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WiFi Duck

WiFi Duck Logo

👉 Visit for an improved documentation.

Want to learn more about BadUSBs? Check out our online course:


This open-source project aims to provide a user-friendly tool to learn about keystroke injection attacks and 'BadUSBs'.

By emulating a USB keyboard, tools like this can gain full access to any computer with a USB port in a matter of seconds!
This is made possible by the fact that keyboards are trusted by computers. You can have full control over a computer with just a keyboard.
A BadUSB pretends to be a keyboard to the computer to send keystrokes. But unlike a human, it can type hundreds of characters per second. By using a simple scripting language, it's easy to make BadUSBs type whatever you want.

With the WiFi Duck, you can simply connect via WiFi to manage all scripts from within a web interface. This means that, unlike other BadUSBs, you don't need to install an app, log in, compile or copy scripts to an SD card.


WiFi Duck Video Thumbnail
Watch the full video

  1. Plug in your WiFi Duck
  2. Connect to the WiFi network wifiduck with the password wifiduck
  3. Open a browser and visit
  4. Write, save and run your first Ducky Script
  5. [Recommended] Open Settings (top right corner) and update SSID and password

Help I forgot the password: Flash the ESP8266, but make sure that you select Erase Flash: Sketch + WiFi Settings under Tools in the Arduino IDE.

If you have further questions, check out the issue section.

Support us

Hey, do you like this kind of project?
It took a huge amount of effort to create!

To make sure we can keep working on free and open-source projects like this,
please consider becoming a ❤️ Sponsor or support us via ☕ Ko-fi.

Visit to learn more about us. 🐔

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Buy Hardware

Malduino W

Malduino W
Go to

A nicely encased, inconspicuous looking BadUSB by Maltronics.
Having USB-A and USB-C makes it compatible with all kind of devices.
It comes flashed with the WiFi Duck firmware and works plug and play.
ℹ️ Documentation can be found here


Got to

A custom designed development board which comes preflashed with this software by Travis Lin.

You can update the ESP8266 over the air and flash the Atmega32u4 via Arduino, all while enclosed in its neat little case.
📺 Watch the How to Update Tutorial here.

If you wish to develop your own software or help improve this one, the 8-bit DIP-switch makes it easy for you to access the Atmega32u4 or ESP8266 independently. For more info see Flash Software.

Mode Atmega32u4 ESP8266 DIP-switch Image
Default Operating Mode USB On 10101101 dstike wifi duck work mode
Atmega32u4 Flash Mode USB Off 10101010 dstike wifi duck atmega mode
ESP8266 Flash Mode Off USB 01011101 dstike wifi duck esp8266 mode

DIY Hardware

WiFi Duck Hardware Tutorial Video Thumbnail
Watch the video tutorial

To build a WiFi Duck yourself, you need the following hardware:

  • An Atmega32u4 development board (see the list below)
  • An ESP8266 or ESP8285 development board (see the list below)
  • Optional: A single Neopixel (WS2812b) or Dotstar (APA102) LED

To flash the microcontrollers you need a computer and USB cable.

If you're a beginner, it's recommended you wire everything together on a breadboard first!
In this case, you'd also need a breadboard with a couple of jumper wires.

If you wish to solder everything together into a small gadget, you also need soldering equipment.

You can use any Atmega32u4 or ESP8266 based development board, but if you have no idea where to start, here's a list.
⚠️ Keep in mind that you will need both microcontrollers!
The Atmega32u4 to act as USB keyboard, and the ESP8266 for WiFi.

Atmega32u4 Development Boards

  • Arduino Leonardo
  • Arduino Micro
  • Sparkfun Pro Micro
  • CJMCU Beetle
  • SS Micro

‼️ DIGISPARK or other ATTINY85 based development boards, are NOT supported! ‼️

ESP8266 Development Boards

  • NodeMCU 1.0 (ESP-12E Module)
  • LOLIN(WEMOS) D1 Mini
  • LOLIN(WEMOS) D1 Mini Pro
  • LOLIN(WEMOS) D1 Mini Lite


A map of pins that need to be connected.

ESP8266 Atmega32u4
D1 alias GPIO 5 3 alias SCL
D2 alias GPIO 4 2 alias SDA

Ideally, you want the Atmega32u4 to power the ESP8266, so it can run on one USB connection, instead of having to always plug in both.
To share power between both chips, you need a voltage regulator that takes 5V and turns it into 3.3V.
That's because USB runs on 5V, but the ESP8266 only takes 3.3V. Luckily most development boards have such a regulator on board.
DO NOT CONNECT ESP8266 VCC to the ATMEGA32u4 VCC, it will kill the ESP826. Instead look for the 5V or VIN pin on your dev board, as those will be connected to the regulator.

ESP8266 Dev Board Atmega32u4
5V or VIN RAW, 5V or VIN

To add a Neopixel (WS2812b) LED:

Atmega32u4 Neopixel LED
7* DI alias Data, In
5V alias VCC 5V alias VCC

* The Data pin can be changed later on in the software, pin 7 is just an example.

Example of a DIY build using a Wemos d1 mini, a Pro Micro and a Neopixel LED


To make the DIY process easier, I designed a little PCB.

You solder a Pro Micro board on one side and a Wemos d1 mini or NodeMCU board (depending on the PCB) on the other side.
That's it. You don't even have to solder all pins, just the ones mentioned in Connections, excluding the LED.

PCB Layout

Soldered PCBs

Design Files:

You can also order them on OSHPark:

Flash Software

WiFi Duck Hardware Tutorial Video Thumbnail
Watch the video tutorial

  1. Download and install the Arduino IDE.
  2. Start the Arduino IDE, go to File > Preferences.
  3. At Additional Board Manager ULRs enter You can add multiple URLs, separating them with commas.
  4. Go to Tools > Board > Board Manager, search for wifi duck and install WiFi Duck AVR Boards and WiFi Duck ESP8266 Boards.
  5. Download and extract this repository or git clone it.

If you can't find the COM port of ESP8266 board, then you're probably missing the right drivers. Here are links to drivers of the 2 most used UART chips on ESP8266 development boards:

Flash Atmega32u4

  1. Open atmegaduck/atmega_duck.ino with the Arduino IDE.
  2. Under Tools > Board in the WiFi Duck AVR section, select your board; for example, Sparkfun Pro Micro.
  3. Connect the Atmega32u4 board via USB and select its port under Tools > Port.
  4. Optional: Under Tools you can enable the LED and set its pin. You can also change the USB ID to make it appear as a certain type of keyboard.
  5. Press Upload.

Flash ESP8266

  1. Open esp_duck/esp_duck.ino with the Arduino IDE.
  2. Under Tools > Board in the WiFi Duck ESP8266 section, select your board. For example NodeMCU 1.0 (ESP-12E Module).
  3. Connect the ESP8266 board via USB and select its port under Tools > Port.
  4. Press Upload.

Pro Tip: If the ESP8266 is already running this software and you just want to update it, you don't have to connect it via USB. You can update it over the air! Simply connect to the wifiduck network (default password is wifiduck).
Then in Arduino at Tools > Port you should now see a network port. Select it and press Upload.

Note: After the initial flashing, the ESP8266 has to format its memory, so it might take a minute until it's fully ready.

If you connected the RGB LED:

  • Blue LED = Connection working
  • Green LED = Device ready

Unbrick Atmega32u4

If you flashed your Atmega32u4 board with the wrong bootloader, it will no longer appear in the port selection after you connect it.
To solve this, you need to:

  1. Connect the reset pin RST to ground GND. Preferably with a jumper wires, because you need to be able to disconnect it quickly.
  2. Open a sketch, atmegaduck/atmega_duck.ino or an empty sketch.
    Make sure to have the correct board selected under Tools > Board!
  3. Connect the board with the wire still connected.
  4. Press Upload and as soon as you see Compiling... turn to Uploading..., disconnect the wire.

Now it should flash the sketch and the correct bootloader.



Keys are separated by a single space.
Everything written in a single line gets pressed and released at the same time.
To write text, use the STRING function.
It's compatible to Ducky Script, which was developed by the wonderful people at Hak5.

Example Explanation
Type the Windows key and then the r key
WINDOWS r Press the Windows key and the r key simultaneously


Command Example Description
REM REM Hello World! Comment
DEFAULTDELAY or DEFAULT_DELAY DEFAULTDELAY 200 Time in ms between every command
DELAY DELAY 1000 Delay in ms
STRING STRING Hello World! Types the following string
REPEAT or REPLAY REPEAT 3 Repeats the last command n times
LOCALE LOCALE DE Sets the keyboard layout. List
KEYCODE KEYCODE 0x02 0x04 Types a specific key code (modifier, key1[, ..., key6]) in decimal or hexadecimal
LED LED 40 20 10 Changes the color of the LED in decimal RGB values (0-255)

Standard Keys

a - z
A - Z
0 - 9
F1 - F12

Modifier Keys


Other Keys


Numpad Keys

NUM_0 - NUM_9


REM Hello World for Windows PCs
STRING notepad
STRING Hello World!

CLI Commands

The command line interface or CLI is accessible using a serial connection to the ESP8266 (115200 baud, Newline ending) or via the web interface at


Command Description Example
help Returns all available commands help
ram Returns available memory in bytes ram
version Returns version number version
settings Returns list of settings settings
set -n/ame -v/alue Sets value of a specific setting set ssid "why fight duck"
reset Resets all settings to their default values reset
status Returns status of i2c connection with Atmega32u4 status
run <...> Starts executing a Ducky script run example.txt
stop <...> Stops executing a Ducky script stop example.txt

SPIFFS File Management

Command Description Example
mem Returns available, used and free memory of SPIFFS in bytes mem
format Formats SPIFFS format
ls <...> Returns list of files ls /
create <...> Creates file create
remove <...> Deletes file remove
cat <...> Returns content of file cat
rename -fileA,a -fileB,b Renames file rename example.txt
write -f/ile -c/ontent Writes (appends) data to file write example.txt "Hello World!"
stream <...> Opens file stream stream example.txt
close Closes file stream close
read Read and return the result from file stream read

If a stream is open, everything you type (except messages containing exactly close or read) will be written to the file until you type close!

How to Debug

To properly debug, you need to have both the Atmega32u4 and the ESP8266 connected via USB to your computer.

That can be tricky when you only have a all in one board, so it might be useful you built one yourself. You don't need to solder it, for example you can use an Arduino Leonardo and a NodeMCU and connect them with jumper cables.

Now open 2 instances of Arduino (so they run as separate processes!), select the COM port and open the serial monitor for each device. You might need to reset the Atmega32u4 to see serial output. If that causes problems with the i2c connection, try to reset the ESP8266 too.


Edit Web Files

If you would like to modify the web interface, you can!
The web/ folder contains all .html, .css, .js files.
You can edit and test them locally as long as you're connected to the WiFi Duck network thanks to the websocket connection handled by JavaScript in the background.

To get the new files onto the ESP8266, run python3 in the repository folder.
It gzips all files inside web/, converts them into a hex array and saves it in esp_duck/webfiles.h.
Now you just need to flash the ESP8266 again.

Translate Keyboard Layout

Currently supported keyboard layouts:

All standard keys are defined in usb_hid_keys.h.
To translate a keyboard layout, you have to match each character on your keyboard to the one(s) of a US keyboard.
This stuff is hard to explain in writing and requires a lot of manual work and testing.

  1. Copy one of the existing layouts files, like locale_us.h.
    Preferably one that is close to your keyboard layout, it will save you time!
  2. Add #include "locale_xx.h" to the end of the locales.h file.
  3. Rename the file and its variables to your language code. For example:
    locale_xx.h -> locale_de.h,
    ascii_xx -> ascii_de,
    locale_xx -> locale_de,
    utf8_xx -> utf8_de.
    combinations_xx -> combinations_de,
  4. Modify the ASCII array.
    The ASCII array has a fixed size. Each row describes a key. First a modifier key like KEY_MOD_LSHIFT, then a character key. Some ASCII characters can't be typed or don't require a modifier, that's where you must place KEY_NONE. Check usb_hid_keys.h for the available keys.
    If multiple modifiers are required, you must use a bitwise OR to connect them: KEY_MOD_RALT | KEY_MOD_LSHIFT.
    For example, in locale_de.h Z is saved as KEY_MOD_LSHIFT, KEY_Y.
    This is because German keyboards use QWERTZ instead of the QWERTY layout and since the letter is uppercase, shift must be pressed as well.
    Thankfully you don't have to trial and error everything, the Hak5 Community translated a lot of layouts already here. It's just written in a different syntax. For example, ASCII_20 (20 in hexadecimal) is the 32th character in our ascii array.
  5. [deprecated] Modify or create the extended ASCII array.
    The extended ASCII array doesn't have a fixed size and is only as long as you make it. First the character code. For example, ä has the index 132, or 84 in hex. It doesn't use a modifier and sits where the apostrophe key is on a US keyboard: 0x84, KEY_NONE, KEY_APOSTROPHE, // ä.
  6. Modify or create the UTF-8 array.
    The UTF-8 array is variable in length, too.
    The first 4 bytes are the character code.
    For example, Ä has the hex code c384 or 0xc3 0x84. The other 2 bytes are not used so we set them to 0. Because the letter is uppercase, we need to press the shift key and like before, the letter is typed by pressing the same key as the apostrophe key of a US keyboard: 0xc3, 0x84, 0x00, 0x00, KEY_MOD_LSHIFT, KEY_APOSTROPHE, // Ä.
  7. Edit the hid_locale_t structure.
    If you renamed all variables accordingly, there's nothing left to do.
  8. Go to duckparser.cpp at // LOCALE (-> change keyboard layout) you can see a bunch of else if statements. You need to copy one for your layout.

Before adding GB layout:

if (compare(w->str, w->len, "US", CASE_SENSETIVE)) {
} else if (compare(w->str, w->len, "DE", CASE_SENSETIVE)) {

After adding GB layout:

if (compare(w->str, w->len, "US", CASE_SENSETIVE)) {
} else if (compare(w->str, w->len, "DE", CASE_SENSETIVE)) {
} else if (compare(w->str, w->len, "GB", CASE_SENSETIVE)) {
  1. Test your layout with a Ducky Script that contains all characters of your keyboard. For example:
STRING !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~²³äöüÄÖÜ߀°§`
  1. Add a link to your layout to README, to web/index.html and please feel free to improve this tutorial to help future translators!
  2. Create a Pull Request


This tool is intended to be used for testing, training, and educational purposes only.
Never use it to do harm or create damage!

The continuation of this project counts on you!


This software is licensed under the MIT License. See the license file for details.


Software libraries used in this project: