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Jiuzhou is a collection of statistics and classification of Ethereum smart contracts.

Jiuzhou follows the IEEE Standard Classification for Software Anomalies (1044-2009) and classifies Ethereum smart contract bugs into 9 categories with a total of 49 kinds of bugs.

Jiuzhou provides a brief introduction and test cases for each bug. This helps smart contract developers or researchers understand the current state of security of Ethereum and obtain benchmark data sets for testing smart contract analysis tools.

For more information on Bugs, we have a paper.

Bug source

First, we used smart contract bugs, smart contract defects, smart contract problems, and smart contract vulnerabilities to retrieve papers published in IEEE and ACM after 2014 to obtain information about Ethereum smart contract bugs.

Secondly, we use the above four search keywords and smart contract security and smart contract analysis tools to retrieve Ethereum smart contract projects on Github. We got a total of 266 Github projects, and we manually checked each project to get information about the smart contract bug.

Finally, we also focus on Github homepage of Ethereum, the development documents of Solidity, the official blogs of Ethereum, the Gitter chat room, Ethereum Improvement Proposals. From these resources we also get information about the Ethereum smart contract bugs.

Jiuzhou has removed all bugs that have been fixed.

Bug categories

We classify Ethereum smart contract bugs into the following 9 categories:

  • Data. Bugs in data definition, initialization, mapping, access, or use, as found in a model, specification, or implementation.
  • Interface. Bugs in specification or implementation of an interface.
  • Logic. Bugs in decision logic, branching, sequencing, or computation algorithm, as found in natural language specifications or in implementation language.
  • Description. Bugs in description of software or its use, installation, or operation.
  • Standard. Nonconformity with a defined standard.
  • Security. Bugs that threaten contract security, such as authentication, privacy/confidentiality, property.
  • Performance. Bugs that cause increased gas consumption.
  • Interaction. Bugs caused by contract interaction with other accounts.
  • Environment. Bugs due to mistakes in the software that supports Ethereum smart contracts.

Classification diagram

In order to express the classification results concisely, we provide the following classification diagrams: classification

Test case

Jiuzhou's test cases come from other Github projects or we write part of them manually. When reprinting test cases from other Github projects, Jiuzhou will indicate the source. For test cases that we manually write , we will indicate the source as Jiuzhou.

We will partially rewrite test cases from other projects to adapt to the updated Solidity language version.

In addition, Jiuzhou provides bytecode files for each test case.

Misleading contract

Misleading contracts are essentially bug-free contracts, and we wrote them manually. These contracts contain the characteristics of certain bugs, but they are fixed by other statements in the context. Smart contract analysis tools need to avoid misleading by analyzing the contract context and exploring the contract state space as much as possible.


Jiuzhou is released under the MIT License. Please indicate the source when reprinting.


JiuZhou is a data set of Ethereum bug smart contracts (ICSME 2020).







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