Some languages, most famously Lisp, require heavy use of parentheses. A good editor will provide a few tools to help you with this. A great editor (such as Emacs with paredit installed) will go further, which is what we'll explore here.
Let's write some Emacs Lisp.
C-x C-f init.el M-x paredit-mode down to line 2 insert: (setq paredit-awesome-p t)
Now you'll notice that as you type open parens, the closing ones are inserted for you. This is no real surprise, as it's something many other editors provide. But we're just getting started.
point to right after paredit- C-k
The next thing you'll notice is that deleting works differently. When you press C-k to kill a line, the whole line doesn't always get deleted. Paredit is doing its best to make sure that the structure of your code remains valid. It knows you probably didn't want to actually kill the whole line, just everything up to the closing paren.
insert: numbers (list 1 (+ 2 \n 3 4)) point to before (+ C-k
If the rest of the line contains an expression that spans many lines, it will remove the whole thing instead of just up to the end of the line.
C-e backspace through 1 and list
Pressing backspace will pass through the parens and only delete elements.
But once a pair of parens is empty, then deleting one of them deletes the other.
M-b Press )
And pressing close paren won't insert one, but just jumps to the close of the current expression instead.
C-b insert: [1 2 3]
So far everything that works with parentheses also applies to other matched characters. Double-quotes, square brackets, and curly braces (if your language uses them) all behave similarly.
C-e insert "hey look: [unmatched)!"
Of course, paredit knows that these rules don't apply when you're inside a string or a comment, so it doesn't try to enforce its structure there.
Now these features are helpful, but they assume that the file you're working with has a valid structure. For various reasons, that's not always true. Let's see what happens when the rules are violated.
Open file invalid.el
The first thing to note is that paredit won't even activate if it detects unbalanced characters in a file you're opening. So let's fix it and activate paredit manually.
Insert paren in front of message M-x paredit-mode
You can still get a document in a bad state if you don't watch out. Killing a region with C-w does not enforce the rules, so remember that when you use it, you're stepping outside the bounds of paredit and should be a little more careful.
Mark (message and C-w it C-e
See how the end of the line is highlighted differently? That's show-paren-mode indicating that things are unbalanced. It's not part of paredit, but it's definitely worth enabling.
Another thing that's helpful to remember is that Emacs lets you prefix a key with C-q to insert it literally rather than activating whatever the key is bound to. Use this if you need to insert a lone paren to fix things. You can also prefix backspace with C-u to force it.
open rooms.clj point at right before mire.rooms M-( Mark "declare rooms" Press (
You can wrap the next expression in parens with M-(. If you want to wrap multiple expressions, simply mark them and then hit (.
Back to mire.rooms M-s
If you're inside a list and want to merge it with its parent, use M-s to splice.
Back to "declare rooms"; point in rooms C-S-] C-S-0
Of course we can't neglect to mention the imaginatively named "barf" and "slurp" commands. If you're inside a list, you can "barf" the last expression out of the list. The reverse operation "slurps" the next element outside into the list. Yum!
Barfing and slurping have forward and backward variations.
Point to front of rooms M-S-s M-S-j
This is pretty straightforward; just use M-S-s and M-S-j to split and join lists.
Open concourse.js M-x paredit-mode [1, 2, 3].map() Point over 2 C-k insert: 4
If you use the Emacs Starter Kit, you've got Paredit already installed. Otherwise hit up the Emacs Lisp Package Archive, or ELPA for a copy. ELPA can be downloaded from http://tromey.com/elpa.
You'll still need to choose which modes to enable it for though. Add hooks for that:
(add-hook 'emacs-lisp-mode-hook 'enable-paredit-mode) (add-hook 'scheme-mode-hook 'enable-paredit-mode) (add-hook 'clojure-mode-hook 'enable-paredit-mode) (add-hook 'ruby-mode-hook 'esk-paredit-nonlisp) (add-hook 'espresso-mode-hook 'esk-paredit-nonlisp)
Add a hook for each mode for which you want paredit activated, and you're good to go.
The esk-paredit-nonlisp function customizes and enables paredit for non-Lisp languages. It's included in the Starter Kit, but if you want to use it elsewhere, it looks like this:
[TODO: This only works with my patched paredit! Get it upstream or rework this section.] (defun esk-paredit-nonlisp () "Turn on paredit mode for non-lisps." (set (make-local-variable paredit-space-delimiter-chars) (list ?\")) (paredit-mode +1))
Hopefully now you've picked up some techniques that will make you more effective in your coding.
If you're interested in learning more about Emacs or Lisp, check out my PeepCode screencasts, each available for $9:
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