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SLIP-0048 : Deterministic Key Hierarchy for Graphene-based Networks #49

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xeroc opened this Issue Oct 19, 2016 · 5 comments

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xeroc commented Oct 19, 2016

SLIP-0048 : Deterministic Key Hierarchy for Graphene-based Networks

Number:  SLIP-0048
Title:   Deterministic key hierarchy for Graphene-based networks
Type:    Informational
Status:  Draft
Authors: Fabian Schuh <Fabian@chainsquad.com>
Created: 2016-10-18

Abstract

This SLIP defines the logical hierarchy for deterministic wallets using Graphene technology.

Motivation

The key derivation structure defined in BIP-0044/SLIP-0044 does not properly represent the possibilities available to Graphene based networks. For this reason, we defined this SLIP and provide a standard for hierarchies on those networks.

Account Permissions for Graphene

Graphene-based blockchains (such as BitShares, Steem, Peerplays, MUSE, etc.) do not use the UTXO model. Instead, there are accounts registered on the blockchains that have a (modifiable) permission scheme attached to each of them. The actual permissions depend on the use case of the network but most of them constitute an owner and an active permission among others. Usually, the only difference between owner and active permission is that the owner can change the owner permission, while the active cannot, and thus represents some kind of cold storage or super-admin permissions.

Technically, each permission can consist of multiple (weighted) keys or other accounts to facilitate hierarchical weighted permissions on the blockchain.

Wallets are supposed to have at least one key installed that is associated with the account's owner permission (i.e. the owner key) to allow recovery.

The memo key is different in that it is not a permissions but a single key that is assigned to an account. This key is used for private (encrypted) messaging to derive a shared secret between sender and receiver.

Deterministic Key Hierarchy

m / purpose' / network' / account-index' / permission'

Each level has a special meaning, described in the chapters below. Apostrophe in the path indicates that BIP32 hardened derivation is used.

Purpose

Purpose is a constant set to 48' (or 0x80000030) following the BIP43 recommendation. It indicates that the subtree of this node is used according to this specification.

Hardened derivation is used at this level.

Network

One master node (seed) can be used for unlimited number of independent keys which can be used in different networks such as BitShares, Steem, PeerPlays and others. However, sharing the same space for various networks has some disadvantages.

This level creates a separate subtree for every network, avoiding reusing addresses across networks and improving privacy issues.

networkis a constant, set for each network. Developers may ask for registering unused number for their project.

The list of already allocated networks is in the chapter "Registered networks" below.

Hardened derivation is used at this level.

Account-Index

Since hierarchical key derivation can be used to obtain an infinite amount of keys, we allow users to store keys for an infinite amount of accounts by using account indices. This means that account-index 0, derives a subkey to obtain multiple keys associated with account A, while account-index 2 does the same for account B. Note that the public keys cannot be associated with each other unless a common parent node in the tree is published.

Software needs to discover all used accounts after importing the seed from an external source. Such an algorithm is described in "Account discovery" chapter.

Thus, software should prevent a update of an account with a specific key (see below) if a previous key does not have an account associated with it.

Permission

Each account can be associated with its own keys. To distinguish different permissions, a permissions id is used to obtain a specific sub tree. Since each Graphene-based network can have it's own specific set of permissions, the actually used permission indices are provided in the section "Registered networks", below.

Hardened derivation is used at this level.

Account discovery

When the master seed is imported from an external source the software should start to discover the accounts in the following manner (for a specific permission, e.g. active):

  • derive the first account's node (index = 0)
  • derive the external chain node of this account
  • scan addresses of the external chain; respect the gap limit described below
  • if the public key is not associated with any account, stop discovery
  • if there is an account associated with this key, increase the account index and go to step 1

This algorithm is successful because software should disallow creation of new accounts if previous one has no associated account.

Public Key gap limit

Public Key gap limit is currently set to 5. If the software hits 5 unused public keys in a row, it expects there are no used accounts beyond this point and stops searching the public key chain.

Wallet software should allow the advanced user to manually search beyond the gap limit of 5.

Account Setup Procedure

This paragraph describes how to onboard an existing account into this standard, e.g. for hardware wallets. Later it will be possible to create (and register) new accounts, given a funded account is already available through this specifications (account creation costs a fee on most networks).

The procedure to onboard an account involves two transactions and works as follows:

  1. The user requests an unused public key from the master (seed) node according to the specifications
  2. The obtained public key is added to the existing account's owner permission (full-weight)
  3. This key is used for an account_update operation in order to replace the existing permissions for sole access to the account by keys following this specification.

The advantages of this procedure are:

  • This algorithm proves that it has the correct private key to obtain owner permissions since this key is required to sign the account_update operation.
  • Optionally, alternative keys to specific operations (e.g. posting permissions on Steem) can be added that do not follow the above specification, to allow for multi-signature schemes
  • Wallets following this specification can be used solely as coldstorage for the owner key while the active key could be held outside the wallet

Disadvantages are:

  • The user needs to be educated about the permissions, or
  • a simplified account permissions setup scheme needs to be developed

Registered networks

Index Network Permissions
0x00000000 Steem 0x0: owner, 0x1: active, 0x3: memo, 0x4: posting
0x00000001 BitShares 0x0: owner, 0x1: active, 0x3: memo
0x00000002 PeerPlays 0x0: owner, 0x1: active, 0x3: memo
0x00000003 Muse 0x0: owner, 0x1: active, 0x3: memo

Examples

Network Account-index Permissions Path
Steem first active m / 48' / 0' / 0' / 1'
BitShares forth owner m / 48' / 1' / 3' / 0'

EDITs

  • removed Trezor in favor of Wallet
  • changed purpose to 48
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dangershony commented Oct 19, 2016

Hi if you want it as a standard I think you should remove any implementation references like mentioning Trezor, or set it under an "examples" section.

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xeroc commented Oct 19, 2016

Hi if you want it as a standard I think you should remove any implementation references like mentioning Trezor, or set it under an "examples" section.

Good point. I had my difficulties seeing this document as an official standard. Mostly because it is a customized BIP44 specification that is not compatible with bitcoin specifications. That's why for me this would rather be a Trezor-specific standard as most of those standards defined in this repository.

Anyway, I think you are right that trezor shouldn't be mentioned here .. I will update the issue ..

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prusnak commented Oct 19, 2016

m / 45' is already used by https://github.com/bitcoin/bips/blob/master/bip-0045.mediawiki

I suggest picking a different constant. Also please use the name SLIP-0XXX where XXX is the chosen constant.

About being too specific - I think replacing the word "Trezor" with the word "wallet" is fine.

@xeroc xeroc changed the title SLIP-1000 : Deterministic Key Hierarchy for Graphene-based Networks SLIP-0048 : Deterministic Key Hierarchy for Graphene-based Networks Oct 19, 2016

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xeroc commented Oct 19, 2016

m / 45' is already used by https://github.com/bitcoin/bips/blob/master/bip-0045.mediawiki
I suggest picking a different constant. Also please use the name SLIP-0XXX where XXX is the chosen constant.

Thanks for highlighting this. I picked 48

@xeroc xeroc referenced this issue Oct 19, 2016

Closed

Steem integration #79

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xeroc commented Oct 19, 2016

x-reference to pr: #50

@xeroc xeroc closed this Oct 19, 2016

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