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Reaver implements a brute force attack against Wifi Protected Setup (WPS) registrar PINs in order to recover WPA/WPA2 passphrases, as described in Brute forcing Wi-Fi Protected Setup When poor design meets poor implementation. by Stefan Viehböck.
Reaver has been designed to be a robust and practical attack against Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) registrar PINs in order to recover WPA/WPA2 passphrases and has been tested against a wide variety of access points and WPS implementations.
Depending on the target's Access Point (AP), to recover the plain text WPA/WPA2 passphrase the average amount of time for the transitional online brute force method is between 4-10 hours. In practice, it will generally take half this time to guess the correct WPS pin and recover the passphrase. When using the offline attack, if the AP is vulnerable, it may take only a matter of seconds to minutes.

The first version of reaver-wps (reaver 1.0) was created by Craig Heffner in 2011.
reaver-wps-fork-t6x version 1.6.x is a community forked version which includes various bug fixes, new features and additional attack method (such as the offline Pixie Dust attack).


Build-time dependencies

  • libpcap-dev
  • build-essential

Runtime-time dependencies

  • pixiewps (optional, required for pixiedust attack)
  • aircrack-ng (optional, though recommended)


sudo apt -y install build-essential libpcap-dev aircrack-ng pixiewps

The example uses Kali Linux as the Operating System (OS) as pixiewps is included.

You must already have Wiire's Pixiewps installed to perform a pixie dust attack, latest version can be found in its official github repository.



git clone


wget && unzip

Locate the shell

cd reaver-wps-fork-t6x*
cd src




sudo make install

Reaver Usage

Copyright (c) 2011, Tactical Network Solutions, Craig Heffner <>

Required Arguments:
	-i, --interface=<wlan>          Name of the monitor-mode interface to use
	-b, --bssid=<mac>               BSSID of the target AP

Optional Arguments:
	-m, --mac=<mac>                 MAC of the host system
	-e, --essid=<ssid>              ESSID of the target AP
	-c, --channel=<channel>         Set the 802.11 channel for the interface (implies -f)
	-s, --session=<file>            Restore a previous session file
	-C, --exec=<command>            Execute the supplied command upon successful pin recovery
	-f, --fixed                     Disable channel hopping
	-5, --5ghz                      Use 5GHz 802.11 channels
	-v, --verbose                   Display non-critical warnings (-vv or -vvv for more)
	-q, --quiet                     Only display critical messages
	-h, --help                      Show help

Advanced Options:
	-p, --pin=<wps pin>             Use the specified pin (may be arbitrary string or 4/8 digit WPS pin)
	-d, --delay=<seconds>           Set the delay between pin attempts [1]
	-l, --lock-delay=<seconds>      Set the time to wait if the AP locks WPS pin attempts [60]
	-g, --max-attempts=<num>        Quit after num pin attempts
	-x, --fail-wait=<seconds>       Set the time to sleep after 10 unexpected failures [0]
	-r, --recurring-delay=<x:y>     Sleep for y seconds every x pin attempts
	-t, --timeout=<seconds>         Set the receive timeout period [10]
	-T, --m57-timeout=<seconds>     Set the M5/M7 timeout period [0.40]
	-A, --no-associate              Do not associate with the AP (association must be done by another application)
	-N, --no-nacks                  Do not send NACK messages when out of order packets are received
	-S, --dh-small                  Use small DH keys to improve crack speed
	-L, --ignore-locks              Ignore locked state reported by the target AP
	-E, --eap-terminate             Terminate each WPS session with an EAP FAIL packet
	-J, --timeout-is-nack           Treat timeout as NACK (DIR-300/320)
	-F, --ignore-fcs                Ignore frame checksum errors
	-w, --win7                      Mimic a Windows 7 registrar [False]
	-K, --pixie-dust                Run pixiedust attack
	-Z                              Run pixiedust attack
	-O, --output-file=<filename>	Write packets of interest into pcap file
	-M, --mac-changer               Change the last digit of the MAC Address for each pin attempt [False]

	reaver -i wlan0mon -b 00:90:4C:C1:AC:21 -vv

Options description and examples of use can be found in the Readme from Craig Heffner. Here comes a description of the new options introduced since then:

-K or -Z // --pixie-dust

The -K and -Z option perform the offline attack, Pixie Dust (pixiewps), by automatically passing the PKE, PKR, E-Hash1, E-Hash2, E-Nonce and Authkey variables. pixiewps will then try to attack Ralink, Broadcom and Realtek detected chipset. Special note: If you are attacking a Realtek AP, do NOT use small DH Keys (-S) option. User will have to execute reaver with the cracked PIN (option -p) to get the WPA pass-phrase. This is a temporary solution and an option to do a full attack will be implemented soon

-p with arbitrary string // --pin=

See our wiki: Introducing a new way to crack WPS: Option p with an Arbitrary String

Wash Usage

Copyright (c) 2011, Tactical Network Solutions, Craig Heffner

Required Arguments:
	-i, --interface=<iface>              Interface to capture packets on
	-f, --file [FILE1 FILE2 FILE3 ...]   Read packets from capture files

Optional Arguments:
	-c, --channel=<num>                  Channel to listen on [auto]
	-n, --probes=<num>                   Maximum number of probes to send to each AP in scan mode [15]
	-O, --output-file=<filename>	     Write packets of interest into pcap file
	-F, --ignore-fcs                     Ignore frame checksum errors
	-2, --2ghz                           Use 2.4GHz 802.11 channels
	-5, --5ghz                           Use 5GHz 802.11 channels
	-s, --scan                           Use scan mode
	-u, --survey                         Use survey mode [default]
	-a, --all                            Show all APs, even those without WPS
	-j, --json                           print extended WPS info as json
	-U, --utf8			     			 Show UTF8 ESSID (does not sanitize ESSID, dangerous)
	-p, --progress                       Show percentage of crack progress
	-h, --help                           Show help

	wash -i wlan0mon

A detailed description of the options with concrete syntax examples can be found in Craig Heffner's wash readme.
About the new options and features:

-a // --all

The option -a of Wash will list all access points, including those without WPS enabled.

-j // --json

The extended WPS information (serial, model...) from the AP probe answer will be printed in the terminal (in json format)

"Vendor" column

Wash now displays the manufacturer of the wifi chipset from the Acces Points in order to know if they are vulnerable to pixie dust attack.

Stdout can be piped

Notice that wash output can be piped into other commands. For more information see the wiki article Everything about the new options from wash



Creator of reaver-wps-fork-t6x "community edition": t6x

Main developer since version 1.6b: rofl0r

Modifications made by: t6_x, DataHead, Soxrok2212, Wiire, AAnarchYY, kib0rg, KokoSoft, rofl0r, horrorho, binarymaster, Ǹotaz, Adde88

Some ideas made by: nuroo, kcdtv

Bug fixes made by: alxchk, USUARIONUEVO, ldm314, vk496, falsovsky, rofl0r, xhebox

Special Thanks

  • Soxrok2212 for all work done to help in the development of tools
  • Wiire for developing Pixiewps
  • Craig Heffner for creating Reaver and for the creation of default pin generators (D-Link, Belkin) -
  • Dominique Bongard for discovering the Pixie Dust attack.