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# Paperclip allows file attachments that are stored in the filesystem. All graphical
# transformations are done using the Graphics/ImageMagick command line utilities and
# are stored in Tempfiles until the record is saved. Paperclip does not require a
# separate model for storing the attachment's information, instead adding a few simple
# columns to your table.
# Author:: Jon Yurek
# Copyright:: Copyright (c) 2008 thoughtbot, inc.
# License:: Distrbutes under the same terms as Ruby
# Paperclip defines an attachment as any file, though it makes special considerations
# for image files. You can declare that a model has an attached file with the
# +has_attached_file+ method:
# class User < ActiveRecord::Base
# has_attached_file :avatar, :styles => { :thumb => "100x100" }
# end
# user =
# user.avatar = params[:user][:avatar]
# user.avatar.url
# # => "/users/avatars/4/original_me.jpg"
# user.avatar.url(:thumb)
# # => "/users/avatars/4/thumb_me.jpg"
# See the +has_attached_file+ documentation for more details.
require 'paperclip/upfile'
require 'paperclip/iostream'
require 'paperclip/geometry'
require 'paperclip/thumbnail'
require 'paperclip/attachment'
# The base module that gets included in ActiveRecord::Base.
module Paperclip
class << self
# Provides configurability to Paperclip. There are a number of options available, such as:
# * whiny_thumbnails: Will raise an error if Paperclip cannot process thumbnails of
# an uploaded image. Defaults to true.
# * image_magick_path: Defines the path at which to find the +convert+ and +identify+
# programs if they are not visible to Rails the system's search path. Defaults to
# nil, which uses the first executable found in the search path.
def options
@options ||= {
:whiny_thumbnails => true,
:image_magick_path => nil
def path_for_command command #:nodoc:
path = [options[:image_magick_path], command].compact
def included base #:nodoc:
base.extend ClassMethods
class PaperclipError < StandardError #:nodoc:
module ClassMethods
attr_reader :attachment_definitions
# +has_attached_file+ gives the class it is called on an attribute that maps to a file. This
# is typically a file stored somewhere on the filesystem and has been uploaded by a user.
# The attribute returns a Paperclip::Attachment object which handles the management of
# that file. The intent is to make the attachment as much like a normal attribute. The
# thumbnails will be created when the new file is assigned, but they will *not* be saved
# until +save+ is called on the record. Likewise, if the attribute is set to +nil+ is
# called on it, the attachment will *not* be deleted until +save+ is called. See the
# Paperclip::Attachment documentation for more specifics. There are a number of options
# you can set to change the behavior of a Paperclip attachment:
# * +url+: The full URL of where the attachment is publically accessible. This can just
# as easily point to a directory served directly through Apache as it can to an action
# that can control permissions. You can specify the full domain and path, but usually
# just an absolute path is sufficient. The leading slash must be included manually for
# absolute paths. The default value is "/:class/:attachment/:id/:style_:filename". See
# Paperclip::Attachment#interpolate for more information on variable interpolaton.
# :url => "/:attachment/:id/:style_:basename:extension"
# :url => ""
# * +missing_url+: The URL that will be returned if there is no attachment assigned.
# This field is interpolated just as the url is. The default value is
# "/:class/:attachment/missing_:style.png"
# has_attached_file :avatar, :missing_url => "/images/default_:style_avatar.png"
# # => "/images/default_small_avatar.png"
# * +styles+: A hash of thumbnail styles and their geometries. You can find more about
# geometry strings at the ImageMagick website
# ( Paperclip
# also adds the "#" option (e.g. "50x50#"), which will resize the image to fit maximally
# inside the dimensions and then crop the rest off (weighted at the center). The
# default value is to generate no thumbnails.
# * +default_style+: The thumbnail style that will be used by default URLs.
# Defaults to +original+.
# has_attached_file :avatar, :styles => { :normal => "100x100#" },
# :default_style => :normal
# user.avatar.url # => "/avatars/23/normal_me.png"
# * +path+: The location of the repository of attachments on disk. This can be coordinated
# with the value of the +url+ option to allow files to be saved into a place where Apache
# can serve them without hitting your app. Defaults to
# ":rails_root/public/:class/:attachment/:id/:style_:filename".
# By default this places the files in the app's public directory which can be served
# directly. If you are using capistrano for deployment, a good idea would be to
# make a symlink to the capistrano-created system directory from inside your app's
# public directory.
# See Paperclip::Attachment#interpolate for more information on variable interpolaton.
# :path => "/var/app/attachments/:class/:id/:style/:filename"
# * +whiny_thumbnails+: Will raise an error if Paperclip cannot process thumbnails of an
# uploaded image. This will ovrride the global setting for this attachment.
# Defaults to true.
def has_attached_file name, options = {}
include InstanceMethods
@attachment_definitions ||= {}
@attachment_definitions[name] = {:validations => []}.merge(options)
after_save :save_attached_files
before_destroy :destroy_attached_files
define_method name do |*args|
a = attachment_for(name)
(args.length > 0) ? a.to_s(args.first) : a
define_method "#{name}=" do |file|
define_method "#{name}?" do
! attachment_for(name).file.nil?
validates_each(name) do |record, attr, value|
# Places ActiveRecord-style validations on the size of the file assigned. The
# possible options are:
# * +in+: a Range of bytes (i.e. +1..1.megabyte+),
# * +less_than+: equivalent to :in => 0..options[:less_than]
# * +greater_than+: equivalent to :in => options[:greater_than]..Infinity
def validates_attachment_size name, options = {}
@attachment_definitions[name][:validations] << lambda do |attachment, instance|
unless options[:greater_than].nil?
options[:in] = (options[:greater_than]..(1/0)) # 1/0 => Infinity
unless options[:less_than].nil?
options[:in] = (0..options[:less_than])
unless options[:in].include? instance[:"#{name}_file_size"].to_i
"file size is not between #{options[:in].first} and #{options[:in].last} bytes."
# Places ActiveRecord-style validations on the presence of a file.
def validates_attachment_presence name
@attachment_definitions[name][:validations] << lambda do |attachment, instance|
if attachment.file.nil? || !File.exist?(attachment.file.path)
"must be set."
module InstanceMethods #:nodoc:
def attachment_for name
@attachments ||= {}
@attachments[name] ||=, self, self.class.attachment_definitions[name])
def each_attachment
self.class.attachment_definitions.each do |name, definition|
yield(name, attachment_for(name))
def save_attached_files
each_attachment do |name, attachment|
def destroy_attached_files
each_attachment do |name, attachment|
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