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Jest cheat sheet

I recommend Mrm and jest-codemods for single-command Jest installation and easy migration from other frameworks.

Test structure

describe('makePoniesPink', () => {
  beforeAll(() => {
    /* Runs before all tests */
  })
  afterAll(() => {
    /* Runs after all tests */
  })
  beforeEach(() => {
    /* Runs before each test */
  })
  afterEach(() => {
    /* Runs after each test */
  })

  test('make each pony pink', () => {
    const actual = fn(['Alice', 'Bob', 'Eve'])
    expect(actual).toEqual(['Pink Alice', 'Pink Bob', 'Pink Eve'])
  })
})

Matchers

Using matchers, matchers docs

Basic matchers

expect(42).toBe(42) // Strict equality (===)
expect(42).not.toBe(3) // Strict equality (!==)
expect([1, 2]).toEqual([1, 2]) // Deep equality
expect({ a: undefined, b: 2 }).toEqual({ b: 2 }) // Deep equality
expect({ a: undefined, b: 2 }).not.toStrictEqual({ b: 2 }) // Strict equality (Jest 23+)

Truthiness

// Matches anything that an if statement treats as false (not false, 0, '', null, undefined, NaN)
expect('foo').toBeTruthy()
// Matches anything that an if statement treats as true (false, 0, '', null, undefined, NaN)
expect('').toBeFalsy()
// Matches only null
expect(null).toBeNull()
// Matches only undefined
expect(undefined).toBeUndefined()
// The opposite of toBeUndefined
expect(7).toBeDefined()

Numbers

expect(2).toBeGreaterThan(1)
expect(1).toBeGreaterThanOrEqual(1)
expect(1).toBeLessThan(2)
expect(1).toBeLessThanOrEqual(1)
expect(0.2 + 0.1).toBeCloseTo(0.3, 5)

Strings

expect('long string').toMatch('str')
expect('coffee').toMatch(/ff/)
expect('pizza').not.toMatch('coffee')
expect(['pizza', 'coffee']).toEqual([expect.stringContaining('zz'), expect.stringMatching(/ff/)])

Arrays

expect(['Alice', 'Bob', 'Eve']).toHaveLength(3)
expect(['Alice', 'Bob', 'Eve']).toContain('Alice')
expect([{ a: 1 }, { a: 2 }]).toContainEqual({ a: 1 })
expect(['Alice', 'Bob', 'Eve']).toEqual(expect.arrayContaining(['Alice', 'Bob']))

Objects

expect({ a: 1 }).toHaveProperty('a')
expect({ a: 1 }).toHaveProperty('a', 1)
expect({ a: { b: 1 } }).toHaveProperty('a.b')
expect({ a: 1, b: 2 }).toMatchObject({ a: 1 })
expect({ a: 1, b: 2 }).toMatchObject({
  a: expect.any(Number),
  b: expect.any(Number)
})
expect([{ a: 1 }, { b: 2 }]).toEqual([
  expect.objectContaining({ a: expect.any(Number) }),
  expect.anything()
])

Exceptions

// const fn = () => { throw new Error('Out of cheese!') }
expect(fn).toThrow()
expect(fn).toThrow('Out of cheese')
expect(fn).toThrowErrorMatchingSnapshot()
Aliases
  • toThrowErrortoThrow

Snapshots

expect(node).toMatchSnapshot()
// Jest 23+
expect(user).toMatchSnapshot({
  date: expect.any(Date)
})
expect(user).toMatchInlineSnapshot()

Mock functions

// const fn = jest.fn()
// const fn = jest.fn().mockName('Unicorn') -- named mock, Jest 22+
expect(fn).toBeCalled() // Function was called
expect(fn).not.toBeCalled() // Function was *not* called
expect(fn).toHaveBeenCalledTimes(1) // Function was called only once
expect(fn).toBeCalledWith(arg1, arg2) // Any of calls was with these arguments
expect(fn).toHaveBeenLastCalledWith(arg1, arg2) // Last call was with these arguments
expect(fn).toHaveBeenNthCalledWith(args) // Nth call was with these arguments (Jest 23+)
expect(fn).toHaveReturnedTimes(2) // Function was returned without throwing an error (Jest 23+)
expect(fn).toHaveReturnedWith(value) // Function returned a value (Jest 23+)
expect(fn).toHaveLastReturnedWith(value) // Last function call returned a value (Jest 23+)
expect(fn).toHaveNthReturnedWith(value) // Nth function call returned a value (Jest 23+)
expect(fn.mock.calls).toEqual([['first', 'call', 'args'], ['second', 'call', 'args']]) // Multiple calls
expect(fn.mock.calls[0][0](1)).toBe(2) // fn.mock.calls[0][0] — the first argument of the first call
Aliases
  • toBeCalledtoHaveBeenCalled
  • toBeCalledWithtoHaveBeenCalledWith
  • lastCalledWithtoHaveBeenLastCalledWith
  • nthCalledWithtoHaveBeenNthCalledWith
  • toReturnTimestoHaveReturnedTimes
  • toReturnWithtoHaveReturnedWith
  • lastReturnedWith → toHaveLastReturnedWith
  • nthReturnedWith → toHaveNthReturnedWith

Misc

expect(new A()).toBeInstanceOf(A)
expect(() => {}).toEqual(expect.any(Function))
expect('pizza').toEqual(expect.anything())

Promise matchers (Jest 20+)

test('resolve to lemon', () => {
  expect.assertions(1)
  // Make sure to add a return statement
  return expect(Promise.resolve('lemon')).resolves.toBe('lemon')
  // return expect(Promise.reject('octopus')).rejects.toBeDefined();
})

Or with async/await:

test('resolve to lemon', async () => {
  expect.assertions(2)
  await expect(Promise.resolve('lemon')).resolves.toBe('lemon')
  await expect(Promise.resolve('lemon')).resolves.not.toBe('octopus')
})

resolves docs

Async tests

See more examples in Jest docs.

It’s a good practice to specify a number of expected assertions in async tests, so the test will fail if your assertions weren’t called at all.

test('async test', () => {
  expect.assertions(3) // Exactly three assertions are called during a test
  // OR
  expect.hasAssertions() // At least one assertion is called during a test

  // Your async tests
})

async/await

test('async test', async () => {
  expect.assertions(1)
  const result = await runAsyncOperation()
  expect(result).toBe(true)
})

Promises

Return a Promise from your test:

test('async test', () => {
  expect.assertions(1)
  return runAsyncOperation().then(result => {
    expect(result).toBe(true)
  })
})

done() callback

Wrap your assertions in try/catch block, otherwise Jest will ignore failures:

test('async test', done => {
  expect.assertions(1)
  runAsyncOperation()
  setTimeout(() => {
    try {
      const result = getAsyncOperationResult()
      expect(result).toBe(true)
      done()
    } catch (err) {
      done.fail(err)
    }
  })
})

Mocks

Mock functions

test('call the callback', () => {
  const callback = jest.fn()
  fn(callback)
  expect(callback).toBeCalled()
  expect(callback.mock.calls[0][1].baz).toBe('pizza') // Second argument of the first call
})

You can also use snapshots:

test('call the callback', () => {
  const callback = jest.fn().mockName('Unicorn') // mockName is available in Jest 22+
  fn(callback)
  expect(callback).toMatchSnapshot()
  // ->
  // [MockFunction Unicorn] {
  //   "calls": Array [
  // ...
})

And pass an implementation to jest.fn function:

const callback = jest.fn(() => true)

Mock functions docs

Mock modules using jest.mock method

jest.mock('lodash/memoize', () => a => a) // The original lodash/memoize should exist
jest.mock('lodash/memoize', () => a => a, { virtual: true }) // The original lodash/memoize isn’t required

jest.mock docs

Note: When using babel-jest, calls to jest.mock will automatically be hoisted to the top of the code block. Use jest.doMock if you want to explicitly avoid this behavior.

Mock modules using a mock file

  1. Create a file like __mocks__/lodash/memoize.js:

    module.exports = a => a
  2. Add to your test:

    jest.mock('lodash/memoize')

Note: When using babel-jest, calls to jest.mock will automatically be hoisted to the top of the code block. Use jest.doMock if you want to explicitly avoid this behavior.

Manual mocks docs

Mock object methods

const spy = jest.spyOn(ajax, 'request').mockImplementation(() => Promise.resolve({ success: true }))
expect(spy).toHaveBeenCalled()
spy.mockRestore()

Mock getters and setters (Jest 22.1.0+)

const location = {}
const getTitle = jest.spyOn(location, 'title', 'get').mockImplementation(() => 'pizza')
const setTitle = jest.spyOn(location, 'title', 'set').mockImplementation(() => {})

Mock getters and setters

const getTitle = jest.fn(() => 'pizza')
const setTitle = jest.fn()
const location = {}
Object.defineProperty(location, 'title', {
  get: getTitle,
  set: setTitle
})

Clearing and restoring mocks

For one mock:

fn.mockClear() // Clears mock usage date (fn.mock.calls, fn.mock.instances)
fn.mockReset() // Clears and removes any mocked return values or implementations
fn.mockRestore() // Resets and restores the initial implementation

Note: mockRestore works only with mocks created by jest.spyOn.

For all mocks:

jest.clearAllMocks()
jest.resetAllMocks()
jest.restoreAllMocks()

Accessing the original module when using mocks

jest.mock('fs')
const fs = require('fs') // Mocked module
const fs = require.requireActual('fs') // Original module

Data-driven tests (Jest 23+)

Run the same test with different data:

test.each([[1, 1, 2], [1, 2, 3], [2, 1, 3]])('.add(%s, %s)', (a, b, expected) => {
  expect(a + b).toBe(expected)
})

Or the same using template literals:

test.each`
  a    | b    | expected
  ${1} | ${1} | ${2}
  ${1} | ${2} | ${3}
  ${2} | ${1} | ${3}
`('returns $expected when $a is added $b', ({ a, b, expected }) => {
  expect(a + b).toBe(expected)
})

test.each() docs

Skipping tests

Don’t run these tests:

describe.skip('makePoniesPink'...
tests.skip('make each pony pink'...

Run only these tests:

describe.only('makePoniesPink'...
tests.only('make each pony pink'...

Testing modules with side effects

Node.js and Jest will cache modules you require. To test modules with side effects you’ll need to reset the module registry between tests:

const modulePath = '../module-to-test'

afterEach(() => {
  jest.resetModules()
})

test('first test', () => {
  // Prepare conditions for the first test
  const result = require(modulePath)
  expect(result).toMatchSnapshot()
})

test('second text', () => {
  // Prepare conditions for the second test
  const fn = () => require(modulePath)
  expect(fn).toThrow()
})

Usage with Babel and TypeScript

Add babel-jest or ts-jest. Check their docs for installation instructions.

Resources


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Contributing

Improvements are welcome! Open an issue or send a pull request.

Author and license

Artem Sapegin, a frontend developer at Wayfair and the creator of React Styleguidist. I also write about frontend at my blog.

CC0 1.0 Universal license, see the included License.md file.