Skip to content


Folders and files

Last commit message
Last commit date

Latest commit


Repository files navigation


Vaccine Ontology

The Vaccine Ontology (VO) is a community-based ontology in the domain of vaccinology. It is developed to ensure consistent representation of vaccine knowledge and to support automated reasoning. This international collaborative VO development effort has been joined by many institutes and disciplines around the world. The Vaccine Ontology is also being used in a variety of applications by many user groups in academia and industry.

See more information in the VO website:

VO website in VIOLIN (default home page of VO):

VO Source Link (free for downloading):

OWL format:

Tracker link:

VO in OBO Foundry:

VO in Ontology Repositories:


Selected VO references:

  • Y Zhang, C Tao, Y He, P Kanjamala, H Liu. Network-based analysis of vaccine-related associations reveals consistent knowledge with the vaccine ontology. Journal of Biomedical Semantics 2013, 4:33 doi:10.1186/2041-1480-4-33. PMID: 24209834.
  • Hur J, Xiang Z, Feldman EL, He Y. Ontology-based Brucella vaccine literature indexing and systematic analysis of gene-vaccine association network. BMC Immunology. 12(1):49 2011 Aug 26. PMID: 21871085. PMCID: PMC3180695.
  • Ozgur A, Xiang Z, Radev D, He Y. Mining of vaccine-associated IFN-γ gene interaction networks using the Vaccine Ontology. Journal of Biomedical Semantics. 2011, 2(Suppl 2):S8. PMID: 21624163. PMCID: PMC3102897.
  • Yongqun He, Lindsay Cowell, Alexander Diehl, Harry Mobley, Bjoern Peters, Alan Ruttenberg, Richard Scheuermann, Ryan Brinkman, Melanie Courtot, Chris Mungall, Zuoshuang Xiang, Fang Chen, Thomas Todd, Lesley Colby, Howard Rush, Trish Whetzel, Mark Musen, Brian Athey, Gilbert Omenn & Barry Smith. VO: Vaccine Ontology. The 1st International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO 2009), Buffalo, NY, USA. Nature Precedings. 2009. URL:

See more: