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Hacking Servo - Quickstart

This guide covers the basic things one needs to know to start hacking Servo. It doesn't cover how Servo works (see the documentation section for that), but describes how to setup your environment to compile, run, and debug Servo. For information on the Github Workflow and some helpful Git Tips, see the Wiki.

Building Servo

Building Servo is quite easy. Install the prerequisites described in the README file, then type:

./mach build -d

Note: on Mac, you might run into an SSL issue while compiling. You'll find a solution to this problem here.

The -d option means "debug build". You can also build with the -r option which means "release build". Building with -d will allow you to use a debugger (lldb). A -r build is more performant. Release builds are slower to build.

You can use and build a release build and a debug build in parallel.

Running Servo

The servo binary is located in target/debug/servo (or target/release/servo). You can directly run this binary, but we recommend using ./mach instead:

./mach run -d -- http://github.com

… is equivalent to:

./target/debug/servo http://github.com

If you build with -d, run with -d. If you build with -r, run with -r.

./mach

mach is a python utility that does plenty of things to make our life easier (build, run, run tests, update dependencies… see ./mach --help). Beside editing files and git commands, everything else is done via mach.

./mach run -d [mach options] -- [servo options]

The -- separates mach options from servo options. This is not required, but we recommend it. mach and servo have some options with the same name (--help, --debug), so the -- makes it clear where options apply.

Mach and Servo options

This guide only covers the most important options. Be sure to look at all the available mach commands and the servo options:

./mach --help         # mach options
./mach run -- --help  # servo options

Some basic Rust

Even if you have never seen any Rust code, it's not too hard to read Servo's code. But there are some basics things one must know:

This won't be enough to do any serious work at first, but if you want to navigate the code and fix basic bugs, that should do it. It's a good starting point, and as you dig into Servo source code, you'll learn more.

For more exhaustive documentation:

Cargo and Crates

A Rust library is called a crate. Servo uses plenty of crates. These crates are dependencies. They are listed in files called Cargo.toml. Servo is split into components and ports (see components and ports directories). Each has its own dependencies, and each has its own Cargo.toml file.

Cargo.toml files list the dependencies. You can edit this file.

For example, components/net_traits/Cargo.toml includes:

 [dependencies.stb_image]
 git = "https://github.com/servo/rust-stb-image"

But because rust-stb-image API might change over time, it's not safe to compile against the HEAD of rust-stb-image. A Cargo.lock file is a snapshot of a Cargo.toml file which includes a reference to an exact revision, ensuring everybody is always compiling with the same configuration:

[[package]]
name = "stb_image"
source = "git+https://github.com/servo/rust-stb-image#f4c5380cd586bfe16326e05e2518aa044397894b"

This file should not be edited by hand. In a normal Rust project, to update the git revision, you would use cargo update -p stb_image, but in Servo, use ./mach cargo-update -p stb_image. Other arguments to cargo are also understood, e.g. use --precise '0.2.3' to update that crate to version 0.2.3.

See Cargo's documentation about Cargo.toml and Cargo.lock files.

Working on a Crate

As explained above, Servo depends on a lot of libraries, which makes it very modular. While working on a bug in Servo, you'll often end up in one of its dependencies. You will then want to compile your own version of the dependency (and maybe compiling against the HEAD of the library will fix the issue!).

For example, I'm trying to bring some cocoa events to Servo. The Servo window on Desktop is constructed with a library named Glutin. Glutin itself depends on a cocoa library named cocoa-rs. When building Servo, magically, all these dependencies are downloaded and built for you. But because I want to work on this cocoa event feature, I want Servo to use my own version of glutin and cocoa-rs.

This is how my projects are laid out:

~/my-projects/servo/
~/my-projects/mozjs/

Both folder are git repositories.

To make it so that servo uses ~/my-projects/mozjs/, first ascertain which version of the crate Servo is using and whether it is a git dependency or one from crates.io.

Both information can be found using, in this example, /mach cargo pkgid mozjs_sys(mozjs_sys is the actual crate name, which doesn't necessarily match the repo folder name).

If the output is in the format https://github.com/servo/mozjs#mozjs_sys:0.0.0, you are dealing with a git dependency and you will have to edit the ~/my-projects/servo/Cargo.toml file and add at the bottom:

[replace]
"https://github.com/servo/mozjs#mozjs_sys:0.0.0" = { path = '../mozjs' }

If the output is in the format https://github.com/rust-lang/crates.io-index#mozjs_sys#0.0.0, you are dealing with a crates.io dependency and you will have to edit the ~/my-projects/servo/Cargo.toml in the following way:

[replace]
"mozjs_sys:0.0.0" = { path = '../mozjs' }

Both will tell any cargo project to not use the online version of the dependency, but your local clone.

For more details about overriding dependencies, see Cargo's documentation.

Debugging

Logging:

Before starting the debugger right away, you might want to get some information about what's happening, how, and when. Luckily, Servo comes with plenty of logs that will help us. Type these 2 commands:

./mach run -d -- --help
./mach run -d -- --debug help

A typical command might be:

./mach run -d -- -i -y 1 -t 1 --debug dump-layer-tree /tmp/a.html

… to avoid using too many threads and make things easier to understand.

On OSX, you can add some Cocoa-specific debug options:

./mach run -d -- /tmp/a.html -- -NSShowAllViews YES

You can also enable some extra logging (warning: verbose!):

RUST_LOG="debug" ./mach run -d -- /tmp/a.html

Using RUST_LOG="debug" is usually the very first thing you might want to do if you have no idea what to look for. Because this is very verbose, you can combine these with ts (moreutils package (apt-get, brew)) to add timestamps and tee to save the logs (while keeping them in the console):

RUST_LOG="debug" ./mach run -d -- -i -y 1 -t 1  /tmp/a.html 2>&1 | ts -s "%.S: " | tee /tmp/log.txt

You can filter by crate or module, for example RUST_LOG="layout::inline=debug" ./mach run …. Check the env_logger documentation for more details.

Use RUST_BACKTRACE=1 to dump the backtrace when Servo panics.

println!()

You will want to add your own logs. Luckily, many structures implement the fmt::Debug trait, so adding:

println!("foobar: {:?}", foobar)

usually just works. If it doesn't, maybe some of foobar's properties don't implement the right trait.

Debugger

To run the debugger:

./mach run -d --debug -- -y 1 -t 1 /tmp/a.html

This will start lldb on Mac, and gdb on Linux.

From here, use:

(lldb) b a_servo_function # add a breakpoint
(lldb) run # run until breakpoint is reached
(lldb) bt # see backtrace
(lldb) frame n # choose the stack frame from the number in the bt
(lldb) thread list
(lldb) next / step / …
(lldb) print varname

And to search for a function's full name/regex:

(lldb) image lookup -r -n <name> #lldb
(gdb) info functions <name> #gdb

See this lldb tutorial and this gdb tutorial.

To inspect variables and you are new with lldb, we recommend using the gui mode (use left/right to expand variables):

(lldb) gui
┌──<Variables>───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐
│ ◆─(&mut gfx::paint_task::PaintTask<Box<CompositorProxy>>) self = 0x000070000163a5b0    │
│ ├─◆─(msg::constellation_msg::PipelineId) id                                            │
│ ├─◆─(url::Url) _url                                                                    │
│ │ ├─◆─(collections::string::String) scheme                                             │
│ │ │ └─◆─(collections::vec::Vec<u8>) vec                                                │
│ │ ├─◆─(url::SchemeData) scheme_data                                                    │
│ │ ├─◆─(core::option::Option<collections::string::String>) query                        │
│ │ └─◆─(core::option::Option<collections::string::String>) fragment                     │
│ ├─◆─(std::sync::mpsc::Receiver<gfx::paint_task::LayoutToPaintMsg>) layout_to_paint_port│
│ ├─◆─(std::sync::mpsc::Receiver<gfx::paint_task::ChromeToPaintMsg>) chrome_to_paint_port│
└────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘

If lldb crashes on certain lines involving the profile() function, it's not just you. Comment out the profiling code, and only keep the inner function, and that should do it.

Tests

This is boring. But your PR won't get accepted without a test. Tests are located in the tests directory. You'll see that there are a lot of files in there, so finding the proper location for your test is not always obvious.

First, look at the "Testing" section in ./mach --help to understand the different test categories. You'll also find some update-* commands. It's used to update the list of expected results.

To run a test:

./mach test-wpt tests/wpt/yourtest

Updating a test:

In some cases, extensive tests for the feature you're working on already exist under tests/wpt:

  • Make a release build
  • run ./mach test-wpt --release --log-raw=/path/to/some/logfile
  • run update-wpt on it

This may create a new commit with changes to expectation ini files. If there are lots of changes, it's likely that your feature had tests in wpt already.

Include this commit in your pull request.

Add a new test:

If you need to create a new test file, it should be located in tests/wpt/mozilla/tests or in tests/wpt/web-platform-tests if it's something that doesn't depend on servo-only features. You'll then need to update the list of tests and the list of expected results:

./mach test-wpt --manifest-update

Debugging a test

See the debugging guide to get started in how to debug Servo.

Documentation:

Ask questions

IRC

IRC channels (irc.mozilla.org):

  • #servo
  • #rust
  • #cargo

Mailing list

https://lists.mozilla.org/listinfo/dev-servo