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Create Django project

Django startproject command allows us to create a simple Django project however there are some great cookiecutter projects that can help you start your project easily (For example Cookiecutter Django). I'm using default django-admin startproject cli command in this example.

pip install django
django-admin startproject django_aws_lambda

Configure requirements

You can use any of option to store your project requirements (like Pipfile, pyproject.toml). I'm using requirements.txt here.

  • create requirements.txt file in a root directory of the project
  • add the following libraries to requirements.txt file:
boto3==1.17.17
Collectfast==2.2.0
Django==3.1.7
django-environ==0.4.5
psycopg2-binary==2.8.6
Werkzeug==1.0.1
  • create and activate virtual environments

Choose your preferred tool for managing virtual environments (like conda, pyenv, virtualenv, etc.)

  • install requirements
pip install -r requirements.txt

Create hello Django app

  • create app using startapp Django command
python manage.py startapp hello
  • create templates folder
mkdir templates
  • create hello.html file in templates folder with the following lines:
{% load static %}

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Greeting</title>
</head>
<body>
<div>
  <h1>Hello {{ name }}</h1>
<img src="{% static 'django.jpeg' %}" alt="Django" style="width: 20%">
</div>
</body>
</html>
  • create folder static in the root directory of the project
mkdir static
  • add any image file to static folder for example django.jpeg

  • update hello/views.py

from django.shortcuts import render


# Create your views here.
def hello(request, resource=None):

    return render(request, "hello.html", {"name": resource or 'World'})
  • update hello/urls.py
from django.urls import path

from .views import hello

app_name = "hello"
urlpatterns = [
    path("", view=hello, name="hello-world"),
    path("<path:resource>", view=hello, name="hello-path"),
]

Configure environments variables:

  • create .env file in the root directory of the project
  • configure the following variables:
STAGE='production'
DB_HOST=<your database host>
DB_USER=<your database user name>
DB_PASSWORD=<your database password>
DB_NAME=<your database name>
DJANGO_SECRET_KEY=<some django secret key>
AWS_S3_CDN_DOMAIN=<your Cloud Front distribution, like: `<distribution id>.cloudfront.net`>
AWS_S3_REGION_NAME=<your AWS region>
AWS_STORAGE_BUCKET_NAME=<AWS s3 bucket for static files with punlic policies>
DEPLOYMENT_BUCKET=<AWS s3 bucket for deployment>
AWS_KEY_ID=<your AWS Key Id>
AWS_SECRET=<your AWS Secret>
DJANGO_ADMIN_URL=<Django admin url>
DJANGO_ALLOWED_HOSTS=<list of allowed hosts separated by coma>
CLIENT_DIR='client/build'

Create configuration for local development and production

  • update settings.py in django_aws_lambda folder with the following lines:
"""
Django settings for django_aws_lambda project.

Generated by 'django-admin startproject' using Django 1.11.29.

For more information on this file, see
https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/1.11/topics/settings/

For the full list of settings and their values, see
https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/1.11/ref/settings/
"""

from pathlib import Path

import environ

ROOT_DIR = Path(__file__).resolve(strict=True).parent.parent
env = environ.Env()
READ_DOT_ENV_FILE = env.bool('DJANGO_READ_DOT_ENV_FILE', default=True)
if READ_DOT_ENV_FILE:
    env.read_env(str(ROOT_DIR / '.env'))

# Quick-start development settings - unsuitable for production
# See https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/1.11/howto/deployment/checklist/

# SECURITY WARNING: keep the secret key used in production secret!
SECRET_KEY = env('DJANGO_SECRET_KEY', default='<some-secured-key>')
# SECURITY WARNING: don't run with debug turned on in production!
DEBUG = False

ALLOWED_HOSTS = env.list('DJANGO_ALLOWED_HOSTS', default=['127.0.0.1', 'localhost'])
INSTALLED_APPS = [
    'django.contrib.admin',
    'django.contrib.auth',
    'django.contrib.contenttypes',
    'django.contrib.sessions',
    'django.contrib.messages',
    'django.contrib.staticfiles',
    'hello',
]

MIDDLEWARE = [
    'django.middleware.security.SecurityMiddleware',
    'django.contrib.sessions.middleware.SessionMiddleware',
    'django.middleware.common.CommonMiddleware',
    'django.middleware.csrf.CsrfViewMiddleware',
    'django.contrib.auth.middleware.AuthenticationMiddleware',
    'django.contrib.messages.middleware.MessageMiddleware',
    'django.middleware.clickjacking.XFrameOptionsMiddleware',
]

ROOT_URLCONF = 'django_aws_lambda.urls'

TEMPLATES = [
    {
        'BACKEND': 'django.template.backends.django.DjangoTemplates',
        'DIRS': [
            str(ROOT_DIR / 'templates'),
            str(ROOT_DIR / 'staticfiles'),
        ],
        'OPTIONS': {
            'loaders': [
                'django.template.loaders.filesystem.Loader',
                'django.template.loaders.app_directories.Loader',
            ],
            'context_processors': [
                'django.template.context_processors.debug',
                'django.template.context_processors.request',
                'django.contrib.auth.context_processors.auth',
                'django.template.context_processors.i18n',
                'django.template.context_processors.media',
                'django.template.context_processors.static',
                'django.template.context_processors.tz',
                'django.contrib.messages.context_processors.messages',
            ],
        },
    },
]

WSGI_APPLICATION = 'django_aws_lambda.wsgi.application'


# Database
# https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/3.0/ref/settings/#databases

DATABASES = {
    'default': {
        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.sqlite3',
        'NAME': ROOT_DIR / "db.sqlite3",
    }
}


# Password validation
# https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/3.0/ref/settings/#auth-password-validators
AUTH_PASSWORD_VALIDATORS = [
    {
        'NAME': 'django.contrib.auth.password_validation.UserAttributeSimilarityValidator',
    },
    {
        'NAME': 'django.contrib.auth.password_validation.MinimumLengthValidator',
    },
    {
        'NAME': 'django.contrib.auth.password_validation.CommonPasswordValidator',
    },
    {
        'NAME': 'django.contrib.auth.password_validation.NumericPasswordValidator',
    },
]


# Internationalization
# https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/1.11/topics/i18n/

LANGUAGE_CODE = 'en-us'

TIME_ZONE = 'UTC'

USE_I18N = True

USE_L10N = True

USE_TZ = True


# Static files (CSS, JavaScript, Images)
# https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/1.11/howto/static-files/

STATIC_ROOT = str(ROOT_DIR / 'staticfiles')
STATIC_URL = '/static/'

STATICFILES_DIRS = [
    str(ROOT_DIR / env('CLIENT_DIR', default='client/build')),
    str(ROOT_DIR / 'static'),
]
STATICFILES_FINDERS = [
    'django.contrib.staticfiles.finders.FileSystemFinder',
    'django.contrib.staticfiles.finders.AppDirectoriesFinder',
]
MEDIA_ROOT = str(ROOT_DIR / 'media')
MEDIA_URL = '/media/'
ADMIN_URL = env('DJANGO_ADMIN_URL')
  • create local.py and production.py files inside ddjango_aws_lambda folder on the same level as settings.py
  • add the following lines to local.py:
from .settings import *  # noqa


DEBUG = True
  • add the following lines to production.py:
from .settings import *  # noqa

DEBUG = False
DATABASES["default"] = {
    'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.postgresql',
    'NAME': env("DB_NAME"),
    'USER': env("DB_USER"),
    'PASSWORD': env("DB_PASSWORD"),
    'HOST': env("DB_HOST"),
    'PORT': '5432',
}
DATABASES["default"]["ATOMIC_REQUESTS"] = True  # noqa F405
DATABASES["default"]["CONN_MAX_AGE"] = env.int("CONN_MAX_AGE", default=60)  # noqa F405
SECURE_PROXY_SSL_HEADER = ("HTTP_X_FORWARDED_PROTO", "https")
SECURE_SSL_REDIRECT = env.bool("DJANGO_SECURE_SSL_REDIRECT", default=False)
SESSION_COOKIE_SECURE = True
CSRF_COOKIE_SECURE = True
SECURE_HSTS_SECONDS = 60
SECURE_HSTS_INCLUDE_SUBDOMAINS = env.bool("DJANGO_SECURE_HSTS_INCLUDE_SUBDOMAINS", default=True)
SECURE_HSTS_PRELOAD = env.bool("DJANGO_SECURE_HSTS_PRELOAD", default=True)
SECURE_CONTENT_TYPE_NOSNIFF = env.bool("DJANGO_SECURE_CONTENT_TYPE_NOSNIFF", default=True)
INSTALLED_APPS += ["storages"]  # noqa F405
AWS_KEY = env("AWS_KEY_ID")
AWS_SECRET = env("AWS_SECRET")
AWS_STORAGE_BUCKET_NAME = env("AWS_STORAGE_BUCKET_NAME")
AWS_QUERYSTRING_AUTH = False
_AWS_EXPIRY = 60 * 60 * 24 * 7
AWS_S3_OBJECT_PARAMETERS = {"CacheControl": f"max-age={_AWS_EXPIRY}, s-maxage={_AWS_EXPIRY}, must-revalidate"}
AWS_S3_REGION_NAME = env("AWS_S3_REGION_NAME", default=None)
AWS_S3_CUSTOM_DOMAIN = env("DJANGO_AWS_S3_CUSTOM_DOMAIN", default=None)
aws_s3_domain = AWS_S3_CUSTOM_DOMAIN or f"{AWS_STORAGE_BUCKET_NAME}.s3.amazonaws.com"
STATICFILES_STORAGE = "django_aws_lambda.utils.StaticRootS3Boto3Storage"
COLLECTFAST_STRATEGY = "collectfast.strategies.boto3.Boto3Strategy"
STATIC_URL = f"https://{aws_s3_domain}/static/"
DEFAULT_FILE_STORAGE = "django_aws_lambda.utils.MediaRootS3Boto3Storage"
MEDIA_URL = f"https://{aws_s3_domain}/media/"
MEDIAFILES_LOCATION = "/media"

STATICFILES_LOCATION = "/static"
TEMPLATES[-1]["OPTIONS"]["loaders"] = [  # type: ignore[index] # noqa F405
    (
        "django.template.loaders.cached.Loader",
        [
            "django.template.loaders.filesystem.Loader",
            "django.template.loaders.app_directories.Loader",
        ],
    )
]
  • update wsgi.py file in django_aws_lambda folder with the following lines:
"""
WSGI config for django_aws_lambda project.

It exposes the WSGI callable as a module-level variable named ``application``.

For more information on this file, see
https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/1.11/howto/deployment/wsgi/
"""

"""
WSGI config for django_aws_lambda project.

It exposes the WSGI callable as a module-level variable named ``application``.

For more information on this file, see
https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/3.0/howto/deployment/wsgi/
"""

import os

from django.core.wsgi import get_wsgi_application

os.environ.setdefault('DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE', 'django_aws_lambda.production')

application = get_wsgi_application()
  • update urls.py file in django_aws_lambda folder with the following lines:
"""django_aws_lambda URL Configuration

The `urlpatterns` list routes URLs to views. For more information please see:
    https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/3.0/topics/http/urls/
Examples:
Function views
    1. Add an import:  from my_app import views
    2. Add a URL to urlpatterns:  path('', views.home, name='home')
Class-based views
    1. Add an import:  from other_app.views import Home
    2. Add a URL to urlpatterns:  path('', Home.as_view(), name='home')
Including another URLconf
    1. Import the include() function: from django.urls import include, path
    2. Add a URL to urlpatterns:  path('blog/', include('blog.urls'))
"""
from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path, include
from django.views.generic import TemplateView


urlpatterns = [
    path('admin/', admin.site.urls),
    path('hello/', include('hello.urls')),
    path('', TemplateView.as_view(template_name="index.html"), {'resource': ''}),
    path('<path:resource>', TemplateView.as_view(template_name="index.html")),
]
  • update manage.py with the following lines:
#!/usr/bin/env python
"""Django's command-line utility for administrative tasks."""
import os
import sys


def main():
    os.environ.setdefault('DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE', 'django_aws_lambda.production')
    try:
        from django.core.management import execute_from_command_line
    except ImportError as exc:
        raise ImportError(
            "Couldn't import Django. Are you sure it's installed and "
            "available on your PYTHONPATH environment variable? Did you "
            "forget to activate a virtual environment?"
        ) from exc
    execute_from_command_line(sys.argv)


if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()
  • create a folder utils inside django_aws_lambda
  • create storages.py file inside utils folder with the following lines:
from storages.backends.s3boto3 import S3Boto3Storage


class StaticRootS3Boto3Storage(S3Boto3Storage):
    location = "static"
    default_acl = "public-read"


class MediaRootS3Boto3Storage(S3Boto3Storage):
    location = "media"
    file_overwrite = False

Run Django project locally

  • set environment variable with a path to Django local configuration file
export DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE=django_aws_lambda.local
  • migrate database changes
python manage.py migrate
  • create a superuser in the database
python manage.py createsuperuser

Then provide a username, user email, password, and confirm the password

  • collect static files
python manage.py collectstatic
  • run server locally
python manage.py runserver

Create serverless configuration

  • initialize npm:
npm init
  • install serverless
npm install -g serverless
  • install serverless plugins
npm install -P serverless-dotenv-plugin
npm install -P serverless-prune-plugin
npm install -P serverless-python-requirements
npm install -P serverless-wsgi
  • create serverless.yml file with the following configuration:
service: django-aws-lambda

plugins:
  - serverless-dotenv-plugin
  - serverless-prune-plugin
  - serverless-python-requirements
  - serverless-wsgi
useDotenv: true

custom:
  dotenv:
    logging: false
  pythonRequirements:
    dockerizePip: non-linux
    zip: true
    fileName: requirements.txt
  stage: ${env:STAGE}
  wsgi:
    app: django_aws_lambda.wsgi.application
    packRequirements: false
  prune:
    automatic: true
    number: 3

functions:
  - app:
      handler: wsgi_handler.handler
      events:
        - http: ANY /
        - http: ANY /{proxy+}
      timeout: 30

provider:
  name: aws
  role: arn:aws:iam::<role_id>:role/<role_name>
  profile: <your-profile-name>  # make sure that you configured aws profile using `aws configure --profile <your-profile-name>`
  region: us-east-1
  runtime: python3.8
  versionFunctions: false
  stage: ${env:STAGE}
  timeout: 60
  vpc:
    securityGroupIds:
      - <your-security-group-id>
      - <your-security-group-id>
    subnetIds:
      - <your-subnet-id>
      - <your-subnet-id>
  deploymentBucket:
    name: ${env:DEPLOYMENT_BUCKET}
  apiGateway:
    shouldStartNameWithService: true
  lambdaHashingVersion: 20201221

package:
  individually:
    true
  exclude:
    - .env
    - .git/**
    - .github/**
    - .serverless/**
    - static/**
    - .cache/**
    - .pytest_cache/**
    - node_modules/**
    - client/**

Use Docker for deploying your Django project to AWS Lambda using Serverless

  • run Amazon Linux 2 docker image:
docker run -it -v $(pwd):/root/src/ -v /Users/vadymkhodak/.aws:/root/.aws amazonlinux:latest bash
  • install the necessary Unix dependencies:
yum install sudo -y
sudo yum install -y gcc openssl-devel bzip2-devel libffi-devel wget tar sqlite-devel gcc-c++ make
  • install node.js version 14:
curl -sL https://rpm.nodesource.com/setup_14.x | sudo -E bash - 
sudo yum install -y nodejs
  • install Python 3.8.7:
cd /opt
sudo wget https://www.python.org/ftp/python/3.8.7/Python-3.8.7.tgz
sudo tar xzf Python-3.8.7.tgz
cd Python-3.8.7
sudo ./configure --enable-optimizations
sudo make altinstall
sudo rm -f /opt/Python-3.8.7.tgz
  • create python and pip aliases:
alias python='python3.8'
alias pip='pip3.8'
  • update pip and setuptools:
pip install --upgrade pip setuptools
  • install serverless:
npm install -g serverless
  • move to project directory
cd /root/src/
  • install requirements inside docker container:
pip install -r requirements.txt
  • set environment variable with a path to django production configuration file
export DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE=django_aws_lambda.production
  • migrate database changes
python manage.py migrate
  • create a superuser in the database
python manage.py createsuperuser

Then provide a username, user email, password, and confirm the password

  • collect static files to AWS S3 bucket
python manage.py collectstatic

If you get NoCredentialsError from botocore you should add to environment variables AWS_PROFILE:

export AWS_PROFILE=<your-aws-profile-name>
  • install serverless packages from package.json
npm install
  • deploy your Django project to AWS Lambda using Serverless
serverless deploy -s production

Your response will look like that:

Serverless: Adding Python requirements helper to ....
Serverless: Generated requirements from /root/src/requirements.txt in /root/src/.serverless/requirements.txt...
Serverless: Installing requirements from /root/.cache/serverless-python-requirements/ ...
Serverless: Using download cache directory /root/.cache/serverless-python-requirements/downloadCacheslspyc
Serverless: Running ...
Serverless: Zipping required Python packages for ....
Serverless: Using Python specified in "runtime": python3.8
Serverless: Packaging Python WSGI handler...
Serverless: Packaging service...
Serverless: Excluding development dependencies...
Serverless: Removing Python requirements helper from ....
Serverless: Injecting required Python packages to package...
Serverless: Uploading CloudFormation file to S3...
Serverless: Uploading artifacts...
Serverless: Uploading service app.zip file to S3 (60.48 MB)...
Serverless: Validating template...
Serverless: Updating Stack...
Serverless: Checking Stack update progress...
..........
Serverless: Stack update finished...
Service Information
service: <your-serverless-service-name>
stage: production
region: <your-aws-region>
stack: <your-serverless-service-name>-pronduction
resources: 8
api keys:
  None
endpoints:
  ANY - https://<some-id>.execute-api.<your-aws-region>.amazonaws.com/production
  ANY - https://<some-id>.execute-api.<your-aws-region>.amazonaws.com/production/{proxy+}
functions:
  app: <your-serverless-service-name>-production-app
layers:
  None
Serverless: Prune: Running post-deployment pruning
Serverless: Prune: Querying for deployed function versions
Serverless: Prune: <your-serverless-service-name>-production-app has 3 additional versions published and 0 aliases, 0 versions selected for deletion
Serverless: Prune: Pruning complete.
Serverless: Removing old service artifacts from S3...

**************************************************************************************************************************************
Serverless: Announcing Metrics, CI/CD, Secrets and more built into Serverless Framework. Run "serverless login" to activate for free..
**************************************************************************************************************************************

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