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Airdropping Sensor Networks from Drones and Insects

Abstract

We present the first system that can airdrop wireless sensors from small drones and live insects. In addition to the challenges of achieving low-power consumption and long-range communication, deploying wireless sensors is difficult because it requires the sensor to survive the impact when dropped in mid-air. Our design takes inspiration from nature: small insects like ants can fall from tall buildings and survive because of their tiny mass and size. Inspired by this, we design insect-scale wireless sensors that come fully integrated with an onboard power supply and a lightweight mechanical actuator to detach from the aerial platform. Our system introduces a first-of-its-kind 37 mg mechanical release mechanism to drop the sensor during flight, using only 450 μJ of energy as well as a wireless communication link that can transmit sensor data at 33 kbps up to 1 km. Once deployed, our 98 mg wireless sensor can run for 1.3-2.5 years when transmitting 10-50 packets per hour on a 68 mg battery. We demonstrate attachment to a small 28 mm wide drone and a moth (Manduca sexta) and show that our insect-scale sensors flutter as they fall, suffering no damage on impact onto a tile floor from heights of 22 m.

Setup

  1. Download nRF SDK
  1. Install toolchains
  • Install gcc-arm-none-eabi using 'brew install gcc-arm-none-eabi'
  • Update GNU_INSTALL_ROOT (path of your gcc) inside Makefile.posix of the unzipped SDK. If you installed using brew, the path should be /usr/local/Cellar/gcc-arm-none-eabi/20180627/bin/
  • Install nordic command line tools from here: https://www.nordicsemi.com/Software-and-tools/Development-Tools/nRF-Command-Line-Tools/Download. Unzip, and move the nrfjprog directory to /usr/local/. Finally, add this to your PATH inside .bash_profile with this change: export PATH=/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/nrfjprog:$PATH
  • Validate that this worked by opening a new terminal and typing 'nrfjprog --version' as a sanity check
  1. Clone the repo
  • Clone in this location: path/to/zip/SDK/examples/ble_peripheral
  1. Build and flash
  • CD into pca10040/s132/armgcc
  • Run 'make flash' in terminal to build and flash

If you have any trouble installing, feel free to reach out, more details for setting up on a mac can be found here: https://aaroneiche.com/2016/06/01/programming-an-nrf52-on-a-mac/

Branches

This repository includes three branches:

  • The 'master'branch is a starting point for any project that wants to incorporate the channel hopping and de-whitening code into a new project.
  • 'mk/packet-error-rate-test' contains code which will indefinitely broadcast beacons, useful for assessing link budget and other desktop performance tests
  • 'mk/deploy' contains an example of a full system demo. After programming, the BLE microcontroller will listen for a packet from the base-station, and self-deploy once the appropriate packet has been received. After deployment, the microcontroller will begin sending beacons at 33kbps to maximize the link budget.

Receiver

  1. Record data from SDR using GNURadio. (frequency - 2.402GHz, sampling rate - 2MHz)
  2. Process .dat file in MATLAB using provided LongRangeBLE_noisy_decoding.m
  • function [ packets, filtered ] = LongRangeBLE_noisy_decoding(filename, frequencyDivider, miniarg)
  • packets: raw packets, filtered: packets remaining after filtering, filename:path to .dat file, frequencyDivider: Amount of bit stretching done on transmission side, miniarg: string which corresponds to path of preamble.dat file.
  1. NOTE: The preamble for your specific transmitter needs to be recorded manually using the USRP for best results. One can record transmissions and extract a preamble manually in MATLAB.

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