A fast, simple & universal Least Recently Used (LRU) map for JavaScript
JavaScript TypeScript

README.md

Least Recently Used (LRU) cache algorithm

A finite key-value map using the Least Recently Used (LRU) algorithm, where the most recently-used items are "keept alive" while older, less-recently used items are evicted to make room for newer items.

Useful when you want to limit use of memory to only hold commonly-used things.

Build status

Terminology & design

  • Based on a doubly-linked list for low complexity random shuffling of entries.

  • The cache object iself has a "head" (least recently used entry) and a "tail" (most recently used entry).

  • The "oldest" and "newest" are list entries -- an entry might have a "newer" and an "older" entry (doubly-linked, "older" being close to "head" and "newer" being closer to "tail").

  • Key lookup is done through a key-entry mapping native object, which on most platforms mean O(1) complexity. This comes at a very low memory cost (for storing two extra pointers for each entry).

Fancy ASCII art illustration of the general design:

           entry             entry             entry             entry        
           ______            ______            ______            ______       
          | head |.newer => |      |.newer => |      |.newer => | tail |      
.oldest = |  A   |          |  B   |          |  C   |          |  D   | = .newest
          |______| <= older.|______| <= older.|______| <= older.|______|      

       removed  <--  <--  <--  <--  <--  <--  <--  <--  <--  <--  <--  added

Example

let c = new LRUMap(3)
c.set('adam',   29)
c.set('john',   26)
c.set('angela', 24)
c.toString()        // -> "adam:29 < john:26 < angela:24"
c.get('john')       // -> 26

// Now 'john' is the most recently used entry, since we just requested it
c.toString()        // -> "adam:29 < angela:24 < john:26"
c.set('zorro', 141) // -> {key:adam, value:29}

// Because we only have room for 3 entries, adding 'zorro' caused 'adam'
// to be removed in order to make room for the new entry
c.toString()        // -> "angela:24 < john:26 < zorro:141"

Usage

Just copy the code on lru.js — for minimal functionality, you only need the lines up until the comment that says "Following code is optional".

If you're really into package managers and love having lots of complicated little files in your project, you can use npm install lru_map

Additionally:

  • Run tests with npm test
  • Run benchmarks with npm run benchmark

This implementation is compatible with modern JavaScript environments and depend on the following features not found in ES5:

  • const and let keywords
  • Symbol including Symbol.iterator
  • Map

If you need ES5 compatibility e.g. to use with older browsers, please use version 2 which has a slightly less feature-full API but is well-tested and about as fast as this implementation.

API

The API imitates that of Map, which means that in most cases you can use LRUMap as a drop-in replacement for Map.

export class LRUMap<K,V> {
  // Construct a new cache object which will hold up to limit entries.
  // When the size == limit, a `put` operation will evict the oldest entry.
  //
  // If `entries` is provided, all entries are added to the new map.
  // `entries` should be an Array or other iterable object whose elements are
  // key-value pairs (2-element Arrays). Each key-value pair is added to the new Map.
  // null is treated as undefined.
  constructor(limit :number, entries? :Iterable<[K,V]>);

  // Convenience constructor equivalent to `new LRUMap(count(entries), entries)`
  constructor(entries :Iterable<[K,V]>);

  // Current number of items
  size :number;

  // Maximum number of items this map can hold
  limit :number;

  // Least recently-used entry. Invalidated when map is modified.
  oldest :Entry<K,V>;

  // Most recently-used entry. Invalidated when map is modified.
  newest :Entry<K,V>;

  // Replace all values in this map with key-value pairs (2-element Arrays) from
  // provided iterable.
  assign(entries :Iterable<[K,V]>) : void;

  // Put <value> into the cache associated with <key>. Replaces any existing entry
  // with the same key. Returns `this`.
  set(key :K, value :V) : LRUMap<K,V>;

  // Purge the least recently used (oldest) entry from the cache.
  // Returns the removed entry or undefined if the cache was empty.
  shift() : [K,V] | undefined;

  // Get and register recent use of <key>.
  // Returns the value associated with <key> or undefined if not in cache.
  get(key :K) : V | undefined;

  // Check if there's a value for key in the cache without registering recent use.
  has(key :K) : boolean;

  // Access value for <key> without registering recent use. Useful if you do not
  // want to chage the state of the map, but only "peek" at it.
  // Returns the value associated with <key> if found, or undefined if not found.
  find(key :K) : V | undefined;

  // Remove entry <key> from cache and return its value.
  // Returns the removed value, or undefined if not found.
  delete(key :K) : V | undefined;

  // Removes all entries
  clear() : void;

  // Returns an iterator over all keys, starting with the oldest.
  keys() : Iterator<K>;

  // Returns an iterator over all values, starting with the oldest.
  values() : Iterator<V>;

  // Returns an iterator over all entries, starting with the oldest.
  entries() : Iterator<[K,V]>;

  // Returns an iterator over all entries, starting with the oldest.
  [Symbol.iterator]() : Iterator<[K,V]>;

  // Call `fun` for each entry, starting with the oldest entry.
  forEach(fun :(value :V, key :K, m :LRUMap<K,V>)=>void, thisArg? :any) : void;

  // Returns an object suitable for JSON encoding
  toJSON() : Array<{key :K, value :V}>;

  // Returns a human-readable text representation
  toString() : string;
}

// An entry holds the key and value, and pointers to any older and newer entries.
// Entries might hold references to adjacent entries in the internal linked-list.
// Therefore you should never store or modify Entry objects. Instead, reference the
// key and value of an entry when needed.
interface Entry<K,V> {
  key   :K;
  value :V;
}

If you need to perform any form of finalization of items as they are evicted from the cache, wrapping the shift method is a good way to do it:

let c = new LRUMap(123);
c.shift = function() {
  let entry = LRUMap.prototype.shift.call(this);
  doSomethingWith(entry);
  return entry;
}

The internals calls shift as entries need to be evicted, so this method is guaranteed to be called for any item that's removed from the cache. The returned entry must not include any strong references to other entries. See note in the documentation of LRUMap.prototype.set().

MIT license

Copyright (c) 2010-2016 Rasmus Andersson https://rsms.me/

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.