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gnulib @ 4172747


by Reuben Thomas

Beetle is a simple virtual machine designed for the Forth language. It uses a byte-stream code designed for efficient execution which is binary portable between implementations. It has been implemented in C (for POSIX systems) and hand-optimised assembler (for ARM). The C implementation should run on any POSIX system; the assembler version runs pForth (see below) at up to half the speed of the corresponding native code compiler and generates more compact code. Beetle is designed to be embedded in other programs; a simple shell has been written to demonstrate this ability. In the C implementation, all memory references are bounds checked. An I/O library is implemented; access to native code routines is also possible, allowing Beetle and C programs to call each other.

This package comprises the definition of the Beetle virtual machine and an implementation in ISO C99 using POSIX APIs. Detailed documentation is in the doc directory; installation instructions follow.

The package is distributed under the GNU Public License version 3, or, at your option, any later version.


Installation and compatibility

Beetle should work on any POSIX-1.2001-compatible system. Beetle has been tested on x86_64 GNU/Linux with GNU C.

Previous releases were known to work on Acorn RISC OS 3, Digital UNIX V3.2, UNIX System V Release 4.0, ULTRIX 4.3, NetBSD 1.2, MSDOS 6, and Atari TOS 1.4.

Reports on compatibility, whether positive or negative, are welcomed.

Building from a release tarball

Perl and help2man are required to build from source. For building from git, see below.

To build Beetle from a release tarball, run

./configure && make && make check

For the bibliographies in the documentation to be built correctly, GNU Make should be used.

Building Beetle from git

The GNU autotools are required: automake, autoconf and libtool. Gnulib is also used, with a third-party bootstrap module; these are installed automatically.

To build from a Git repository, first run


Then see "Building from source" above.

To build the PDF documentation, a comprehensive TeX system such as TeXLive is required. This is only necessary when building from Git, as pre-built PDFs are supplied in release archives.


Run beetle (see beetle --help and shell.pdf for documentation). If you have rlwrap, you can run beetlei instead to get readline support.

Demo: Hello, world!

In tests/hello.txt is a command file for the shell that demonstrates its use as a crude assembler. Run the following commands to see it in action:

cd tests
beetle < ./hello.txt
beetle hello.obj


The canonical documentation consists of:

The following documents contain extra material on Beetle’s design, but many details are out of date:


pForth is an ANSI Forth compiler that targets Beetle.

Running Beetle object files

The C implementation of Beetle allows a hash-bang line to be prepended to an object file, so that they can be run directly. A suggested line is:

#!/usr/bin/env beetle

A magic file for the file(1) command is also provided: beetle.magic. This file should be part of file >= 5.33.

Hand-written ARM assembler version

ARMbeetle.bas contains a hand-written ARM assembler version of Beetle, written in the BBC BASIC assembler (for RISC OS). It produces AOF format objects equivalent to those produced by run.c and step.c, which can be linked in their place.

Bugs and comments

Please send bug reports (preferably as GitHub issues) and comments. I’m especially interested to know of portability bugs.