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README.md

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NAME

SQL::Format - Yet another yet another SQL builder

SYNOPSIS

use SQL::Format;

my ($stmt, @bind) = sqlf 'SELECT %c FROM %t WHERE %w' => (
    [qw/bar baz/], # %c
    'foo',         # %t
    {
        hoge => 'fuga',
        piyo => [qw/100 200 300/],
    },             # %w
);
# $stmt: SELECT `bar`, `baz` FROM `foo` WHERE (`hoge` = ?) AND (`piyo` IN (?, ?, ?))
# @bind: ('fuga', 100, 200, 300);

($stmt, @bind) = sqlf 'SELECT %c FROM %t WHERE %w %o' => (
    '*',                # %c
    'foo',              # %t
    { hoge => 'fuga' }, # w
    {
        order_by => { bar => 'DESC' },
        limit    => 100,
        offset   => 10,
    },                  # %o
);
# $stmt: SELECT * FROM `foo` WHERE (`hoge` = ?) ORDER BY `bar` DESC LIMIT 100 OFFSET 10
# @bind: (`fuga`)

($stmt, @bind) = sqlf 'UPDATE %t SET %s' => (
    foo => { bar => 'baz', 'hoge => 'fuga' },
);
# $stmt: UPDATE `foo` SET `bar` = ?, `hoge` = ?
# @bind: ('baz', 'fuga')

my $sqlf = SQL::Format->new(
    quote_char    => '',        # do not quote
    limit_dialect => 'LimitXY', # mysql style limit-offset
);
($stmt, @bind) = $sqlf->select(foo => [qw/bar baz/], {
    hoge => 'fuga',
}, {
    order_by => 'bar',
    limit    => 100,
    offset   => 10,
});
# $stmt: SELECT bar, baz FROM foo WHERE (hoge = ?) ORDER BY bar LIMIT 10, 100
# @bind: ('fuga')

($stmt, @bind) = $sqlf->insert(foo => { bar => 'baz', hoge => 'fuga' });
# $stmt: INSERT INTO foo (bar, hoge) VALUES (?, ?)
# @bind: ('baz', 'fuga')

($stmt, @bind) = $sqlf->update(foo => { bar => 'xxx' }, { hoge => 'fuga' });
# $stmt: UPDATE foo SET bar = ? WHERE hoge = ?
# @bind: ('xxx', 'fuga')

($stmt, @bind) = $sqlf->delete(foo => { hoge => 'fuga' });
# $stmt: DELETE FROM foo WHERE (hoge = ?)
# @bind: ('fuga')

DESCRIPTION

SQL::Format is a easy to SQL query building library.

THIS MODULE IS ALPHA LEVEL INTERFACE!!

FUNCTIONS

sqlf($format, @args)

Generate SQL from formatted output conversion.

my ($stmt, @bind) = sqlf 'SELECT %c FROM %t WHERE %w' => (
    [qw/bar baz/],   # %c
    'foo',           # %t
    {
        hoge => 'fuga',
        piyo => [100, 200, 300],
    },               # %w
);
# $stmt: SELECT `foo` FROM `bar`, `baz WHERE (`hoge` = ?) AND (`piyo` IN (?, ?, ?))
# @bind: ('fuga', 100, 200, 300)

Currently implemented formatters are:

  • %t

    This format is a table name.

      ($stmt, @bind) = sqlf '%t', 'table_name';        # $stmt => `table_name`
      ($stmt, @bind) = sqlf '%t', [qw/tableA tableB/]; # $stmt => `tableA`, `tableB`
      ($stmt, @bind) = sqlf '%t', { tableA => 't1' };  # $stmt => `tableA` `t1`
      ($stmt, @bind) = sqlf '%t', {
          tableA => {
              index => { type => 'force', keys => [qw/key1 key2/] },
              alias => 't1',
      }; # $stmt: `tableA` `t1` FORCE INDEX (`key1`, `key2`)
    
  • %c

    This format is a column name.

      ($stmt, @bind) = sqlf '%c', 'column_name';       # $stmt => `column_name`
      ($stmt, @bind) = sqlf '%c', [qw/colA colB/];     # $stmt => `colA`, `colB`
      ($stmt, @bind) = sqlf '%c', '*';                 # $stmt => *
      ($stmt, @bind) = sqlf '%c', [\'COUNT(*)', colC]; # $stmt => COUNT(*), `colC`
    
  • %w

    This format is a where clause.

      ($stmt, @bind) = sqlf '%w', { foo => 'bar' };
      # $stmt: (`foo` = ?)
      # @bind: ("bar")
    
      ($stmt, @bind) = sqlf '%w', {
          foo => 'bar',
          baz => [qw/100 200 300/],
      };
      # $stmt: (`baz` IN (?, ?, ?) AND (`foo` = ?)
      # @bind: (100, 200, 300, 'bar')
    
  • %o

    This format is a options. Currently specified are:

    • limit

      This option makes LIMIT $n clause.

        ($stmt, @bind) = sqlf '%o', { limit => 100 }; # $stmt => LIMIT 100
      
    • offset

      This option makes OFFSET $n clause. You must be specified both limit option.

        ($stmt, @bind) = sqlf '%o', { limit => 100, offset => 20 }; # $stmt => LIMIT 100 OFFSET 20
      

      You can change limit dialects from $SQL::Format::LIMIT_DIALECT.

    • order_by

      This option makes ORDER BY clause.

        ($stmt, @bind) = sqlf '%o', { order_by => 'foo' };                       # $stmt => ORDER BY `foo`
        ($stmt, @bind) = sqlf '%o', { order_by => { foo => 'DESC' } };           # $stmt => ORDER BY `foo` DESC
        ($stmt, @bind) = sqlf '%o', { order_by => ['foo', { -asc => 'bar' } ] }; # $stmt => ORDER BY `foo`, `bar` ASC
      
    • group_by

      This option makes GROUP BY clause. Argument value some as order_by option.

        ($stmt, @bind) = sqlf '%o', { group_by => { foo => 'DESC' } }; # $stmt => GROUP BY `foo` DESC
      
    • having

      This option makes HAVING clause. Argument value some as where clause.

        ($stmt, @bind) = sqlf '%o', { having => { foo => 'bar' } };
        # $stmt: HAVING (`foo` = ?)
        # @bind: ('bar')
      
  • %j

    This format is join clause.

      ($stmt, @bind) = sqlf '%j', { table => 'bar', condition => 'foo.id = bar.id' };
      # $stmt: INNER JOIN `bar` ON (foo.id = bar.id)
    
      ($stmt, @bind) = sqlf '%j', {
          type      => 'left',
          table     => { bar => 'b' },
          condition => {
              'f.id'         => 'b.id',
              'f.updated_at' => \['UNIX_TIMESTAMP()', '2012-12-12']
              'f.created_at' => { '>' => 'b.created_at' },
          },
      };
      # $stmt: LEFT JOIN `bar` `b` ON (`f`.`id` = `b.id`)
    
  • %s

    This format is set clause.

      ($stmt, @bind) = sqlf '%s', { bar => 'baz' };
      # $stmt: `bar` = ?
      # @bind: ('baz')
    
      ($stmt, @bind) = sqlf '%s', { bar => 'baz', 'hoge' => \'UNIX_TIMESTAMP()' };
      # $stmt: `bar` = ?, `hoge` = UNIX_TIMESTAMP()
      # @bind: ('baz')
    
      ($stmt, @bind) = sqlf '%s', {
          bar  => 'baz',
          hoge => \['CONCAT(?, ?)', 'ya', 'ppo'],
      };
      # $stmt: `bar` = ?, `hoge` = CONCAT(?, ?)
      # @bind: ('baz', 'ya', 'ppo')
    

For more examples, see also SQL::Format::Spec.

You can change the behavior by changing the global variable.

  • $SQL::Format::QUOTE_CHAR : Str

    This is a quote character for table or column name.

    Default value is "`".

  • $SQL::Format::NAME_SEP : Str

    This is a separate character for table or column name.

    Default value is ".".

  • $SQL::Format::DELIMITER Str

    This is a delimiter for between columns.

    Default value is ", ".

  • $SQL::Format::LIMIT_DIALECT : Str

    This is a types for dialects of limit-offset.

    You can choose are:

      LimitOffset  # LIMIT 100 OFFSET 20  (SQLite / PostgreSQL / MySQL)
      LimitXY      # LIMIT 20, 100        (MySQL / SQLite)
      LimitYX      # LIMIT 100, 20        (other)
    

    Default value is LimitOffset".

METHODS

new([%options])

Create a new instance of SQL::Format.

my $sqlf = SQL::Format->new(
    quote_char    => '',
    limit_dialect => 'LimitXY',
);

%options specify are:

  • quote_char : Str

    Default value is $SQL::Format::QUOTE_CHAR.

  • name_sep : Str

    This is a separate character for table or column name.

    Default value is $SQL::Format::NAME_SEP.

  • delimiter: Str

    This is a delimiter for between columns.

    Default value is $SQL::Format::DELIMITER.

  • limit_dialect : Str

    This is a types for dialects of limit-offset.

    Default value is $SQL::Format::LIMIT_DIALECT.

format($format, \%args)

This method same as sqlf function.

my ($stmt, @bind) = $self->format('SELECT %c FROM %t WHERE %w',
    [qw/bar baz/],
    'foo',
    { hoge => 'fuga' },
);
# $stmt: SELECT `bar`, `baz` FROM ` foo` WHERE (`hoge` = ?)
# @bind: ('fuga')

select($table|\@table, $column|\@columns [, \%where, \%opts ])

This method returns SQL string and bind parameters for SELECT statement.

my ($stmt, @bind) = $sqlf->select(foo => [qw/bar baz/], {
    hoge => 'fuga',
    piyo => [100, 200, 300],
});
# $stmt: SELECT `foo` FROM `bar`, `baz` WHERE (`hoge` = ?) AND (`piyo` IN (?, ?, ?))
# @bind: ('fuga', 100, 200, 300)

Argument details are:

  • $table | \@table

    Same as %t format.

  • $column | \@columns

    Same as %c format.

  • \%where

    Same as %w format.

  • \%opts

    • $opts->{prefix}

      This is prefix for SELECT statement.

        my ($stmt, @bind) = $sqlf->select(foo => '*', { bar => 'baz' }, { prefix => 'SELECT SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS' });
        # $stmt: SELECT SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS * FROM `foo` WHERE (`bar` = ?)
        # @bind: ('baz')
      

      Default value is SELECT.

    • $opts->{suffix}

      Additional value for after the SELECT statement.

        my ($stmt, @bind) = $sqlf->select(foo => '*', { bar => 'baz' }, { suffix => 'FOR UPDATE' });
        # $stmt: SELECT * FROM `foo` WHERE (bar = ?) FOR UPDATE
        # @bind: ('baz')
      

      Default value is ''

    • $opts->{limit}

    • $opts->{offset}

    • $opts->{order_by}

    • $opts->{group_by}

    • $opts->{having}

    • $opts->{join}

      See also %o format.

insert($table, \%values|\@values [, \%opts ])

This method returns SQL string and bind parameters for INSERT statement.

my ($stmt, @bind) = $sqlf->insert(foo => { bar => 'baz', hoge => 'fuga' });
# $stmt: INSERT INTO `foo` (`bar`, `hoge`) VALUES (?, ?)
# @bind: ('baz', 'fuga')

my ($stmt, @bind) = $sqlf->insert(foo => [
    hoge => \'NOW()',
    fuga => \['UNIX_TIMESTAMP()', '2012-12-12 12:12:12'],
]);
# $stmt: INSERT INTO `foo` (`hoge`, `fuga`) VALUES (NOW(), UNIX_TIMESTAMP(?))
# @bind: ('2012-12-12 12:12:12')

Argument details are:

  • $table

    This is a table name for target of INSERT.

  • \%values | \@values

    This is a VALUES clause INSERT statement.

    Currently supported types are:

      # \%values case
      { foo => 'bar' }
      { foo => \'NOW()' }
      { foo => \['UNIX_TIMESTAMP()', '2012-12-12 12:12:12'] }
    
      # \@values case
      [ foo => 'bar' ]
      [ foo => \'NOW()' ]
      [ foo => \['UNIX_TIMESTAMP()', '2012-12-12 12:12:12'] ]
    
  • \%opts

    • $opts->{prefix}

      This is a prefix for INSERT statement.

        my ($stmt, @bind) = $sqlf->insert(foo => { bar => baz }, { prefix => 'INSERT IGNORE' });
        # $stmt: INSERT IGNORE INTO `foo` (`bar`) VALUES (?)
        # @bind: ('baz')
      

      Default value is INSERT.

update($table, \%set|\@set [, \%where, \%opts ])

This method returns SQL string and bind parameters for UPDATE statement.

my ($stmt, @bind) = $sqlf->update(foo => { bar => 'baz' }, { hoge => 'fuga' });
# $stmt: UPDATE `foo` SET `bar` = ? WHERE (`hoge` = ?)
# @bind: ('baz', 'fuga')

Argument details are:

  • $table

    This is a table name for target of UPDATE.

  • \%set | \@set

    This is a SET clause for INSERT statement.

    Currently supported types are:

      # \%values case
      { foo => 'bar' }
      { foo => \'NOW()' }
      { foo => \['UNIX_TIMESTAMP()', '2012-12-12 12:12:12'] }
    
      # \@values case
      [ foo => 'bar' ]
      [ foo => \'NOW()' ]
      [ foo => \['UNIX_TIMESTAMP()', '2012-12-12 12:12:12'] ]
    
  • \%where

    Same as %w format.

  • \%opts

    • $opts->{prefix}

      This is a prefix for UPDATE statement.

        my ($stmt, @bind) = $sqlf->update(
            'foo'                                # table
            { bar    => 'baz' },                 # sets
            { hoge   => 'fuga' },                # where
            { prefix => 'UPDATE LOW_PRIORITY' }, # opts
        );
        # $stmt: UPDATE LOW_PRIORITY `foo` SET `bar` = ? WHERE (`hoge` = ?)
        # @bind: ('baz', 'fuga')
      

      Default value is UPDATE.

    • $opts->{order_by}

    • $opts->{limit}

      See also %o format.

delete($table [, \%where, \%opts ])

This method returns SQL string and bind parameters for DELETE statement.

my ($stmt, @bind) = $sqlf->delete(foo => { bar => 'baz' });
# $stmt: DELETE FROM `foo` WHERE (`bar = ?)
# @bind: ('baz')

Argument details are:

  • $table

    This is a table name for target of DELETE.

  • \%where

    Same as %w format.

  • \%opts

    • $opts->{prefix}

      This is a prefix for DELETE statement.

        my ($stmt, @bind) = $sqlf->delete(foo => { bar => 'baz' }, { prefix => 'DELETE LOW_PRIORITY' });
        # $stmt: DELETE LOW_PRIORITY FROM `foo` WHERE (`bar` = ?)
        # @bind: ('baz')
      

      Default value is DELETE.

    • $opts->{order_by}

    • $opts->{limit}

      See also %o format.

insert_multi($table, \@cols, \@values [, \%opts])

This method returns SQL string and bind parameters for bulk insert.

my ($stmt, @bind) = $self->insert_multi(
    foo => [qw/bar baz/],
    [
        [qw/hoge fuga/],
        [qw/fizz buzz/],
    ],
);
# $stmt: INSERT INTO `foo` (`bar`, `baz`) VALUES (?, ?), (?, ?)
# @bind: (qw/hoge fuga fizz buzz/)

Argument details are:

  • $table

    This is a table name for target of INSERT.

  • \@cols

    This is a columns for target of INSERT.

  • \@values

    This is a values parameters. Must be ARRAY within ARRAY.

      my ($stmt, @bind) = $sqlf->insert_multi(
          foo => [qw/bar baz/], [
              [qw/foo bar/],
              [\'NOW()', \['UNIX_TIMESTAMP(?)', '2012-12-12 12:12:12'] ],
          ],
      );
      # $stmt: INSERT INTO `foo` (`bar`, `baz`) VALUES (?, ?), (NOW(), UNIX_TIMESTAMP(?))
      # @bind: (qw/foo bar/, '2012-12-12 12:12:12')
    
  • \%opts

    • $opts->{prefix}

      This is a prefix for INSERT statement.

        my ($stmt, @bind) = $sqlf->insert_multi(..., { prefix => 'INSERT IGNORE INTO' });
        # $stmt: INSERT IGNORE INTO ...
      

      Default value is INSERT INTO.

    • $opts->{update}

      Some as %s format.

      If this value specified then add ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE statement.

        my ($stmt, @bind) = $sqlf->insert_multi(
            foo => [qw/bar baz/],
            [
                [qw/hoge fuga/],
                [qw/fizz buzz/],
            ],
            { update => { bar => 'piyo' } },
        );
        # $stmt: INSERT INTO `foo` (`bar`, `baz`) VALUES (?, ?), (?, ?) ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE `bar` = ?
        # @bind: (qw/hoge fuga fizz buzz piyo/)
      

insert_multi_from_hash($table, \@values [, \%opts])

This method is a wrapper for insert_multi().

Argument dialects are:

  • $table

    Same as insert_multi()

  • \@values

    This is a values parameters. Must be HASH within ARRAY.

      my ($stmt, @bind) = $sqlf->insert_multi_from_hash(foo => [
          { bar => 'hoge', baz => 'fuga' },
          { bar => 'fizz', baz => 'buzz' },
      ]);
      # $stmt: INSERT INTO `foo` (`bar`, `baz`) VALUES (?, ?), (?, ?)
      # @bind: (qw/hoge fuga fizz buzz/)
    
  • \%opts

    Same as insert_multi()

insert_on_duplicate($table, \%values|\@values, \%update_values|\@update_values [, \%opts])

This method generate "INSERT INTO ... ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE" query for MySQL.

my ($stmt, @bind) = $sqlf->insert_on_duplicate(
    foo => {
        bar => 'hoge',
        baz => 'fuga',
    }, {
        bar => \'VALUES(bar)',
        baz => 'piyo',
    },
);
# $stmt: INSERT INTO `foo` (`bar`, `baz`) VALUES (?, ?) ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE `bar` = VALUES(bar), baz = 'piyo'
# @bind: (qw/hoge fuga piyo/)

Argument details are:

  • $table

    This is a table name for target of INSERT.

  • \%values|\@values

    This is a values parameters.

  • \%update_values|\@update_values

    This is a ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE parameters.

  • \%opts

    • $opts->{prefix}

      This is a prefix for INSERT statement.

        my ($stmt, @bind) = $sqlf->insert_on_duplicate(..., { prefix => 'INSERT IGNORE INTO' });
        # $stmt: INSERT IGNORE INTO ...
      

AUTHOR

xaicron <xaicron {at} cpan.org>

COPYRIGHT

Copyright 2012 - xaicron

LICENSE

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

SEE ALSO

SQL::Format::Spec

SQL::Maker

SQL::Abstract