Reaver implements a brute force attack against Wifi Protected Setup (WPS) registrar PINs in order to recover WPA/WPA2 passphrases, as described in Brute forcing Wi-Fi Protected Setup When poor design meets poor implementation. by Stefan Viehböck.
Reaver has been designed to be a robust and practical attack against Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) registrar PINs in order to recover WPA/WPA2 passphrases and has been tested against a wide variety of access points and WPS implementations.
Depending on the target's Access Point (AP), to recover the plain text WPA/WPA2 passphrase the average amount of time for the transitional online brute force method is between 4-10 hours. In practice, it will generally take half this time to guess the correct WPS pin and recover the passphrase. When using the offline attack, if the AP is vulnerable, it may take only a matter of seconds to minutes.
The first version of reaver-wps (reaver 1.0) was created by Craig Heffner in 2011.
reaver-wps-fork-t6x version 1.6.x is a community forked version which includes various bug fixes, new features and additional attack method (such as the offline Pixie Dust attack).
- The original Reaver (version 1.0 to 1.4) can be found in google code archives.
- The discontinued reaver-wps-fork-t6x community edition, reaver version 1.5.3, which includes the Pixie Dust attack, is now the old-master branch from this repository.
- The latest revison of reaver-wps-fork-t6x community edition is the master branch from this repository.
Reaver versioning was updated to 1.6.x in order to identify the new cycle.
All stable relases since the first beta version of reaver 1.6 can be downloaded from our Releases page.
- More information about the Pixie Dust attack (including which APs are vulnerable) can be found in pixiewps repository, pixie dust thread (in Kali forum) & Dominique Bongard's full disclosure
- pixiewps (optional, required for pixiedust attack)
- aircrack-ng (optional, though recommended)
sudo apt -y install build-essential libpcap-dev aircrack-ng pixiewps
The example uses Kali Linux as the Operating System (OS) as
pixiewps is included.
You must already have Wiire's Pixiewps installed to perform a pixie dust attack, latest version can be found in its official github repository.
git clone https://github.com/t6x/reaver-wps-fork-t6x
wget https://github.com/t6x/reaver-wps-fork-t6x/archive/master.zip && unzip master.zip
Locate the shell
sudo make install
Copyright (c) 2011, Tactical Network Solutions, Craig Heffner <firstname.lastname@example.org> Required Arguments: -i, --interface=<wlan> Name of the monitor-mode interface to use -b, --bssid=<mac> BSSID of the target AP Optional Arguments: -m, --mac=<mac> MAC of the host system -e, --essid=<ssid> ESSID of the target AP -c, --channel=<channel> Set the 802.11 channel for the interface (implies -f) -s, --session=<file> Restore a previous session file -C, --exec=<command> Execute the supplied command upon successful pin recovery -f, --fixed Disable channel hopping -5, --5ghz Use 5GHz 802.11 channels -v, --verbose Display non-critical warnings (-vv or -vvv for more) -q, --quiet Only display critical messages -h, --help Show help Advanced Options: -p, --pin=<wps pin> Use the specified pin (may be arbitrary string or 4/8 digit WPS pin) -d, --delay=<seconds> Set the delay between pin attempts  -l, --lock-delay=<seconds> Set the time to wait if the AP locks WPS pin attempts  -g, --max-attempts=<num> Quit after num pin attempts -x, --fail-wait=<seconds> Set the time to sleep after 10 unexpected failures  -r, --recurring-delay=<x:y> Sleep for y seconds every x pin attempts -t, --timeout=<seconds> Set the receive timeout period  -T, --m57-timeout=<seconds> Set the M5/M7 timeout period [0.40] -A, --no-associate Do not associate with the AP (association must be done by another application) -N, --no-nacks Do not send NACK messages when out of order packets are received -S, --dh-small Use small DH keys to improve crack speed -L, --ignore-locks Ignore locked state reported by the target AP -E, --eap-terminate Terminate each WPS session with an EAP FAIL packet -J, --timeout-is-nack Treat timeout as NACK (DIR-300/320) -F, --ignore-fcs Ignore frame checksum errors -w, --win7 Mimic a Windows 7 registrar [False] -K, --pixie-dust Run pixiedust attack -Z Run pixiedust attack -O, --output-file=<filename> Write packets of interest into pcap file -M, --mac-changer Change the last digit of the MAC Address for each pin attempt [False] Example: reaver -i wlan0mon -b 00:90:4C:C1:AC:21 -vv
Options description and examples of use can be found in the Readme from Craig Heffner. Here comes a description of the new options introduced since then:
-K or -Z // --pixie-dust
-Z option perform the offline attack, Pixie Dust (
pixiewps), by automatically passing the PKE, PKR, E-Hash1, E-Hash2, E-Nonce and Authkey variables.
pixiewps will then try to attack Ralink, Broadcom and Realtek detected chipset.
Special note: If you are attacking a Realtek AP, do NOT use small DH Keys (
User will have to execute reaver with the cracked PIN (option -p) to get the WPA pass-phrase.
This is a temporary solution and an option to do a full attack will be implemented soon
-p with arbitrary string // --pin=
Copyright (c) 2011, Tactical Network Solutions, Craig Heffner Required Arguments: -i, --interface=<iface> Interface to capture packets on -f, --file [FILE1 FILE2 FILE3 ...] Read packets from capture files Optional Arguments: -c, --channel=<num> Channel to listen on [auto] -n, --probes=<num> Maximum number of probes to send to each AP in scan mode  -O, --output-file=<filename> Write packets of interest into pcap file -F, --ignore-fcs Ignore frame checksum errors -2, --2ghz Use 2.4GHz 802.11 channels -5, --5ghz Use 5GHz 802.11 channels -s, --scan Use scan mode -u, --survey Use survey mode [default] -a, --all Show all APs, even those without WPS -j, --json print extended WPS info as json -U, --utf8 Show UTF8 ESSID (does not sanitize ESSID, dangerous) -p, --progress Show percentage of crack progress -h, --help Show help Example: wash -i wlan0mon
A detailed description of the options with concrete syntax examples can be found in Craig Heffner's wash readme.
About the new options and features:
-a // --all
-a of Wash will list all access points, including those without WPS enabled.
-j // --json
The extended WPS information (serial, model...) from the AP probe answer will be printed in the terminal (in json format)
Wash now displays the manufacturer of the wifi chipset from the Acces Points in order to know if they are vulnerable to pixie dust attack.
Stdout can be piped
Notice that wash output can be piped into other commands. For more information see the wiki article Everything about the new options from wash
Creator of reaver-wps-fork-t6x "community edition":
Main developer since version 1.6b:
Modifications made by:
Some ideas made by:
Bug fixes made by:
Soxrok2212for all work done to help in the development of tools
Wiirefor developing Pixiewps
Craig Heffnerfor creating Reaver and for the creation of default pin generators (D-Link, Belkin) - http://www.devttys0.com/
Dominique Bongardfor discovering the Pixie Dust attack.