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README.md

VOCaL

VOCaL -- a Verified OCaml Library

VOCaL is a general-purpose data structure and algorithm OCaml library.

What distinguishes this library from many other is the fact that its implementation has been formally verified. The verification includes absence of run-time errors and functional correctness. The latter uses formal specifications inserted in .mli files with special comments starting with (*@. The specification language for OCaml is still under development and a quick documentation is given below. The .mli files also contain traditional, informal documentation, similar to that of any other OCaml library.

The github repository also contains some of the source files for the proofs of correctness (eventually, it will contain all of them). Yet these proofs are not needed to compile and use the VOCaL library. Have a look in proofs/ if you are curious.

OCaml Interface Specification Language

We briefly describe the specification language using an example, taken from Vector.mli.

The abstract type t of vectors below is identified as ephemeral (elements can be mutated in-place) and is modeled using a polymorphic sequence, introduced using the mutable model syntax. Properties about the data type and associated models can be captured using the invariant keyword.

(** The polymorphic type of vectors.
    This is a mutable data type. *)
type 'a t
(*@ ephemeral *)
(*@ mutable model view: 'a seq *)
(*@ invariant length view <= Sys.max_array_length *)

To provide specification for function declarations, the parameters and the returned value must be named first. Preconditions are stated in requires clause, while postconditions are introduced after ensures.

val create: ?capacity:int -> dummy:'a -> 'a t
(*@ a = create capacity dummy
      requires let capacity = match capacity with
                 | None -> 0 | Some c -> c in
               0 <= capacity <= Sys.max_array_length
      ensures  length a.view = 0 *)

Whenever type int is mentioned, it refers to the OCaml type int of native machine integer (e.g. 63-bit signed integers on a 64-bit platform). A type integer for mathematical integers is also provided. Here is an example:

val make: ?dummy:'a -> int -> 'a -> 'a t
(*@ a = make ?dummy n x
      requires 0 <= n <= Sys.max_array_length
      ensures  length a.view = n
      ensures  forall i: integer. 0 <= i < n -> a.view[i] = x *)

Whenever a function has side effects, this is indicated using a modifies clause. Here is an example:

val resize: 'a t -> int -> unit
(*@ resize a n
      checks   0 <= n <= Sys.max_array_length
      modifies a
      ensures  length a.view = n
      ensures  forall i. 0 <= i < min (length (old a.view)) n ->
                 a.view[i] = (old a.view)[i] *)

This last example also features the checks clause. This is an alternative to requires. Contrary to the latter, a checks clause is checked at run-time, and raises an Invalid_argument exception when it is not satisfied.

Last, an equivalent clause is sometimes used to describe the behavior of an OCaml function using an equivalent piece of OCaml code. Here is an example:

val iter : ('a -> unit) -> 'a t -> unit
(*@ iter f a
      equivalent "for i = 0 to length a - 1 do f (get a i) done" *)

A forthcoming documentation of this specification language (work in progress) will hopefully provide more details and clarify the semantics.

Copyright

See the enclosed file LICENSE.

Bugs report

Please use the github issues to report bugs.

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