JSDoc Style Guide (originally made for Kimono Labs--this one is a community driven fork)
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README.md

JSDoc-Style-Guide

Forked from the KimonoLabs JS Doc Style Guide

This guide was originally created by Shri Ganeshram as an internal style guide for Kimono Labs and is licensed under the MIT License. You are encouraged to fork this repository and make adjustments according to your preferences. It is currently a work in progress.

You can learn more about JSDoc here.

Table of Contents

Intro

This style guide intends to use the most minimal set of JSDoc tags while maintaining a good standard of documentation for even the largest of codebases.

JSDoc enables developers to generate documentation from comments within a Javascript codebase. It also forces a commenting style throughout a codebase as an added benefit.

All JSDoc comments are of the forms:

Single line:

/** jsdoc comment here */

Multiple lines:

/** 
 *  jsdoc comment here
 *  and here
 *  and even here
 */

You can mix normal comments in with JSDoc comments throughout a codebase. At Kimono, we use the double slash // commenting style for non-JSDoc comments. JSDoc comments are used for documentation whereas the // commenting style is leveraged for detail-oriented notes.

JSDoc leverages tags preceeded with the @ symbol in order to keep track of relationships within the comments. For example one can describe a function like this:

/**
 * Takes 2 numbers and returns their sum.
 * @param   {number} a the first number
 * @param   {number} b the second number
 *
 * @returns {number} the sum of a and b
 */
function addNumbers(a, b) {
  return a + b;
}

Notice how different types of tags are separated by an empty comment line. This helps with the readability of JSDoc tags. Note, the untagged description line isn't separated by an empty line from the first tag.

The first * of each line is vertically aligned. The type, parameter name, and descriptions are vertically aligned as well.

In the following section, we'll go over how to leverage and group tags throughout a javascript code base.

Installation

Prerequisite: Install and setup npm and gulp.

Open up your shell in your project's root directory.

Install the most stable version of JSDoc and save into your package.json file using the following command:

npm install git+git+https://github.com/jsdoc3/jsdoc.git -s

Also install and add gulp-shell to your package.json file:

npm install gulp-shell -s

Create a file named conf.json with the following inside of it in your main directory:

{
    "tags": {
        "allowUnknownTags": true
    },
    "source": {
        "include": ["lib"],
        "exclude": [],
        "includePattern": ".+\\.js(doc)?$",
        "excludePattern": "(^|\\/|\\\\)_"
    },
    "plugins": [],
    "templates": {
        "cleverLinks": false,
        "monospaceLinks": false
    },
    "opts": {
        "recurse": true,
        "private": true
    }
}

In the include array, add the relative paths to any folders or files you would like JSDoc to create documentation for. Here, recurse is set to true, so adding a folder will add all files within the folder with the extensions ".js" or ".jsdoc".

You can also exclude folders and files by adding their relative paths to the exclude array.

Now, open your gulpfile (usally gulpfile.js) and add gulp and gulp-shell as requirements. Also, add a taskto recompile the JSDocs:

var gulp = require('gulp');
var shell = require('gulp-shell');

gulp.task('createDocs', shell.task([
  'rm -rf out',
  './node_modules/.bin/jsdoc -c conf.json'
]));

You can now compile the JSDoc documents by opening up the project folder and running the createDocs command with gulp:

gulp createDocs

The "out" folder in the project directory will now have the generated docs. Open up the index.html file in the "out" folder to see the generated docs.

It's good practice to add the "createDocs" command to any watch tasks you may have setup in gulp. Also, remember to add the "out" folder to your .gitignore if you would not like to check in the docs to your repo.

Files

Document the top of files using the following style:

/** 
 *  @fileOverview Write what's going on in the file here.
 *
 *  @author       Shri Ganeshram
 *  @author       Jack Hanford
 *
 *  @requires     NPM:npm_module_1
 *  @requires     BOWER:bower_module_1
 *  @requires     EXTERNAL:@link{http://url.com module_name}
 *  @requires     path/to/file:your_module_2
 */

@fileOverview is followed by a simple description of the contents of the file. If it's too difficult to fit a description within a line or two, it probably means the file needs to be broken into multiple files.

@author is followed by the name of an author. To add multiple authors, use @author multiple times on separate lines as seen above.

@requires uses the source followed by the module name. Valid sources include (NPM, BOWER, EXTERNAL, and paths):

NPM -- used for NPM modules, followed by :module_name

BOWER -- used for Bower modules, followed by :module_name

EXTERNAL -- used for External Links, followed by the @link tag with a url to the module followed by its name in curly braces, e.g. @link{https://github.com/twbs/bootstrap Bootstrap}

paths -- used for modules within the codebase, use a path to the module from the root directory of the code base to the module file followed by :module_name e.g. /toolbar/api_panel.js:API Panel

Namespaces

In javascript, you can simulate a namespace using a javascript object.

Use the @namespace tag to label a namespace:

/**
 *  Description of namespace here.
 *  @namespace
 */
var Utils = {
  getUserName: function...
};

JSDoc will take care of the rest, creating a namespace named Utils with member function getUserName.

You can add member functions to a namespace if they are located outside of the namespace definition using @memberOf:

/**
 * Takes 2 numbers and returns their sum.
 * @memberOf Utils
 *
 * @param   {number} a the first number
 * @param   {number} b the second number
 *
 * @returns {number} the sum of a and b
 */
function addNumbers(a, b) {
  return a + b;
}

Utils.addNumbers = addNumbers;

Just follow the @memberOf tag with the name of the namespace the function is a member of.

Modules

Modules can be documented using the @module tag in JSDoc:

/**
 * description of module here
 * @module ModuleName
 */

module.exports = new(function () {
...

JSDoc is smart about figuring out that the member functions of module.exports belong to the module.

To add a private method or variable to a module, use the @member tag.

/** @member MemberName */

For functions, you'll need to add an @function tag as well.

/** 
 * @member MemberName 
 * @function
 */

Make sure the function tag comes after the member tag!

If for some reason JSDoc doesn't pick up the module, you can use the @exports tag:

/** @exports ModuleName */

Functions

Functions use the following comment style in JSDoc:

/**
 * Takes 2 numbers and returns their sum.
 * @param   {number} a     the first number
 * @param   {number} b     the second number
 * @param   {number} [c=0] the optional third number
 *
 * @returns {number} the sum of a and b
 */
function addNumbers(a, b, c) {
  if (typeof c === "undefined") {
    c = 0;
  }
  return a + b + c;
}

The first line in the comment is a succinct description of what the function does.

The @param tag is used to define parameters the function takes as input. In this case the function takes 3 parameters, a, b, and c.

The structure of the param tag for a required parameter is:

 *  @param {type} paramname param description

'type' is the javascript type of the parameter which can take values of string, number, boolean, or Class, where Class represents the type of a user defined class.

'paramname' is the name of the parameter.

'param description' is a description of what the parameter represents.

The structure of an optional parameter is the same with the paramname in square brackets:

 *  @param {type} [paramname] param description

The structure of an optional parameter with a default value is the same as an optional parameter's with an = followed by the default value for the param:

 *  @param {type} [paramname=default_value] param description

Optional tags @throws and @constructor can be used as well.

@throws defines a possible exception:

 *  @throws {exceptionName}

@constructor is used to label functions that are class constructors:

*  @constructor

Classes

Classes are defined similarly to functions with different tags.

/**
 * A class to represent user's cars.
 * @class
 *
 * @constructor
 *
 * @property licensePlate the car's license plate number
 * @property vehicleType  the type of car
 */
function Car(licensePlate) {
  this.licensePlate = licensePlate;
  this.vehicleType = "sedan";
}

For classes, we use the first line to provide a description of the class.

The @class tag is used to label the function as a class.

The @constructor tag is used to label the function as a constructor for the class.

The @property tag is used to define class properties and is followed by the property name and the description of the property.

Variables and Constants

Variables can be documented using JSDoc. For example:

/**
 * The current environment we're running in.
 * @type {string}
 */
 var currentEnvironment = getEnvironment();

The comment consists of a description in the first line followed by a @type tag in the second line.

Constants can be documented the same way as variables except with a @constant tag:

/**
 * The environment we're running in.
 * @constant
 *
 * @type {string}
 */
 var ENVIRONMENT = "production";

Links

External links can be used in various comments by using the @link tag:

/** Stolen from {http://stackoverflow.com/questions/11919065/sort-an-array-by-the-levenshtein-distance-with-best-performance-in-javascript Stackoverflow Levenshtein Distance}*/

The @link tag is followed by the url and its caption in curly braces.

Examples

To include an example in the code base, use the @example tag:

/**
 * Takes 2 numbers and returns their sum.
 * @example 
 * var a = 5,
 *     b = 6;
 *
 * var sum = addNumbers(5, 6); // sum is set to 11
 *
 * @param   {number} a the first number
 * @param   {number} b the second number
 *
 * @returns {number} the sum of a and b
 */
function addNumbers(a, b) {
  return a + b;
}

Use the @example tag within the comment block used to define a function, class, or constructor.

Tips

Sublime Text users, check out DocBlockr in Package Control for autocomplete of JSDoc comments.