First lets understand iterators. According to Wikipedia, an iterator is an object that enables a programmer to traverse a container, particularly lists. However, an iterator performs traversal and gives access to data elements in a container, but does not perform iteration. You might be confused so lets take it a bit slow. There are three parts namely:
All of these parts are linked to each other. We will discuss them one by one and later talk about generators.
iterable is any object in Python which has an
__iter__ or a
__getitem__ method defined which returns an iterator or can take
indexes (You can read more about them here).
In short an
iterable is any object which can provide us
with an iterator. So what is an iterator?
An iterator is any object in Python which has a
next (Python2) or
__next__ method defined. That's it. That's an iterator. Now let's
In simple words it is the process of taking an item from something e.g a list. When we use a loop to loop over something it is called iteration. It is the name given to the process itself. Now as we have a basic understanding of these terms let's understand generators.
Generators are iterators, but you can only iterate over them once. It’s
because they do not store all the values in memory, they generate the
values on the fly. You use them by iterating over them, either with a
'for' loop or by passing them to any function or construct that
iterates. Most of the time
generators are implemented as functions.
However, they do not
return a value, they
yield it. Here is a
simple example of a
def generator_function(): for i in range(10): yield i for item in generator_function(): print(item) # Output: 0 # 1 # 2 # 3 # 4 # 5 # 6 # 7 # 8 # 9
It is not really useful in this case. Generators are best for
calculating large sets of results (particularly calculations involving
loops themselves) where you don't want to allocate the memory for all
results at the same time. Many Standard Library functions that return
lists in Python 2 have been modified to return
Python 3 because
generators require fewer resources.
Here is an example
generator which calculates fibonacci numbers:
# generator version def fibon(n): a = b = 1 for i in range(n): yield a a, b = b, a + b
Now we can use it like this:
for x in fibon(1000000): print(x)
This way we would not have to worry about it using a lot of resources. However, if we would have implemented it like this:
def fibon(n): a = b = 1 result =  for i in range(n): result.append(a) a, b = b, a + b return result
It would have used up all our resources while calculating a large input.
We have discussed that we can iterate over
generators only once but
we haven't tested it. Before testing it you need to know about one more
built-in function of Python,
next(). It allows us to access the next
element of a sequence. So let's test out our understanding:
def generator_function(): for i in range(3): yield i gen = generator_function() print(next(gen)) # Output: 0 print(next(gen)) # Output: 1 print(next(gen)) # Output: 2 print(next(gen)) # Output: Traceback (most recent call last): # File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module> # StopIteration
As we can see that after yielding all the values
next() caused a
StopIteration error. Basically this error informs us that all the
values have been yielded. You might be wondering why we don't get
this error when using a
for loop? Well the answer is simple. The
for loop automatically catches this error and stops calling
next. Did you know that a few built-in data types in Python also
support iteration? Let's check it out:
my_string = "Yasoob" next(my_string) # Output: Traceback (most recent call last): # File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module> # TypeError: str object is not an iterator
Well that's not what we expected. The error says that
str is not an
iterator. Well it's right! It's an iterable but not an iterator. This
means that it supports iteration but we can't iterate over
it directly. So how would we iterate over it? It's time to learn about one more
iter. It returns an
iterator object from an
iterable. While an
int isn't an iterable, we can use it on string!
int_var = 1779 iter(int_var) # Output: Traceback (most recent call last): # File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module> # TypeError: 'int' object is not iterable # This is because int is not iterable my_string = "Yasoob" my_iter = iter(my_string) print(next(my_iter)) # Output: 'Y'
Now that is much better. I am sure that you loved learning about
generators. Do bear it in mind that you can fully grasp this concept
only when you use it. Make sure that you follow this pattern and use
generators whenever they make sense to you. You won't be