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Highly available distributed cron built on RDBMS
Latest commit 5913653 Dec 8, 2015 @nurse nurse Merge pull request #11 from treasure-data/speed-up-next_time
Speed up next time


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PerfectSched is a highly available distributed cron built on top of RDBMS.

It provides at-least-once semantics; Even if a worker node fails during process a task, the task is retried by another worker.

PerfectSched also guarantees that only one worker server processes a task if the server is alive.

All you have to consider is implementing idempotent worker programs. It's recommended to use PerfectQueue with PerfectSched.

API overview

# open a schedule collection, &block)  #=> #<ScheduleCollection>

# add a schedule
ScheduleCollection#add(task_id, type, options)

# poll a scheduled task
# (you don't have to use this method directly. see following sections)
ScheduleCollection#poll  #=> #<Task>

# get data associated with a task
Task#data  #=> #<Hash>

# finish a task

# retry a task

# create a schedule reference
ScheduleCollection#[](key)  #=> #<Schedule>

# chack the existance of the schedule

# delete a schedule

Error classes

ScheduleError < StandardError

# Workers may get these errors:

AlreadyFinishedError < ScheduleError

NotFoundError < ScheduleError

PreemptedError < ScheduleError

ProcessStopError < RuntimeError

# Client or other situation:

ConfigError < RuntimeError

AlreadyExistsError < ScheduleError

NotSupportedError < ScheduleError


# submit a task {|sc|
  data = {'key'=>"value"}
  options = {
    :cron => '0 * * * *',
    :delay => 30,
    :timezone => 'Asia/Tokyo',
    :next_time => Time.parse('2013-01-01 00:00:00 +0900').to_i,
    :data => data,
  sc.add("sched-id", "type1", options)

Writing a worker application

1. Implement PerfectSched::Application::Base

class TestHandler < PerfectSched::Application::Base
  # implement run method
  def run
    # do something ...
    puts "acquired task: #{task.inspect}"

    # call task.finish!, task.retry! or task.release!

2. Implement PerfectSched::Application::Dispatch

class Dispatch < PerfectSched::Application::Dispatch
  # describe routing
  route "type1" => TestHandler
  route /^regexp-.*$/ => :TestHandler  # String or Regexp => Class or Symbol

3. Run the worker

In a launcher script or rake file:

system('perfectsched run -I. -rapp/schedules/dispatch Dispatch')


require 'perfectsched'
require 'app/schedules/dispatch' {
  # this method is called when the worker process is restarted
  raw ='config/perfectsched.yml')
  yml = YAJL.load(raw)
  yml[ENV['RAILS_ENV'] || 'development']

Signal handlers

  • TERM,INT,QUIT: shutdown
  • USR1,HUP: restart
  • USR2: reopen log files


  • type: backend type (required; see following sections)
  • log: log file path (default: use stderr)
  • poll_interval: interval to poll tasks in seconds (default: 1.0 sec)
  • timezone: default timezone (default: 'UTC')
  • alive_time: duration to continue a heartbeat request (default: 300 sec)
  • retry_wait: duration to retry a retried task (default: 300 sec)

Backend types


additional configuration:

  • url: URL to the RDBMS (example: 'mysql://user:password@host:port/database')
  • table: name of the table to use


Not implemented yet.

Command line management tool

Usage: perfectsched [options] <command>

    list                             Show list of registered schedules
    add <key> <type> <cron> <data>   Register a new schedule
    delete <key>                     Delete a registered schedule
    run <class>                      Run a worker process
    init                             Initialize a backend database

    -e, --environment ENV            Framework environment (default: development)
    -c, --config PATH.yml            Path to a configuration file (default: config/perfectsched.yml)

options for add:
    -d, --delay SEC                  Delay time before running a schedule (default: 0)
    -t, --timezone NAME              Set timezone (default: UTC)
    -s, --start UNIXTIME             Set the first schedule time (default: now)
    -a, --at UNIXTIME                Set the first run time (default: start+delay)

options for run:
    -I, --include PATH               Add $LOAD_PATH directory
    -r, --require PATH               Require files before starting

initializing a database

# assume that the config/perfectsched.yml exists
$ perfectsched init

submitting a task

$ perfectsched add s1 user_task '* * * * *' '{}'

listing tasks

$ perfectsched list
                           key            type               cron   delay    timezone                    next_time                next_run_time  data
                            s1       user_task          * * * * *       0         UTC      2012-05-18 22:04:00 UTC      2012-05-18 22:04:00 UTC  {}
1 entries.

delete a schedule

$ perfectsched delete s1

running a worker

$ perfectsched run -I. -Ilib -rconfig/boot.rb -rapps/schedules/schedule_dispatch.rb ScheduleDispatch
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