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kernel: add kcov code coverage

kcov provides code coverage collection for coverage-guided fuzzing
(randomized testing).  Coverage-guided fuzzing is a testing technique
that uses coverage feedback to determine new interesting inputs to a
system.  A notable user-space example is AFL
(http://lcamtuf.coredump.cx/afl/).  However, this technique is not
widely used for kernel testing due to missing compiler and kernel
support.

kcov does not aim to collect as much coverage as possible.  It aims to
collect more or less stable coverage that is function of syscall inputs.
To achieve this goal it does not collect coverage in soft/hard
interrupts and instrumentation of some inherently non-deterministic or
non-interesting parts of kernel is disbled (e.g.  scheduler, locking).

Currently there is a single coverage collection mode (tracing), but the
API anticipates additional collection modes.  Initially I also
implemented a second mode which exposes coverage in a fixed-size hash
table of counters (what Quentin used in his original patch).  I've
dropped the second mode for simplicity.

This patch adds the necessary support on kernel side.  The complimentary
compiler support was added in gcc revision 231296.

We've used this support to build syzkaller system call fuzzer, which has
found 90 kernel bugs in just 2 months:

  https://github.com/google/syzkaller/wiki/Found-Bugs

We've also found 30+ bugs in our internal systems with syzkaller.
Another (yet unexplored) direction where kcov coverage would greatly
help is more traditional "blob mutation".  For example, mounting a
random blob as a filesystem, or receiving a random blob over wire.

Why not gcov.  Typical fuzzing loop looks as follows: (1) reset
coverage, (2) execute a bit of code, (3) collect coverage, repeat.  A
typical coverage can be just a dozen of basic blocks (e.g.  an invalid
input).  In such context gcov becomes prohibitively expensive as
reset/collect coverage steps depend on total number of basic
blocks/edges in program (in case of kernel it is about 2M).  Cost of
kcov depends only on number of executed basic blocks/edges.  On top of
that, kernel requires per-thread coverage because there are always
background threads and unrelated processes that also produce coverage.
With inlined gcov instrumentation per-thread coverage is not possible.

kcov exposes kernel PCs and control flow to user-space which is
insecure.  But debugfs should not be mapped as user accessible.

Based on a patch by Quentin Casasnovas.

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: make task_struct.kcov_mode have type `enum kcov_mode']
[akpm@linux-foundation.org: unbreak allmodconfig]
[akpm@linux-foundation.org: follow x86 Makefile layout standards]
Signed-off-by: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: syzkaller <syzkaller@googlegroups.com>
Cc: Vegard Nossum <vegard.nossum@oracle.com>
Cc: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
Cc: Tavis Ormandy <taviso@google.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Cc: Quentin Casasnovas <quentin.casasnovas@oracle.com>
Cc: Kostya Serebryany <kcc@google.com>
Cc: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
Cc: Alexander Potapenko <glider@google.com>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@google.com>
Cc: Bjorn Helgaas <bhelgaas@google.com>
Cc: Sasha Levin <sasha.levin@oracle.com>
Cc: David Drysdale <drysdale@google.com>
Cc: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>
Cc: Andrey Ryabinin <ryabinin.a.a@gmail.com>
Cc: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill@shutemov.name>
Cc: Jiri Slaby <jslaby@suse.cz>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
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dvyukov authored and torvalds committed Mar 22, 2016
1 parent ade356b commit 5c9a8750a6409c63a0f01d51a9024861022f6593
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@@ -0,0 +1,111 @@
kcov: code coverage for fuzzing
===============================
kcov exposes kernel code coverage information in a form suitable for coverage-
guided fuzzing (randomized testing). Coverage data of a running kernel is
exported via the "kcov" debugfs file. Coverage collection is enabled on a task
basis, and thus it can capture precise coverage of a single system call.
Note that kcov does not aim to collect as much coverage as possible. It aims
to collect more or less stable coverage that is function of syscall inputs.
To achieve this goal it does not collect coverage in soft/hard interrupts
and instrumentation of some inherently non-deterministic parts of kernel is
disbled (e.g. scheduler, locking).
Usage:
======
Configure kernel with:
CONFIG_KCOV=y
CONFIG_KCOV requires gcc built on revision 231296 or later.
Profiling data will only become accessible once debugfs has been mounted:
mount -t debugfs none /sys/kernel/debug
The following program demonstrates kcov usage from within a test program:
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stddef.h>
#include <stdint.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <sys/mman.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#define KCOV_INIT_TRACE _IOR('c', 1, unsigned long)
#define KCOV_ENABLE _IO('c', 100)
#define KCOV_DISABLE _IO('c', 101)
#define COVER_SIZE (64<<10)
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
int fd;
unsigned long *cover, n, i;
/* A single fd descriptor allows coverage collection on a single
* thread.
*/
fd = open("/sys/kernel/debug/kcov", O_RDWR);
if (fd == -1)
perror("open"), exit(1);
/* Setup trace mode and trace size. */
if (ioctl(fd, KCOV_INIT_TRACE, COVER_SIZE))
perror("ioctl"), exit(1);
/* Mmap buffer shared between kernel- and user-space. */
cover = (unsigned long*)mmap(NULL, COVER_SIZE * sizeof(unsigned long),
PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE, MAP_SHARED, fd, 0);
if ((void*)cover == MAP_FAILED)
perror("mmap"), exit(1);
/* Enable coverage collection on the current thread. */
if (ioctl(fd, KCOV_ENABLE, 0))
perror("ioctl"), exit(1);
/* Reset coverage from the tail of the ioctl() call. */
__atomic_store_n(&cover[0], 0, __ATOMIC_RELAXED);
/* That's the target syscal call. */
read(-1, NULL, 0);
/* Read number of PCs collected. */
n = __atomic_load_n(&cover[0], __ATOMIC_RELAXED);
for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
printf("0x%lx\n", cover[i + 1]);
/* Disable coverage collection for the current thread. After this call
* coverage can be enabled for a different thread.
*/
if (ioctl(fd, KCOV_DISABLE, 0))
perror("ioctl"), exit(1);
/* Free resources. */
if (munmap(cover, COVER_SIZE * sizeof(unsigned long)))
perror("munmap"), exit(1);
if (close(fd))
perror("close"), exit(1);
return 0;
}
After piping through addr2line output of the program looks as follows:
SyS_read
fs/read_write.c:562
__fdget_pos
fs/file.c:774
__fget_light
fs/file.c:746
__fget_light
fs/file.c:750
__fget_light
fs/file.c:760
__fdget_pos
fs/file.c:784
SyS_read
fs/read_write.c:562
If a program needs to collect coverage from several threads (independently),
it needs to open /sys/kernel/debug/kcov in each thread separately.
The interface is fine-grained to allow efficient forking of test processes.
That is, a parent process opens /sys/kernel/debug/kcov, enables trace mode,
mmaps coverage buffer and then forks child processes in a loop. Child processes
only need to enable coverage (disable happens automatically on thread end).
View
@@ -365,6 +365,7 @@ LDFLAGS_MODULE =
CFLAGS_KERNEL =
AFLAGS_KERNEL =
CFLAGS_GCOV = -fprofile-arcs -ftest-coverage
CFLAGS_KCOV = -fsanitize-coverage=trace-pc
# Use USERINCLUDE when you must reference the UAPI directories only.
@@ -411,7 +412,7 @@ export MAKE AWK GENKSYMS INSTALLKERNEL PERL PYTHON UTS_MACHINE
export HOSTCXX HOSTCXXFLAGS LDFLAGS_MODULE CHECK CHECKFLAGS
export KBUILD_CPPFLAGS NOSTDINC_FLAGS LINUXINCLUDE OBJCOPYFLAGS LDFLAGS
export KBUILD_CFLAGS CFLAGS_KERNEL CFLAGS_MODULE CFLAGS_GCOV CFLAGS_KASAN CFLAGS_UBSAN
export KBUILD_CFLAGS CFLAGS_KERNEL CFLAGS_MODULE CFLAGS_GCOV CFLAGS_KCOV CFLAGS_KASAN CFLAGS_UBSAN
export KBUILD_AFLAGS AFLAGS_KERNEL AFLAGS_MODULE
export KBUILD_AFLAGS_MODULE KBUILD_CFLAGS_MODULE KBUILD_LDFLAGS_MODULE
export KBUILD_AFLAGS_KERNEL KBUILD_CFLAGS_KERNEL
@@ -673,6 +674,14 @@ endif
endif
KBUILD_CFLAGS += $(stackp-flag)
ifdef CONFIG_KCOV
ifeq ($(call cc-option, $(CFLAGS_KCOV)),)
$(warning Cannot use CONFIG_KCOV: \
-fsanitize-coverage=trace-pc is not supported by compiler)
CFLAGS_KCOV =
endif
endif
ifeq ($(cc-name),clang)
KBUILD_CPPFLAGS += $(call cc-option,-Qunused-arguments,)
KBUILD_CPPFLAGS += $(call cc-option,-Wno-unknown-warning-option,)
View
@@ -28,6 +28,7 @@ config X86
select ARCH_HAS_ELF_RANDOMIZE
select ARCH_HAS_FAST_MULTIPLIER
select ARCH_HAS_GCOV_PROFILE_ALL
select ARCH_HAS_KCOV if X86_64
select ARCH_HAS_PMEM_API if X86_64
select ARCH_HAS_MMIO_FLUSH
select ARCH_HAS_SG_CHAIN
View
@@ -12,6 +12,13 @@
KASAN_SANITIZE := n
OBJECT_FILES_NON_STANDARD := y
# Kernel does not boot with kcov instrumentation here.
# One of the problems observed was insertion of __sanitizer_cov_trace_pc()
# callback into middle of per-cpu data enabling code. Thus the callback observed
# inconsistent state and crashed. We are interested mostly in syscall coverage,
# so boot code is not interesting anyway.
KCOV_INSTRUMENT := n
# If you want to preset the SVGA mode, uncomment the next line and
# set SVGA_MODE to whatever number you want.
# Set it to -DSVGA_MODE=NORMAL_VGA if you just want the EGA/VGA mode.
@@ -19,6 +19,9 @@
KASAN_SANITIZE := n
OBJECT_FILES_NON_STANDARD := y
# Prevents link failures: __sanitizer_cov_trace_pc() is not linked in.
KCOV_INSTRUMENT := n
targets := vmlinux vmlinux.bin vmlinux.bin.gz vmlinux.bin.bz2 vmlinux.bin.lzma \
vmlinux.bin.xz vmlinux.bin.lzo vmlinux.bin.lz4
@@ -7,6 +7,9 @@ KASAN_SANITIZE := n
UBSAN_SANITIZE := n
OBJECT_FILES_NON_STANDARD := y
# Prevents link failures: __sanitizer_cov_trace_pc() is not linked in.
KCOV_INSTRUMENT := n
VDSO64-$(CONFIG_X86_64) := y
VDSOX32-$(CONFIG_X86_X32_ABI) := y
VDSO32-$(CONFIG_X86_32) := y
View
@@ -25,6 +25,12 @@ OBJECT_FILES_NON_STANDARD_relocate_kernel_$(BITS).o := y
OBJECT_FILES_NON_STANDARD_mcount_$(BITS).o := y
OBJECT_FILES_NON_STANDARD_test_nx.o := y
# If instrumentation of this dir is enabled, boot hangs during first second.
# Probably could be more selective here, but note that files related to irqs,
# boot, dumpstack/stacktrace, etc are either non-interesting or can lead to
# non-deterministic coverage.
KCOV_INSTRUMENT := n
CFLAGS_irq.o := -I$(src)/../include/asm/trace
obj-y := process_$(BITS).o signal.o
@@ -2,6 +2,10 @@
# Makefile for local APIC drivers and for the IO-APIC code
#
# Leads to non-deterministic coverage that is not a function of syscall inputs.
# In particualr, smp_apic_timer_interrupt() is called in random places.
KCOV_INSTRUMENT := n
obj-$(CONFIG_X86_LOCAL_APIC) += apic.o apic_noop.o ipi.o vector.o
obj-y += hw_nmi.o
@@ -8,6 +8,10 @@ CFLAGS_REMOVE_common.o = -pg
CFLAGS_REMOVE_perf_event.o = -pg
endif
# If these files are instrumented, boot hangs during the first second.
KCOV_INSTRUMENT_common.o := n
KCOV_INSTRUMENT_perf_event.o := n
# Make sure load_percpu_segment has no stackprotector
nostackp := $(call cc-option, -fno-stack-protector)
CFLAGS_common.o := $(nostackp)
View
@@ -2,6 +2,9 @@
# Makefile for x86 specific library files.
#
# Produces uninteresting flaky coverage.
KCOV_INSTRUMENT_delay.o := n
inat_tables_script = $(srctree)/arch/x86/tools/gen-insn-attr-x86.awk
inat_tables_maps = $(srctree)/arch/x86/lib/x86-opcode-map.txt
quiet_cmd_inat_tables = GEN $@
View
@@ -1,3 +1,6 @@
# Kernel does not boot with instrumentation of tlb.c.
KCOV_INSTRUMENT_tlb.o := n
obj-y := init.o init_$(BITS).o fault.o ioremap.o extable.o pageattr.o mmap.o \
pat.o pgtable.o physaddr.o gup.o setup_nx.o
@@ -9,6 +9,9 @@
KASAN_SANITIZE := n
OBJECT_FILES_NON_STANDARD := y
# Prevents link failures: __sanitizer_cov_trace_pc() is not linked in.
KCOV_INSTRUMENT := n
always := realmode.bin realmode.relocs
wakeup-objs := wakeup_asm.o wakemain.o video-mode.o
@@ -25,6 +25,9 @@ KASAN_SANITIZE := n
UBSAN_SANITIZE := n
OBJECT_FILES_NON_STANDARD := y
# Prevents link failures: __sanitizer_cov_trace_pc() is not linked in.
KCOV_INSTRUMENT := n
lib-y := efi-stub-helper.o
# include the stub's generic dependencies from lib/ when building for ARM/arm64
View
@@ -0,0 +1,29 @@
#ifndef _LINUX_KCOV_H
#define _LINUX_KCOV_H
#include <uapi/linux/kcov.h>
struct task_struct;
#ifdef CONFIG_KCOV
void kcov_task_init(struct task_struct *t);
void kcov_task_exit(struct task_struct *t);
enum kcov_mode {
/* Coverage collection is not enabled yet. */
KCOV_MODE_DISABLED = 0,
/*
* Tracing coverage collection mode.
* Covered PCs are collected in a per-task buffer.
*/
KCOV_MODE_TRACE = 1,
};
#else
static inline void kcov_task_init(struct task_struct *t) {}
static inline void kcov_task_exit(struct task_struct *t) {}
#endif /* CONFIG_KCOV */
#endif /* _LINUX_KCOV_H */
View
@@ -51,6 +51,7 @@ struct sched_param {
#include <linux/resource.h>
#include <linux/timer.h>
#include <linux/hrtimer.h>
#include <linux/kcov.h>
#include <linux/task_io_accounting.h>
#include <linux/latencytop.h>
#include <linux/cred.h>
@@ -1818,6 +1819,16 @@ struct task_struct {
/* bitmask and counter of trace recursion */
unsigned long trace_recursion;
#endif /* CONFIG_TRACING */
#ifdef CONFIG_KCOV
/* Coverage collection mode enabled for this task (0 if disabled). */
enum kcov_mode kcov_mode;
/* Size of the kcov_area. */
unsigned kcov_size;
/* Buffer for coverage collection. */
void *kcov_area;
/* kcov desciptor wired with this task or NULL. */
struct kcov *kcov;
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_MEMCG
struct mem_cgroup *memcg_in_oom;
gfp_t memcg_oom_gfp_mask;
View
@@ -0,0 +1,10 @@
#ifndef _LINUX_KCOV_IOCTLS_H
#define _LINUX_KCOV_IOCTLS_H
#include <linux/types.h>
#define KCOV_INIT_TRACE _IOR('c', 1, unsigned long)
#define KCOV_ENABLE _IO('c', 100)
#define KCOV_DISABLE _IO('c', 101)
#endif /* _LINUX_KCOV_IOCTLS_H */
View
@@ -18,6 +18,17 @@ ifdef CONFIG_FUNCTION_TRACER
CFLAGS_REMOVE_irq_work.o = $(CC_FLAGS_FTRACE)
endif
# Prevents flicker of uninteresting __do_softirq()/__local_bh_disable_ip()
# in coverage traces.
KCOV_INSTRUMENT_softirq.o := n
# These are called from save_stack_trace() on slub debug path,
# and produce insane amounts of uninteresting coverage.
KCOV_INSTRUMENT_module.o := n
KCOV_INSTRUMENT_extable.o := n
# Don't self-instrument.
KCOV_INSTRUMENT_kcov.o := n
KASAN_SANITIZE_kcov.o := n
# cond_syscall is currently not LTO compatible
CFLAGS_sys_ni.o = $(DISABLE_LTO)
@@ -68,6 +79,7 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_AUDITSYSCALL) += auditsc.o
obj-$(CONFIG_AUDIT_WATCH) += audit_watch.o audit_fsnotify.o
obj-$(CONFIG_AUDIT_TREE) += audit_tree.o
obj-$(CONFIG_GCOV_KERNEL) += gcov/
obj-$(CONFIG_KCOV) += kcov.o
obj-$(CONFIG_KPROBES) += kprobes.o
obj-$(CONFIG_KGDB) += debug/
obj-$(CONFIG_DETECT_HUNG_TASK) += hung_task.o
View
@@ -53,6 +53,7 @@
#include <linux/oom.h>
#include <linux/writeback.h>
#include <linux/shm.h>
#include <linux/kcov.h>
#include <asm/uaccess.h>
#include <asm/unistd.h>
@@ -655,6 +656,7 @@ void do_exit(long code)
TASKS_RCU(int tasks_rcu_i);
profile_task_exit(tsk);
kcov_task_exit(tsk);
WARN_ON(blk_needs_flush_plug(tsk));
View
@@ -75,6 +75,7 @@
#include <linux/aio.h>
#include <linux/compiler.h>
#include <linux/sysctl.h>
#include <linux/kcov.h>
#include <asm/pgtable.h>
#include <asm/pgalloc.h>
@@ -392,6 +393,8 @@ static struct task_struct *dup_task_struct(struct task_struct *orig)
account_kernel_stack(ti, 1);
kcov_task_init(tsk);
return tsk;
free_ti:
Oops, something went wrong.

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