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# Copyright 2009 Facebook
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may
# not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain
# a copy of the License at
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
# WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
# License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.
"""A non-blocking, single-threaded HTTP server.
Typical applications have little direct interaction with the `HTTPServer`
class except to start a server at the beginning of the process
(and even that is often done indirectly via `tornado.web.Application.listen`).
.. versionchanged:: 4.0
The ``HTTPRequest`` class that used to live in this module has been moved
to `tornado.httputil.HTTPServerRequest`. The old name remains as an alias.
import socket
from tornado.escape import native_str
from tornado.http1connection import HTTP1ServerConnection, HTTP1ConnectionParameters
from tornado import gen
from tornado import httputil
from tornado import iostream
from tornado import netutil
from tornado.tcpserver import TCPServer
from tornado.util import Configurable
class HTTPServer(TCPServer, Configurable,
r"""A non-blocking, single-threaded HTTP server.
A server is defined by a subclass of `.HTTPServerConnectionDelegate`,
or, for backwards compatibility, a callback that takes an
`.HTTPServerRequest` as an argument. The delegate is usually a
`HTTPServer` supports keep-alive connections by default
(automatically for HTTP/1.1, or for HTTP/1.0 when the client
requests ``Connection: keep-alive``).
If ``xheaders`` is ``True``, we support the
``X-Real-Ip``/``X-Forwarded-For`` and
``X-Scheme``/``X-Forwarded-Proto`` headers, which override the
remote IP and URI scheme/protocol for all requests. These headers
are useful when running Tornado behind a reverse proxy or load
balancer. The ``protocol`` argument can also be set to ``https``
if Tornado is run behind an SSL-decoding proxy that does not set one of
the supported ``xheaders``.
By default, when parsing the ``X-Forwarded-For`` header, Tornado will
select the last (i.e., the closest) address on the list of hosts as the
remote host IP address. To select the next server in the chain, a list of
trusted downstream hosts may be passed as the ``trusted_downstream``
argument. These hosts will be skipped when parsing the ``X-Forwarded-For``
To make this server serve SSL traffic, send the ``ssl_options`` keyword
argument with an `ssl.SSLContext` object. For compatibility with older
versions of Python ``ssl_options`` may also be a dictionary of keyword
arguments for the `ssl.wrap_socket` method.::
ssl_ctx = ssl.create_default_context(ssl.Purpose.CLIENT_AUTH)
ssl_ctx.load_cert_chain(os.path.join(data_dir, "mydomain.crt"),
os.path.join(data_dir, "mydomain.key"))
HTTPServer(application, ssl_options=ssl_ctx)
`HTTPServer` initialization follows one of three patterns (the
initialization methods are defined on `tornado.tcpserver.TCPServer`):
1. `~tornado.tcpserver.TCPServer.listen`: simple single-process::
server = HTTPServer(app)
In many cases, `tornado.web.Application.listen` can be used to avoid
the need to explicitly create the `HTTPServer`.
2. `~tornado.tcpserver.TCPServer.bind`/`~tornado.tcpserver.TCPServer.start`:
simple multi-process::
server = HTTPServer(app)
server.start(0) # Forks multiple sub-processes
When using this interface, an `.IOLoop` must *not* be passed
to the `HTTPServer` constructor. `~.TCPServer.start` will always start
the server on the default singleton `.IOLoop`.
3. `~tornado.tcpserver.TCPServer.add_sockets`: advanced multi-process::
sockets = tornado.netutil.bind_sockets(8888)
server = HTTPServer(app)
The `~.TCPServer.add_sockets` interface is more complicated,
but it can be used with `tornado.process.fork_processes` to
give you more flexibility in when the fork happens.
`~.TCPServer.add_sockets` can also be used in single-process
servers if you want to create your listening sockets in some
way other than `tornado.netutil.bind_sockets`.
.. versionchanged:: 4.0
Added ``decompress_request``, ``chunk_size``, ``max_header_size``,
``idle_connection_timeout``, ``body_timeout``, ``max_body_size``
arguments. Added support for `.HTTPServerConnectionDelegate`
instances as ``request_callback``.
.. versionchanged:: 4.1
`.HTTPServerConnectionDelegate.start_request` is now called with
two arguments ``(server_conn, request_conn)`` (in accordance with the
documentation) instead of one ``(request_conn)``.
.. versionchanged:: 4.2
`HTTPServer` is now a subclass of `tornado.util.Configurable`.
.. versionchanged:: 4.5
Added the ``trusted_downstream`` argument.
.. versionchanged:: 5.0
The ``io_loop`` argument has been removed.
def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
# Ignore args to __init__; real initialization belongs in
# initialize since we're Configurable. (there's something
# weird in initialization order between this class,
# Configurable, and TCPServer so we can't leave __init__ out
# completely)
def initialize(self, request_callback, no_keep_alive=False,
xheaders=False, ssl_options=None, protocol=None,
chunk_size=None, max_header_size=None,
idle_connection_timeout=None, body_timeout=None,
max_body_size=None, max_buffer_size=None,
self.request_callback = request_callback
self.xheaders = xheaders
self.protocol = protocol
self.conn_params = HTTP1ConnectionParameters(
header_timeout=idle_connection_timeout or 3600,
TCPServer.__init__(self, ssl_options=ssl_options,
self._connections = set()
self.trusted_downstream = trusted_downstream
def configurable_base(cls):
return HTTPServer
def configurable_default(cls):
return HTTPServer
def close_all_connections(self):
while self._connections:
# Peek at an arbitrary element of the set
conn = next(iter(self._connections))
yield conn.close()
def handle_stream(self, stream, address):
context = _HTTPRequestContext(stream, address,
conn = HTTP1ServerConnection(
stream, self.conn_params, context)
def start_request(self, server_conn, request_conn):
if isinstance(self.request_callback, httputil.HTTPServerConnectionDelegate):
delegate = self.request_callback.start_request(server_conn, request_conn)
delegate = _CallableAdapter(self.request_callback, request_conn)
if self.xheaders:
delegate = _ProxyAdapter(delegate, request_conn)
return delegate
def on_close(self, server_conn):
class _CallableAdapter(httputil.HTTPMessageDelegate):
def __init__(self, request_callback, request_conn):
self.connection = request_conn
self.request_callback = request_callback
self.request = None
self.delegate = None
self._chunks = []
def headers_received(self, start_line, headers):
self.request = httputil.HTTPServerRequest(
connection=self.connection, start_line=start_line,
def data_received(self, chunk):
def finish(self):
self.request.body = b''.join(self._chunks)
def on_connection_close(self):
self._chunks = None
class _HTTPRequestContext(object):
def __init__(self, stream, address, protocol, trusted_downstream=None):
self.address = address
# Save the socket's address family now so we know how to
# interpret self.address even after the stream is closed
# and its socket attribute replaced with None.
if stream.socket is not None:
self.address_family =
self.address_family = None
# In HTTPServerRequest we want an IP, not a full socket address.
if (self.address_family in (socket.AF_INET, socket.AF_INET6) and
address is not None):
self.remote_ip = address[0]
# Unix (or other) socket; fake the remote address.
self.remote_ip = ''
if protocol:
self.protocol = protocol
elif isinstance(stream, iostream.SSLIOStream):
self.protocol = "https"
self.protocol = "http"
self._orig_remote_ip = self.remote_ip
self._orig_protocol = self.protocol
self.trusted_downstream = set(trusted_downstream or [])
def __str__(self):
if self.address_family in (socket.AF_INET, socket.AF_INET6):
return self.remote_ip
elif isinstance(self.address, bytes):
# Python 3 with the -bb option warns about str(bytes),
# so convert it explicitly.
# Unix socket addresses are str on mac but bytes on linux.
return native_str(self.address)
return str(self.address)
def _apply_xheaders(self, headers):
"""Rewrite the ``remote_ip`` and ``protocol`` fields."""
# Squid uses X-Forwarded-For, others use X-Real-Ip
ip = headers.get("X-Forwarded-For", self.remote_ip)
# Skip trusted downstream hosts in X-Forwarded-For list
for ip in (cand.strip() for cand in reversed(ip.split(','))):
if ip not in self.trusted_downstream:
ip = headers.get("X-Real-Ip", ip)
if netutil.is_valid_ip(ip):
self.remote_ip = ip
# AWS uses X-Forwarded-Proto
proto_header = headers.get(
"X-Scheme", headers.get("X-Forwarded-Proto",
if proto_header:
# use only the last proto entry if there is more than one
# TODO: support trusting mutiple layers of proxied protocol
proto_header = proto_header.split(',')[-1].strip()
if proto_header in ("http", "https"):
self.protocol = proto_header
def _unapply_xheaders(self):
"""Undo changes from `_apply_xheaders`.
Xheaders are per-request so they should not leak to the next
request on the same connection.
self.remote_ip = self._orig_remote_ip
self.protocol = self._orig_protocol
class _ProxyAdapter(httputil.HTTPMessageDelegate):
def __init__(self, delegate, request_conn):
self.connection = request_conn
self.delegate = delegate
def headers_received(self, start_line, headers):
return self.delegate.headers_received(start_line, headers)
def data_received(self, chunk):
return self.delegate.data_received(chunk)
def finish(self):
def on_connection_close(self):
def _cleanup(self):
HTTPRequest = httputil.HTTPServerRequest