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A Go library to control the Open vSwitch in-kernel datapath
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README.md

go-odp: A Go library to control the Open vSwitch in-kernel datapath

Background

Open vSwitch (OVS) consists of two parts:

  • The "open vSwitch datapath" (ODP): An in-kernel component that processes packet flows according to a set of rules. This has been part of the mainline Linux kernel for a while, and the main Linux distros already include the relevant module in their kernel packages. ODP is controlled from userspace via netlink.

  • A group of userspace daemons that manage the datapath, setting the rules and handling any misses reported by the datapath when a packet does not match any rules. The source for this part is in the main Open vSwitch repository, and this is what gets packaged as openvswitch by Linux distros.

This library allows Go programs to control the datapath directly. This avoids the need to install and manage the OVS userspace daemons, which can be preferable if the functionality provided by the OVS userspace is not required.

go-odp also includes a command-line tool that can be used to experiment with ODP without writing code.

Introduction to ODP

ODP allows the creation of multiple datapaths. A datapath is a named scope for processing of network packets. Associated with each datapath is:

  • A set of vports. Packets enter and exit a datapath through vports. The most obvious example of a vport is a network device (of any of the types supported by the kernel), but there are other kinds.

  • A set of flows. Flows are rules saying which packets belong to the flow (the key) and what should be done with those packets (the actions). A flow key is specified as a set of packet attribute values (the set of packet attributes available is defined by ODP). So, for example, a flow could, as its flow key, select packets with a certain destination MAC address and, as its action, send them out on a particular vport.

Note that when processing a packet, the order in which the flows are evaluated is unspecified, and the first flow to match "wins" (its actions are executed).

If no flows match a packet, then the packet is considered a miss. A userspace process can register to receive miss notifications, which include the full packet data.

As mentioned, flows match a packet based on its attributes. Most of these attributes correspond to fields in the packet data, but there are also attributes that represent data attached to the packet as it passes through the datapath. For example, the vport through which the packet entered the datapath is available as an attribute, and there are tunnel attributes which are important to VXLAN encapsulation, discussed below.

Installation

Set GOPATH, then:

go get github.com/weaveworks/go-odp/tool/odp

The command line tool will end up at $GOPATH/bin/odp

The ODP module needs to be explicitly loaded:

sudo modprobe openvswitch

Command line tool

This section describes the use of the odp command line tool. The operations available through this tool map more or less directly onto the operations exposed by the Open vSwitch datapath over netlink, and are a good way to understand what the ODP interface looks like.

The odp program supports a number of subcommands (in a similar fashion to ip). Subcommands can be abbreviated as long as they remain unambiguous.

Datapaths

List all datapaths with:

$GOPATH/bin/odp datapath

Create a new datapath with:

$GOPATH/bin/odp datapath add <datapath name>

A datapath is also exposed as a network device with the same name (and for this reason a datapath name cannot clash with a network device name). The main practical use of this seems to be to tcpdump the packets on the datapath.

You can delete a datapath with:

$GOPATH/bin/odp datapath delete <datapath name>

Vports

List all vport definitions with:

$GOPATH/bin/odp vport

Or just the vports within a datapath with:

$GOPATH/bin/odp vport list <datapath name>

Each line describes a vport. The format corresponds to how vports are specified to the vport add command, described below.

Netdev vports

A network device can be exposed within a datapath as a vport with:

$GOPATH/bin/odp vport add netdev <datapath name> <netdev name>

This simply allows packets into and out of the datapath via the network device (which can be one end of a veth pair).

Note that this hijacks all the traffic from the netdev, preventing its normal use. Also, a netdev can only be attached to a single datapath at a time.

VXLAN vports

A VXLAN vport encapsulates and decapsulates VXLAN packets. See the VXLAN section below.

Flows

List the flows within a datapath with:

$GOPATH/bin/odp flow list <datapath name>

Each line describes a flow. The format corresponds to how flows are specified to the flow add command.

The general syntax for creating a flow is:

$GOPATH/bin/odp flow add <datapath name> <flow key options> <flow action options>

They can only be one flow with a given key. Adding another flow with the same key as one that already exists simply assigns new actions to the existing flow.

The currently supported flow key options are:

  • --in-port=<vport name>: match packets that arrived on the given vport.

  • --eth-src=<MAC address>[:<MAC mask>]: match packets with the given ethernet source MAC address. An optional bitmask for the match can be specified, expressed in the usual MAC address sytax.

  • --eth-dst=<MAC address>[:<MAC mask>]: match packets with the given ethernet destination MAC address, with an optional bitmask for the match.

  • --tunnel-id=<hex bytes>, --tunnel-ipv4-src=<ipv4 address>, --tunnel-ipv4-dst=<ipv4 address>, --tunnel-tos=<ipv4 ToS byte value>, --tunnel-ttl=<ipv4 TTL value>, --tunnel-df=<DF flag boolean>, --tunnel-csum=<boolean>: tunnel attributes; see the VXLAN section below.

The currently supported actions are:

  • --output=<vport names>: output the packet on the given vports (names are comma separated rather than given by multiple options due to limitations in golang's flag package).

  • --set-tunnel-id=<hex bytes>, --set-tunnel-ipv4-src=<ipv4 address>, --set-tunnel-ipv4-dst=<ipv4 address>, --set-tunnel-tos=<ipv4 ToS byte value>, --set-tunnel-ttl=<ipv4 TTL value>, --set-tunnel-df=<DF flag boolean>, --set-tunnel-csum=<boolean>: set tunnel attributes; see the VXLAN section below.

VXLAN

The way ODP specifies VXLAN packet encapsulation is somewhat intricate, so it's easier to consider decapsulation first (i.e. how an incoming VXLAN packet gets handled, resulting in the payload packet being placed onto the datapath).

A VXLAN port is created with

$GOPATH/bin/odp vport add vxlan <datapath name> <vport name> --port=<port number>

The --port option specifies the UDP port to bind to for receiving VXLAN packets. The socket is not bound to a specific address (i.e. it does the equivalent of binding with INADDR_ANY), and the port cannot be shared. If the --port option is omitted, it defaults to 4789, the IANA assign port number for VXLAN.

When a VXLAN packet arrives to the specified UDP socket, it is decapsulated and the payload packet is injected through the vport into the datapath. Underlay-network packet information is attached to the packet as the tunnel attributes and so made available for flow matching, using the --tunnel-* flow key options.

Conversely, a packet can be encapsulated by outputting it from the datapath through a VXLAN vport. Several parameters are needed to produce a VXLAN packet, e.g. the IP address to send the packet to. These parameters are obtained from the tunnel attributes attached to the packet. The OVS_ACTION_ATTR_SET flow action is used to set the tunnel attributes, exposed through the --set-tunnel-* options. So a flow that performs VXLAN encapsulation has two elements: Setting the tunnel attributes, and then outputting the packet on a VXLAN vport. For example:

$GOPATH/bin/odp flow add dp --in-port=ethx --set-tunnel-ipv4-src=10.0.0.112 \
    --set-tunnel-ipv4-dst=10.0.0.113 --set-tunnel-ttl=64 --output=vx

The --set-tunnel-id option can be used to set the VXLAN network identifier (VNI) field on the VXLAN packets.

The destination UDP port for the VXLAN packets is the port number setting for the outgoing VXLAN vport (the same port number that is used for binding). The source UDP port for the VXLAN packets cannot be configured; it is based on a hash of inner packet fields, as recommended in RFC7348.

Misses

The command line tool can display misses reported for a datapath, with:

$GOPATH/bin/odp datapath listen <datapath name>

The reported packets are piped through tcpdump to display their contents.

You can also ask for the flow keys associated with misses to be reported with:

$GOPATH/bin/odp datapath listen --keys <datapath name>

Getting Help

If you have any questions about, feedback for or problems with go-odp:

Your feedback is always welcome!

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