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Semi-supervised learning with squared-loss mutual information regularization

This repository contains a Matlab implementation of the SMI regularization as described in our paper.

Squared-loss Mutual Information Regularization: A Novel Information-theoretic Approach to Semi-supervised Learning
Gang Niu, Wittawat Jitkrittum, Bo Dai, Hirotaka Hachiya, Masashi Sugiyama
ICML, 2013

The goal of this project is to learn a multi-class probabilistic classifier in a semi-supervised learning setting. We observe labeled data {(x_1, y_1), ... (x_l, y_l)}, and a lot of unlabelded data {x_{l+1}, x_{l+2}, ...}. The goal is to make use of the abundant unlabeled data to learn a better classifier. In our framework of squared-loss mutual information (SMI) regularization, we learn a classifier such that the following two criteria are respected (with some tradeoff):

  1. The predictive loss on the class labels is minimized.
  2. A squared-loss version of the mutual information between the unlabeled data, and the class labels is maximized.

Advantages of this approach are: 1. analytic solution, 2. out-of-sample classification, 3. probabilistic output. All parameters are automatically tuned by cross validation.

How to run?

  1. Clone or download this repository. You will get the smir folder.
  2. In Matlab, change the directory to the smir folder. Execute startup.m script by running the command startup.
  3. Run the demo script demo_smir_msd_cv.m to see a demonstration on the two-moon dataset.

Demo script

The demo script demo_smir_msd_cv.m considers the two-moon toy example. This is a 2D two-class classification problem. The training set contains only 6 labeled points shown in the next figure. Here, the black dots are unlabeled points.

Training data

After training, the learned classifier has the following decision boundary. Note that a learned classifier can be applied to any unseen input point.

Decision boundary

Since the output of the classifier is a conditional probablity p(y|x), we can plot the entropy of this conditional distribution for all points x. Red color denotes a high entropy (less confident) region.

Predictive entropy

The code is as follows. See the comments below to understand what each line means.

% load 2moons data. 
load a_2moons_1;

% Inside, X is the input matrix 2x556 (dxn).
% Y is 1x556 containing full labels. Y0 is 1x6 containing labels for only
% the first 6 points in X (3 for each class). 
% We will use Y0 for training. 
hold on 
% Here is the plot of the training data.
plot2dlabels(X, Y0);
title('Training data');
hold off

% Array of Gaussian width candidates for cross validation.
med = meddistance(X);
o.gaussianwidthlist = med*[1/3, 1/2];
% array of gamma's to try
o.gammalist = 10.^[-2, -1];

% Array of lambdafactors. Each of this value v will be used to calculate
% lambda = \gamma*c/n + v (c is the number of classes, n is the sample size).
% This is to ensure the convexity of the problem.
o.lambdafactorlist = 10.^[-5, -3];

% Number of folds in cross validation used to select gamma and Gaussian
% width
o.fold = 2;

% Perform cross validation (In this case, CV is performed using only 6 labeled points 
% in 2moons data). 
SMG  = smir_cv( X, Y0, o);

% SMG is a struct containing information obtained after doing cross
% validation. Here is an example of what it looks like inside SMG.
%                    A: [556x2 double]
%                  Beta: [556x2 double]
%               Options: [1x1 struct]
%             bestgamma: 1.0000e-03
%     bestgaussianwidth: 0.4803
%      bestlambdafactor: 0.0100
%              mincverr: 0.5000
%                     q: [function_handle]
%               timecpu: 0.3900
%            timetictoc: 0.1864
% In particular the most important is q, a function handle which can be
% applied to new test (unseen) points in a matrix of the form d x n'

% Get the model trained with the best parameters chosen by the cross
% validation.
condProbFunc = SMG.q;

% Note that in general the learned model of SMIR can be applied to
% unseen points. But here, for demonstration purpose, we test it on the 
% matrix X.
Yprob = condProbFunc(X);

% The result Yprob will be a c x n' matrix. Yprob(i,j) indicates the
% probability that example j belongs to class i.
% Here we convert the result to the most probable classes.
[Temp, Yh] = max(Yprob, [] , 1); % Yh is now 1 x n' whose entries are in {1,..,c}

% Plot the labeled results 
hold on 
plot2dlabels(X, Yh);
title('Test results');
hold off

% Make an entropy plot to see which region the model is
% confident in predicting. Blue denotes low entropy region (high
% confident).
plot2dentropy(X, Y0, condProbFunc);

% In this plot, the red S-shape region path is running in between
% the two moons. It has high entropy since the region lies between the two
% classes. Entropy is relatively low outside this region.

% Also try 
plot2dclassprob(X,Y0, condProbFunc);
% to see the decision boundary 


MIT license.


ICML 2013. Semi-supervised classifier with squared-loss mutual information regularization








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