A state machine written in CoffeeScript.
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README.md

Description:

A simple state machine written in CoffeeScript.

Installation:

npm install coffee-machine

Usage:

A "CoffeeMachine" class is provided that can be used as the basis of your state machine implementation. The object passed in to the constructor has an expected format that will define the state machine. The sample stuff below will use a chess game as a basic example.

Step one will always be to require the state machine:

{CoffeeMachine} = require 'coffee_machine'

The CoffeeMachine class' constructor takes in an object that defines the entire state machine. Here's what it looks like:

states:
  stateName: 
    active:  true/false (optional, the 1st state defaults to true)
    onEnter: enterMethod (called when successfully entering the state)
    onExit:  exitMethod (called when successfully exiting the state)
    guard:   guardMethod (stops the change to this state if returns false)
  stateName2: etc...
events:
  eventName:
    from: fromState (should be a defined state, or "any")
    to:   toState (should be a defined state)
  eventName2: etc...
onStateChange: changeMethod (called on any state change)

If you don't need anything fancy on the states, then you can use a basic Array setup:

  game = new CoffeeMachine states: ['whiteToMove', 'blackToMove']

  game.availableStates() 
  # outputs: [ 'whiteToMove', 'blackToMove' ]
  game.currentState() 
  # outputs: 'whiteToMove'

But, you should really define some events that will trigger state changes. Each defined event gives you a method you can call to trigger the state change.

  class ChessGame extends CoffeeMachine
    switchSides: ->
      # ...
      console.log "switchSides called."

  game = new ChessGame 
    states:
      whiteToMove:
        onEnter: -> this.switchSides()
      blackToMove:
        onEnter: -> this.switchSides()
    events:
      whiteMoved: {from:'whiteToMove', to:'blackToMove'}
      blackMoved: {from:'blackToMove', to:'whiteToMove'}

  game.whiteMoved()
  # outputs: switchSides called.

You can also pass the states definition to the defineCoffeeMachine method. So, a more custom and comprehensive implementation may look like:

class ChessGame extends CoffeeMachine
  constructor: (@board, @pieces) ->
    @defineStateMachine
      states:
        whiteToMove:
          # If black was in check, sides can't switch unless they're now not in check
          guard: (args) -> not (args.from is 'blackInCheck' and this.blackKingInCheck())
          onEnter: -> this.deliverMessage('white', 'Your move.')
        blackToMove:
          guard: (args) -> not (args.from is 'whiteInCheck' and this.whiteKingInCheck())
          onEnter: -> this.deliverMessage('black', 'Your move.')
        whiteInCheck:
          onEnter: -> this.deliverMessage('white', 'Check!')
          onExit: -> this.deliverMessage('white', 'Check escaped.')
        blackInCheck:
          onEnter: -> this.deliverMessage('black', 'Check!')
          onExit: -> this.deliverMessage('black', 'Check escaped.')
        whiteCheckmated:
          onEnter: -> 
            this.deliverMessage('white', 'Checkmate, you lose :-(')
            this.deliverMessage('black', 'Checkmate, you win!')
        blackCheckmated:
          onEnter: -> 
            this.deliverMessage('black', 'Checkmate, you lose :-(')
            this.deliverMessage('white', 'Checkmate, you win!')
      events:
        whiteMoved:      { from: 'whiteToMove',                   to: 'blackToMove' }
        whiteChecked:    { from: ['blackToMove', 'blackInCheck'], to: 'whiteInCheck' }
        whiteCheckMated: { from: ['blackToMove', 'blackInCheck'], to: 'whiteCheckmated' }
        blackMoved:      { from: 'blackToMove',                   to: 'whiteToMove' }
        blackChecked:    { from: ['whiteToMove', 'whiteInCheck'], to: 'blackInCheck' }
        blackCheckMated: { from: ['whitetoMove', 'whiteInCheck'], to: 'blackCheckmated' }
      onStateChange: (args) -> this.logActivity(args.from, args.to, args.event)

  blackKingInCheck: ->
    # ...

  whiteKingInCheck: ->
    # ...

  deliverMessage: (playerColor, message) ->
    console.log "[Message to #{playerColor}] #{message}"

  logActivity: (from, to, event) ->
    console.log "Activity: from => #{from}, to => #{to}, event => #{event}"

  ##################################

  game = new ChessGame

  game.whiteMoved()
  # outputs: 
  # [Message to black] Your move.
  # Activity: from => whiteToMove, to => blackToMove, event => whiteMoved

  game.blackMoved()
  # outputs: 
  # [Message to white] Your move.
  # Activity: from => blackToMove, to => whiteToMove, event => blackMoved

  game.blackChecked()
  # outputs: 
  # [Message to black] Check!
  # Activity: from => whiteToMove, to => blackInCheck, event => blackChecked

  game.whiteCheckMated()
  # outputs:
  # [Message to black] Check escaped.
  # [Message to white] Checkmate, you lose :-(
  # [Message to black] Checkmate, you win!
  # Activity: from => blackInCheck, to => whiteCheckmated, event => whiteCheckMated

  try
    game.blackMoved()
  catch error
    console.log error
  # outputs: 
  # Cannot change from state 'blackToMove'; it is not the active state!

Note that each callback method (onEnter, onExit, guard, and onStateChange) gets passed an args object that has a "from", "to", and "event" key, providing the previous state, new state, and the event that triggered the state change.

Tests

cake test