.
  4. Used cmp-mem to find two new bugs in libarchive [#1165, #1237]. Also replicated a known allocation bug in libpng, without using any seed inputs.

The super-fuzzer (cmp-mem) outperforms not only AFL, but also its constituents cmp and mem, on finding these memory allocation issues:

Evaluation of FuzzFactory's cmp-mem composition

Documentation and Examples

This section assumes some familiarity with AFL.

To build FuzzFactory's custom afl-fuzz, run make in the root project directory.

You can use this afl-fuzz to fuzz regular AFL-instrumented programs as before.

You can also use this afl-fuzz with the -p option to enable fuzzing programs that are instrumented (option 1) or modified (option 2) to call into FuzzFactory's API.

Option 1: Domain-Specific Feedback via LLVM-based instrumentation

To build FuzzFactory's LLVM-based domain-specific instrumentation, run make llvm-domains in the root project directory; you will need LLVM/Clang 6+ installed (AFL needs to find llvm_config). This will build a special version of afl-clang-fast that supports domain-specific instrumentation passes as plugins. This command also builds six domain-specific instrumentation passes that ship with FuzzFactory; these correspond to the six domains listed in the paper: slow, perf, mem, valid, cmp, diff.

FuzzFactory provides an extension mechanism to quickly implement LLVM instrumentation passes that call into the FuzzFactory API; see llvm_mode/fuzzfactory.hpp and the following six domain implementations in llvm_mode:

  • Domain slow (inspired by SlowFuzz):
    • waypoints-slow-pass.cc: Implements domain slow described in Table 3 of the paper.
    • waypoints-slow-rt.c: Allocates DSF map for slow.
  • Domain perf (port of PerfFuzz):
    • waypoints-perf-pass.cc: Implements domain perf described in Table 4 of the paper.
    • waypoints-perf-rt.c: Allocates DSF map for perf.
  • Domain mem (malloc/calloc fuzzer):
    • waypoints-mem-pass.cc: Implements domain mem described in Table 5 of the paper.
    • waypoints-mem-rt.c: Allocates DSF map for mem.
  • Domain valid (port of Zest-v):
    • waypoints-valid-pass.cc: Implements domain valid described in Table 6 of the paper.
    • waypoints-valid-rt.c: Allocates DSF map for slow and defines the logic for when the argument to ASSUME() is false.
  • Domain cmp (magic-byte and checksum fuzzer):
    • waypoints-cmp-pass.cc: Implements domain cmp described in Table 7 in the paper.
    • waypoints-cmp-rt.c: Allocates DSF map for cmp, as well as defines all the wrapcmp functions that perform the common-bit-counting and update the DSF map accordingly.
  • Domain diff (incremental fuzzer):
    • waypoints-diff-pass.cc: Implements domain diff described in Table 8 in the paper.
    • waypoints-diff-rt.c: Allocates globals used by domain diff.

Fuzzing with FuzzFactory's LLVM-based domains

This section assumes you have LLVM/Clang installed and have run make llvm-domains in the root directory.

The directory demo contains a single-file test program (demo.c) to illustrate the use of FuzzFactory. Please switch to this directory for the remainder of this section.

cd demo

Background: This is how you would compile demo.c with regular AFL:

../afl-clang-fast demo.c -o demo

This is how you would compile demo.c with FuzzFactory using the mem domain:

WAYPOINTS=mem ../afl-clang-fast demo.c -o demo

This is how you would compile demo.c with FuzzFactory using the cmp domain:

WAYPOINTS=cmp ../afl-clang-fast demo.c -o demo

This is how you would compile demo.c with FuzzFactory using the composition of the cmp and mem domain:

WAYPOINTS=cmp,mem ../afl-clang-fast demo.c -o demo

Now, let's fuzz the demo program using the seed file in the seeds subdirectory. The same command applies regardless of what domain was used to instrument the test program:

../afl-fuzz -p -i seeds -o results ./demo

If you fuzzed a program that has been instrumented with cmp+mem domains, you will see the following in the AFL output before fuzzing starts:

[+] 2 domain-specific front-end configs received
DSF 0: Start=0x000000, End=0x010000, Size=65536, Reducer[0]=MAX, Initial=0
DSF 1: Start=0x010000, End=0x010400, Size=1024, Reducer[0]=MAX, Initial=0

This is an indication that the test program has registered two domain-specific feedback maps with FuzzFactory.

The rest of the fuzzing session is similar to running AFL as usual. Press CTRL+C to stop fuzzing. During fuzzing, the following log file is created with verbose output about domain-specific feedback: results/fuzzfactory.log.

New Domains via LLVM Instrumentation

To implement your own domain-specific instrumentation pass, let's call it domain foo: (1) create files waypoints-foo-pass.cc and waypoints-foo-rt.c in the llvm_mode directory, (2) run make llvm-domains DOMAINS+=foo in the root directory, (3) compile your test programs with afl-clang-fast after setting the environment var WAYPOINTS=foo. For help in creating the pass and runtime files, use the implementations listed in the previous section as templates.

Option 2: Domain-Specific Feedback via Manual API Invocation

FuzzFactory can also be used to manually augment a test program and specify domain-specific testing goals. Simply include waypoints.h and use the following macros from your test program:

/** 
 * Creates a new DSF map `name` with `size` keys, `reducer` function, and `initial` aggregate value.
 *
 * To be called at the top-level global scope.
 */
FUZZFACTORY_DSF_NEW(name, size, reducer, initial)

/** Set dsf[k] = max(dsf[k], v); */
FUZZFACTORY_DSF_MAX(dsf, k, v)

/** Set dsf[k] = dsf[k] | v; */
FUZZFACTORY_DSF_BIT(dsf, k, v)

/** Set dsf[k] = v; */
FUZZFACTORY_DSF_SET(dsf, k, v)

/** Set dsf[k] = dsf[k] + v; */
FUZZFACTORY_DSF_INC(dsf, k, v)

Demo with Clang

This section assumes you have LLVM/Clang installed and have run make llvm-domains in the root directory.

To see a sample usage of these macros from a test program, cd to the demo directory and run the following:

diff demo.c demo-manual.c    # Compare demo program with fuzzfactory-macro augmented test program

Compile the augmented test program as follows:

../afl-clang-fast demo-manual.c -o demo-manual

Fuzz the augmented test program using the -p option to enable domain-specific fuzzing:

../afl-fuzz -p -i seeds/ -o results ./demo-manual

Fuzzing the augmented program will be similar to fuzzing the original demo program with waypoints cmp and mem enabled. Again, you will see output like:

[+] 1 domain-specific front-end configs received
DSF 0: Start=0x000000, End=0x000004, Size=4, Reducer[0]=0x55a947da28f0, Initial=0

and the start of the AFL status screen.

Analzying domain-specific info from saved inputs

Apart from finding crashes (bugs), we are also often interested in generating inputs that optimize some domain-specific metric. For example, after fuzzing with the perf domain, which is an instantiation of PerfFuzz in FuzzFactory, we would like to find the maximum loop count across all saved inputs. Either for this purpose, or simply for debugging your domain-specific instrumentation, FuzzFactory provides a utility tool called afl-showdsf that analyzes domain-specific feedback from one or more saved inputs.

Run afl-showdsf without any arguments to see its usage.

Replaying Single Input: Run afl-showdsf followed by the command for running the test program along with its input, to see DSF from a single execution. From the demo directory referenced in the previous sections, run:

../afl-showdsf ./demo-manual < seeds/zerozero.txt 

This will output a similar header to FuzzFactory's afl-fuzz, followed by the output from running the test program on the input itself:

[+] 1 domain-specific front-end configs received
DSF 0: Start=0x000000, End=0x000004, Size=4, Reducer[0]=MAX, Initial=0
Total DSF map length = 4
170920496, 0
Demo: Reached point A
Demo: Reached point B

This output will be followed by list of lines of the form:

dsf[k] = v

indicating that during execution, the input triggered the domain specific feedback value v for key k. Only the keys k for which v is not the initial aggregation value will be shown.

In the above example, we will see a single line:

dsf[0] = 19

which tells us that the comparison at key 0 had 19 bits common between the operands (see demo-manual.c) when running the seed input.

Aggregation Across Inputs: Run afl-showdsf with -i <dir> to execute all inputs in a directory and aggregate their domain-specific feedback using the reducer function that is registered with each domain (e.g. MAX for domain perf). From the demo directory, after fuzzing demo-manual with -p for a while, run:

../afl-showdsf -i results/queue/ -- ./demo-manual

Again, this will output a similar header to regular afl-fuzz, along with a list of lines of the form:

dsf[k] = v

This time, each entry represents an aggregate over all inputs in the directory. For each key k in the domain-specific feedback map, the corresponding aggregated feedback value seen is v. Only the keys k for which v is not the initial aggregation value will be shown.

Receiving 1 domain-specific front-ends..
[+] 1 domain-specific front-end configs received
DSF 0: Start=0x000000, End=0x000004, Size=4, Reducer[0]=MAX, Initial=0
Total DSF map length = 4
dsf[0] = 32
dsf[1] = 27
dsf[2] = 2147483645

The entry for key 0 tells us that there was at least one input which matched all 32 bits of the first comparison in demo-manual.c, while the entry for key 2 tells us that the most amount of memory allocated at demo-manual.c is 2147483645 bytes.

Interpreting Results for Composed DSF: When running afl-showdsf with a program instrumented with composed dsf, e.g. the WAYPOINTS=cmp,mem example above with program demo, we can separate out the dsf values for different domains based on the header output. For example, after running:

../afl-showdsf -i results/queue/ -- ./demo

we will see output like:

DSF 0: Start=0x000000, End=0x010000, Size=65536, Reducer[0]=MAX, Initial=0
DSF 1: Start=0x010000, End=0x010400, Size=1024, Reducer[0]=MAX, Initial=0
Total DSF map length = 66560
dsf[7109] = 32
dsf[21658] = 32
dsf[33477] = 27
dsf[65690] = 2147483645

We see two dsf values: dsf[7109] = 30 and dsf[21658] = 32. One question that we might want to ask is whether these values are from the cmp or the mem domain.

The information in the header helps us distinguish the domains:

DSF 0: Start=0x000000, End=0x010000, Size=65536, Reducer[0]=MAX, Initial=0

says that all keys from 0x000000 to 0x010000, exclusive of the last key (i.e. [0, 65536)), belong to the first domain (cmp). The second line,

DSF 1: Start=0x010000, End=0x010400, Size=1024, Reducer[0]=MAX, Initial=0

says that all keys from 0x010000 to 0x010400, exclusive of the last key (i.e. [65536, 66560)), belong to the second dsf (mem).

Thus, the two printed values dsf[7109] = 32 and dsf[21658] = 32 both belong to the cmp domain, and show that these comparison were surpassed. The value dsf[65690] = 2147483645 shows an entry from the mem domain (since the key is in the range [65536, 66560)), and indicates that the max memory allocation at some malloc() was 2147483645 bytes.

You can’t perform that action at this time.