Skip to content
Switch branches/tags


Failed to load latest commit information.


WiFi Duck Logo

Keystroke injection attack platform
A worthy successor of the WiFi Ducky project

🐦 Twitter | 📺 YouTube | 🌍

running example script

running example script
Watch the full video



This is a tool.
It's neither good nor bad.
Use it to do good, to study, and to test.
Never use it to do harm or create damage!

The continuation of this project counts on you!


By emulating a USB keyboard, this device can be used to remote control a computer, automate tasks or execute software to gain full access. All in the matter of seconds!

This is all possible because keyboards are trusted devices, you plug it in and can start typing right away!
A human might not type very fast, but an automated device like this presses of hundreds of keys per second.

This open source project aims to provide a user-friendly tool to learn about such keystroke injection attacks.

By using the Ducky Script language that Hak5 introduced with the USB Rubber Ducky, it's easy to get started right away!

You can simply plug it in, connect to its Wi-Fi network and manage all scripts from within the web interface. You don't need to install an app; you don't need to log in, and you don't need to compile or flash anything. Your scripts are saved on the device itself, so you don't need a micro SD card either.


Changes since the WiFi Ducky predecessor:

  • Support for multiple keyboard layouts
  • No size limit per script (other than the physical memory limit)
  • No line length limit for the STRING command
  • Faster typing speed
  • Optional Neopixel or Dotstar LED
  • Entirely new web interface
  • Support for I2C to enable easier debugging and DIY builds


Video Tutorial

This tool requires following hardware:

  • An Atmega32u4 development board (for example: Arduino Leonardo or Pro Micro)
  • An ESP8266 or ESP8285 development board (for example NodeMCU or Wemos d1 mini)
  • [Optional] A single Neopixel (WS2812b) or Dotstar (APA102) LED

You will also need a computer and USB data cable to flash the microcontrollers.
After the installation, you'll only have to connect the Atmega32u4 to the 'victim' computer, as that is the one acting as a USB keyboard.

If you're a beginner, it's recommended you wire everything together on a breadboard first!
So get a breadboard with a couple of jumper wires.

If you wish to solder everything together to a small DIY gadget, you'll obviously need soldering equipment and a bit of experience using it.

Supported boards

Preflashed All-In-One Boards

You can use any Atmega32u4 or ESP8266 based development board, but if you have no idea where to start, here's a list.
Just remember, you will need both microcontrollers!
The Atmega32u4 is the USB keyboard, the ESP8266 is the WiFi access point.

Atmega32u4 Development Boards

  • Arduino Leonardo
  • Arduino Micro
  • Sparkfun Pro Micro
  • CJMCU Beetle
  • SS Micro

DIGISPARK or other ATTINY85 based development boards, are NOT supported!

ESP8266 Development Boards

  • NodeMCU 1.0 (ESP-12E Module)
  • LOLIN(WEMOS) D1 Mini
  • LOLIN(WEMOS) D1 Mini Pro
  • LOLIN(WEMOS) D1 Mini Lite


Here's a map of the pins that need to be connected.

ESP8266 Atmega32u4
D1 alias GPIO 5 3 alias SCL
D2 alias GPIO 4 2 alias SDA

Now we want to have the Atmega32u4 power the ESP8266, so it can run of one USB connection, instead of having to always plug in both. To share power between both chips, you need a voltage regulator that takes 5V and turns it into 3.3V.
That's because USB uses 5V, but the ESP8266 uses 3.3V. Luckily most development boards have such a regulator on board.
DO NOT CONNECT ESP8266 VCC to the ATMEGA32u4 VCC, it will kill the ESP826. Instead look for the 5V or VIN pin on your dev board, as those will be connected to the regulator.

ESP8266 Dev Board Atmega32u4
5V or VIN RAW, 5V or VIN

If you like to add a Neopixel (WS2812b) LED:

Atmega32u4 Neopixel LED
7* DI alias Data, In
5V alias VCC 5V alias VCC

* The Data pin can be changed later on in the software, pin 7 is just an example.

Example of a DIY build using a Wemos d1 mini, a Pro Micro and a Neopixel LED


To make the DIY process easier, I designed a small PCB.

Design Files:

You can also order them on OSHPark:

You'll have to solder a Pro Micro board on one side and a Wemos d1 mini or NodeMCU board (depending on the PCB) on the other side.
That's it.
You don't even have to solder all pins, just the ones mentioned in Connections, excluding the LED.

Preview of Pro Micro + Wemos d1 mini PCB Soldered PCB


If you like to support this project, Travis Lin sells a custom designed development board which comes preflashed with this software!


You can purchase one here:

You can update the ESP8266 over the air and flash the Atmega32u4 via Arduino, all while enclosed in its neat little case.

Update Tutorial Video

If you wish to develop your own software or help improve this one, the 8-bit DIP-switch makes it easy for you to access the Atmega32u4 or ESP8266 independently.

To flash it see Flash Software. Or select Arduino Leonardo for the Atmega32u4 and NodeMCU 1.0 (ESP-12E Module) for the ESP8266.

Mode Atmega32u4 ESP8266 DIP-switch Image
Default Operating Mode USB On 10101101 dstike wifi duck work mode
Atmega32u4 Flash Mode USB Off 10101010 dstike wifi duck atmega mode
ESP8266 Flash Mode Off USB 01011101 dstike wifi duck esp8266 mode

Flash Software

Video Tutorial


  1. Download and install the Arduino IDE.
  2. Start the Arduino IDE, go to File > Preferences.
  3. At Additional Board Manager ULRs enter You can add multiple URLs, separating them with commas.
  4. Go to Tools > Board > Board Manager, search for wifi duck and install WiFi Duck AVR Boards and WiFi Duck ESP8266 Boards.
  5. Download and extract this repository or git clone it.

If you can't find the COM port of ESP8266 board, then you're probably missing the right drivers. Here are links to drivers of the 2 most used UART chips on ESP8266 development boards:

Flash Atmega32u4

  1. Open atmegaduck/atmega_duck.ino with the Arduino IDE.
  2. Under Tools > Board in the WiFi Duck AVR section, select your board; for example, Sparkfun Pro Micro.
  3. Connect the Atmega32u4 board via USB and select its port under Tools > Port.
  4. [Optional] Under Tools you can enable the LED and set its pin. You can also change the USB ID to make it appear as a certain type of keyboard.
  5. Press Upload.

Flash ESP8266

  1. Open esp_duck/esp_duck.ino with the Arduino IDE.
  2. Under Tools > Board in the WiFi Duck ESP8266 section, select your board. For example NodeMCU 1.0 (ESP-12E Module).
  3. Connect the ESP8266 board via USB and select its port under Tools > Port.
  4. Press Upload.

Pro Tip: If the ESP8266 is already running this software and you just want to update it, you don't have to connect it via USB. You can update it over the air! Simply connect to the Wi-Fi network its hosting (default SSID and password is wifiduck).
In Arduino under Tools > Port you should now see a network port. Select it and press Upload.

Note: It can take a minute until the device is ready. After the initial flashing, the ESP8266 has to format its memory.

If you connected the RGB LED:

  • Blue LED = Connection working
  • Green LED = Device ready

Unbrick Atmega32u4

If you flashed your Atmega32u4 board with the wrong bootloader, it will no longer appear in the port selection after you connect it.
To solve this, you need to:

  1. Connect the reset pin RST to ground GND. Preferably with a jumper wires, because you need to be able to disconnect it quickly.
  2. Open a sketch, atmegaduck/atmega_duck.ino or an empty sketch.
    Make sure to have the correct board selected under Tools > Board!
  3. Connect the board with the wire still connected.
  4. Press Upload and as soon as you see Compiling... turn to Uploading..., disconnect the wire.

Now it should flash the sketch and the correct bootloader.


  1. Plug it in.
  2. Connect to the WiFi network wifiduck with the password wifiduck.
  3. Open a browser and visit
  4. Click on Settings in the top right corner.
  5. Change the SSID and password.
  6. Go back to write, save and run your first Ducky Script!

Ducky Script


Keys are separated by a single space.
Everything written in a single line gets pressed and released at the same time.
To write text, use the STRING function.

Example Explanation
Type the Windows key and then the r key
WINDOWS r Press the Windows key and the r key simultaneously


Command Example Description
REM REM Hello World! Comment
DEFAULTDELAY or DEFAULT_DELAY DEFAULTDELAY 200 Time in ms between every command
DELAY DELAY 1000 Delay in ms
STRING STRING Hello World! Types the following string
REPEAT or REPLAY REPEAT 3 Repeats the last command n times
LOCALE LOCALE DE Sets the keyboard layout. Available: DE, ES, GB, US, DK, RU, FR
KEYCODE KEYCODE 0x02 0x04 Types a specific key code (modifier, key1[, ..., key6]) in decimal or hexadecimal
LED LED 40 20 10 Changes the color of the LED in decimal RGB values (0-255)

Standard Keys

a - z
A - Z
0 - 9
F1 - F12

Modifier Keys


Other Keys



REM Hello World for Windows PCs
STRING notepad
STRING Hello World!


The command line interface or CLI is accessible using a serial connection to the ESP8266 (115200 baud, Newline ending) or via the web interface at


Command Description Example
help Returns all available commands help
ram Returns available memory in bytes ram
version Returns version number version
settings Returns list of settings settings
set -n/ame -v/alue Sets value of a specific setting set ssid "why fight duck"
reset Resets all settings to their default values reset
status Returns status of i2c connection with Atmega32u4 status
run <...> Starts executing a Ducky script run example.txt
stop <...> Stops executing a Ducky script stop example.txt

SPIFFS File Management

Command Description Example
mem Returns available, used and free memory of SPIFFS in bytes mem
format Formats SPIFFS format
ls <...> Returns list of files ls /
create <...> Creates file create
remove <...> Deletes file remove
cat <...> Returns content of file cat
rename -fileA,a -fileB,b Renames file rename example.txt
write -f/ile -c/ontent Writes (appends) data to file write example.txt "Hello World!"
stream <...> Opens file stream stream example.txt
close Closes file stream close
read Read and return the result from file stream read

If a stream is open, everything you type (except messages containing exactly close or read) will be written to the file until you type close!


To properly debug, you need to have both the Atmega32u4 and the ESP8266 connected via USB to your computer.

That can be tricky when you only have a all in one board, so it might be useful you built one yourself. You don't need to solder it, for example you can use an Arduino Leonardo and a NodeMCU and connect them with jumper cables.

Now open 2 instances of Arduino (so they run as separate processes!), select the COM port and open the serial monitor for each device. You might need to reset the Atmega32u4 to see serial output. If that causes problems with the i2c connection, try to reset the ESP8266 too.


If you have a question, you can check out the issue section.
Use the search function to look up similar questions, be sure to check both open and closed issues!
Also watch this video by LiveOverflow on "How (not) to ask a technical question".

I forgot the password

Flash the ESP8266 again, but make sure that you select Erase Flash: Sketch + WiFi Settings under Tools in the Arduino IDE.


Edit Web Files

If you would like to modify the web interface, you can!
The web/ folder contains all .html, .css, .js files.
You can edit and test them locally as long as you're connected to the WiFi Duck network thanks to the websocket connection handled by JavaScript in the background.

To get the new files onto the ESP8266, run python3 in the repository folder.
It gzips all files inside web/, converts them into a hex array and saves it in esp_duck/webfiles.h.
Now you just need to flash the ESP8266 again.

Translate Keyboard Layout

Currently supported keyboard layouts:

All standard keys are defined in usb_hid_keys.h.
To translate a keyboard layout, you have to match each character on your keyboard to the one(s) of a US keyboard.
This stuff is hard to explain in writing and requires a lot of manual work and testing.

  1. Copy one of the existing layouts files, like locale_us.h.
    Preferably one that is close to your keyboard layout, it will save you time!
  2. Add #include "locale_xx.h" to the end of the locales.h file.
  3. Rename the file and its variables to your language code. For example:
    locale_xx.h -> locale_de.h,
    ascii_xx -> ascii_de,
    locale_xx -> locale_de,
    extended_ascii_xx -> extended_ascii_de,
    utf8_xx -> utf8_de.
  4. Modify the ASCII array.
    The ASCII array has a fixed size. Each row describes a key. First a modifier key like KEY_MOD_LSHIFT, then a character key. Some ASCII characters can't be typed or don't require a modifier, that's where you must place KEY_NONE. Check usb_hid_keys.h for the available keys.
    If multiple modifiers are required, you must use a bitwise OR to connect them: KEY_MOD_RALT | KEY_MOD_LSHIFT.
    For example, in locale_de.h Z is saved as KEY_MOD_LSHIFT, KEY_Y.
    This is because German keyboards use QWERTZ instead of the QWERTY layout and since the letter is uppercase, shift must be pressed as well.
    Thankfully you don't have to trial and error everything, the Hak5 Community translated a lot of layouts already here. It's just written in a different syntax. For example, ASCII_20 (20 in hexadecimal) is the 32th character in our ascii array.
  5. Modify or create the extended ASCII array.
    The extended ASCII array doesn't have a fixed size and is only as long as you make it. First the character code. For example, ä has the index 132, or 84 in hex. It doesn't use a modifier and sits where the apostrophe key is on a US keyboard: 0x84, KEY_NONE, KEY_APOSTROPHE, // ä.
  6. Modify or create the UTF-8 array.
    The UTF-8 array is variable in length, too.
    The first 4 bytes are the character code.
    For example, Ä has the hex code c384 or 0xc3 0x84. The other 2 bytes are not used so we set them to 0. Because the letter is uppercase, we need to press the shift key and like before, the letter is typed by pressing the same key as the apostrophe key of a US keyboard: 0xc3, 0x84, 0x00, 0x00, KEY_MOD_LSHIFT, KEY_APOSTROPHE, // Ä.
  7. Edit the hid_locale_t structure.
    If you renamed all variables accordingly, there's nothing left to do.
  8. Go to duckparser.cpp at // LOCALE (-> change keyboard layout) you can see a bunch of else if statements. You need to copy one for your layout.

Before adding GB layout:

if (compare(w->str, w->len, "US", CASE_SENSETIVE)) {
} else if (compare(w->str, w->len, "DE", CASE_SENSETIVE)) {

After adding GB layout:

if (compare(w->str, w->len, "US", CASE_SENSETIVE)) {
} else if (compare(w->str, w->len, "DE", CASE_SENSETIVE)) {
} else if (compare(w->str, w->len, "GB", CASE_SENSETIVE)) {
  1. Test your layout with a Ducky Script that contains all characters of your keyboard. For example:
STRING !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~²³äöüÄÖÜ߀°§`
  1. Add a link to your layout to README, to web/index.html and please feel free to improve this tutorial to help future translators!
  2. Create a Pull Request


This software is licensed under the MIT License. See the license file for details.


Other software used for this project: