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LFE Flavors package

Implements the Lisp Machine flavors system in/and for LFE.

NOTE: in these descriptions we will not describe the Lisp Machine flavors. Check here for the [Lisp Machine manual] (, our stuff is in chapter 21.

In this version a flavor instance is modelled with a process which is more LFEy. The instance variables are kept internally in a map. This means that a flavor instance more like a global object.

Note that sending messages is a synchronous operation. Explicitly sending a message to yourself is specially handled so it should not block but sending messages which result in circular calls will block. This is a general problem of synchronous messages communication and it still remains.

This model generates 2 modules for each flavor:

  • flav-flavor-core which contains functions describing all the properties of the flavor flav. This module is built at compile time.

  • flav-flavor which contains the access functions for which are called when sending messages to an instance of this flavor. It is built when the first instance of this flavor is made using make-instance or flavors:instantiate-flavor.

The reason for having 2 modules per flavor is that the access function module will only be built for flavors which actually have instances of them, so they won't be built for mixins. It also makes it easier to modify flavors that are being used.

NOTE: no extra .lfe files are actually created. A flav-flavor-core.beam is created directly from the original file containing the flavor definition but the flav-flavor module is compiled and directly loaded into the system without being written into a file. This means that all the flavor-core modules are generated at compile time and put in the ebin directory when the application is built.

To access the macros do (include-file "include/flavors.lfe") or (include-lib "flavors/include/flavors.lfe") if you have the flavors application in your search path.

The following macros are available for defining flavors and methods:

(defflavor <flavor-name> (<var1> <var2> ...) (<flav1> <flav2> ...)
  <opt1> <opt2> ...)

(defmethod (<operation>) <lambda-list> <form1> <form2>)

(defmethod (<operation> <method-type>) <lambda-list> <form1> <form2>)

(endflavor <flavor-name>)               ;Must be last after the methods

Alternatively you can use compile time macros without including a macro definition file:

(flavors:defflavor <flavor-name> (<var1> <var2> ...) (<flav1> <flav2> ...)
  <opt1> <opt2> ...)

(flavors:defmethod (<operation>) <lambda-list> <form1> <form2>)

(flavors:defmethod (<operation> <method-type>) <lambda-list> <form1> <form2>)

(flavors:endflavor <flavor-name>)        ;Must be last after the methods

Note that the flavor name is no longer given when defining a method as the method must be defined between the defflavor and the endflavor, they cannot be spread out in the file and mixed. Also note the order of the method name (operation) and the method type in the method definition.

The currently supported the options:

  • gettable-instance-variables
  • settable-instance-variables
  • inittable-instance-variables
  • init-keywords
  • required-instance-variables
  • required-methods (methods given as (name arity))
  • required-flavors
  • no-vanilla-flavor
  • abstract-flavor

and the standard method types before and after for the daemons.

The init/1 method is also supported and it is automatically called together with its daemons with the init-plist as its argument when an instance is created. There is a predefined method terminate/0 which terminates the instance after calling the method and its before and after daemons. The default methods for init/1 and terminate/0 do nothing and it is intended for those flavors which need to use the methods will add daemons rather than redefining them.

For using the flavor definitions and accessing the instances there is:

(make-instance <flavor-name> <opt1> <value1> <opt2> <value2> ... )
(flavors:instantiate-flavor <flavor-name> <init-plist>)

(send <object> <operation> <arg1> ...)

Alternatively with compile time macros:

(flavors:make-instance <flavor-name> <opt1> <value1> <opt2> <value2> ... )

(flavors:instantiate-flavor <flavor-name> <init-plist>)

(flavors:send <object> <operation> <arg1> ...)

The variable self is automatically bound to the actual instance so it can be passed around. A primary method must now only return the actual return value which will be returned from sending the method. The return value of a before and after daemon is ignored. See the example flavors f1 and f2.

To access the instance variables there are two predefined function get/1 and set/2. Calling (get 'foo) will return the value of the variable foo while (set 'bar 42) sets the value of the variable bar to 42.

When defining a flavor the component sequence is built as it should be for the before and after daemons. There are rudimentary vanilla and property-list-mixin flavors included in the release.

You can now define many flavors in an LFE file together with other LFE modules. Compiling the flavor definition file results in the flav-flavor-core.beam file being generated. Local functions used by the flavor methods can be defined in the same file but they MUST come after the defflavor definition and before the endflavor.

From the LFE repl do (c "f1" '(to-expand return)) to see the resultant code generated by the defflavor, defmethod and endflavor macros.

In the examples directory there is a shapes sub-directory containing a number of shapes which have the shapes flavor as a component. These are defined in separate files or in the file multi.lfe which contains them all. Compiling the file compiles all the shape flavors:

> (c "examples/shapes/multi")
(#(module circle-flavor-core)
 #(module rectangle-flavor-core)
 #(module shape-flavor-core))

There is also an LFE script run-shapes.lfesh which can be run from the LFE repl. It creates some instances of the shapes rectangle and circle and sends them some messages:

> (run "examples/shapes/run-shapes.lfesh")
Drawing rectangle at (10 20), width 5, height 6
Drawing rectangle at (110 120), width 5, height 6
Drawing circle at (15 25), radius 8
Drawing circle at (115 125), radius 8
Drawing rectangle at (0 0), width 30, height 15
#(flavor-instance rectangle rectangle-flavor <0.82.0>)

The test sub-directory contains more flavors to test. For example the flavors f1 and f2 where f2 is a component of f1, and the flavors foo and its components foo-base, foo-mixin and bar-mixin.

NOTE: Using the flavors now requires the latest version of the compiler which can handle the module not being the same as the file name. However the .beam still has the same name as the module as it must.


LFE Flavor package




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