A garbage collector for Crystal
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Garbarge Collector

A garbage collector for the Crystal programming language.

Currently written in C. It may eventually be ported to Crystal, or kept as an external library for generic usages —with strong ties to Crystal.

The garbage collector is based on Immix, a garbage collector introduced by Stephen M. Blackburn and Kathryn S. McKinley in the Immix: A Mark-Region Garbage Collector with Space Efficiency, Fast Collection, and Mutator Performance paper published in 2008.

Only the basic ideas from Immix are implemented. The goal is to implement most optimizations, for example compaction and precise marking in the long term.


This is a WORK IN PROGRESS but seems to be CORRECT —i.e. no reported segfaults or memory leaks!

The small object space follows the Immix memory layout, minus compaction (opportunistic evacuation) that would require a fully precise GC capable to perfectly identify references in both allocations and stacks.

The large object space relies on a mere linked list of splittable chunks. There is room for improvement, mostly in indexing of free/allocated chunks for quicker allocations and marking.

The GC appears to be correct, and capable to handle different workloads with good performance. For example a highly concurrent HTTP server, or the Crystal compiler itself.

Please try it out and report issues —e.g. slower cases, high memory usages. Don't forget to add reduced samples that reproduce the issue.


I recommend using Crystal 0.24.2 or later.

Add the immix dependency to your shard.yml, then run shards install or shards update. This will install the dependency and compile the immix.a library automatically.

    github: ysbaddaden/gc
    branch: master

Require immix somewhere in your source code, then build your program with the -Dgc_none flag. This combinaison will use the dummy GC provided with Crystal that will be overwritten with this shard's GC.

If you want to conduct tests, you may conditionally require immix GC based on the presence of the gc_none flag. For example:

{% if flag?(:gc_none) %}
  require "immix"
{% end %}


Installing the immix shard will compile immix.a with assertions turned on, to help debugging and issue reporting. To fully evaluate the performance, you should recompile the library with -DNDEBUG to disable assertions. For example:

$ cd lib/immix


As said earlier, this garbage collector implementes a subset of the Immix Mark-Region Garbage Collector. Allocated objects are divided into small objects (smaller than 8KB) and large objects (larger than 8KB) leading to two different object spaces. This distinction stems from the observation that small objects are usually allocated and collected much more often than large objects, and programs can benefit from a more optimized behavior.

Both object spaces are virtual mappings, set to a maximum of the machine physical RAM. No memory is actually allocated, and OS kernels will only map physical RAM pages when the GC "grows" the memory by accessing deeper into the virtual mapping. Unlike the Immix algorithm, the memory always grows and never shrinks (yet). To efficiently shrink the memory will require precise marking of the both stacks (complex) and of allocated objects (easier) to allow moving allocated objects in memory, allowing to reclaim memory.

Immix details the small object space, where the memory is divided into blocks of 32KB which are themselves divided into 128 lines of 256 bytes, of which the first line is reserved for block/line metadata. Allocations may span a line, but can't span a block. See the Immix paper for more allocation & collection details; for example local allocators, recycling lines and blocks, ...

The large object space also divides the memory into blocks of 32KB, but doesn't divide them into lines, and allows allocations to span across blocks. The large object space is a mere linked list of allocated objects (largely unoptimized).

Finalizers, to finish, are kept inside a HashMap and executed after each collection if the allocated object they belong to is no longer referenced. The use of a hashmap comes from the assumption that objects with finalizers are much less likely than object without one. It allows to reduce the memory overhead, and it shouldn't be much slower to iterate the hashmap than iterating the whole memory, despite the random accesses into memory (to check whether the object is allocated or not).


First install the (greatest dependency using make setup then run make test to run the test suite.

Note that the test suites are merely scaffold tests for TDD of data structures.


  • Author: Julien Portalier [ @ysbaddaden ]

Design is based on the ImmixGC collector from the ScalaNative project, and the Immix paper from 2008 (see above for link).