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Built ins

Daniel Wirtz edited this page Feb 22, 2019 · 4 revisions

To provide direct (compile to opcode) access to native WebAssembly operations, the following functions plus a few TS/JS-like constants are provided in the global scope:

Context-sensitive constants

  • NaN: f32 | f64
    NaN (not a number) as a 32-bit or 64-bit float depending on context. Compiles to a constant.

  • Infinity: f32 | f64
    Positive infinity as a 32-bit or 64-bit float depending on context. Compiles to a constant.

Compile-time type checks

  • isInteger<T>(value?: T): bool
    Tests if the specified type or expression is of an integer type and not a reference. Compiles to a constant.

  • isFloat<T>(value?: T): bool
    Tests if the specified type or expression is of a float type. Compiles to a constant.

  • isSigned<T>(value?: T): bool
    Tests if the specified type or expression can represent negative numbers. Compiles to a constant.

  • isReference<T>(value?: T): bool
    Tests if the specified type or expression is of a reference type. Compiles to a constant.

  • isString<T>(value?: T): bool
    Tests if the specified type or expression can be used as a string. Compiles to a constant.

  • isArray<T>(value?: T): bool
    Tests if the specified type or expression can be used as an array. Compiles to a constant.

  • isFunction<T>(value?: T): bool
    Tests if the specified type or expression is of a function type. Compiles to a constant.

  • isNullable<T>(value?: T): bool
    Tests if the specified type or expression is of a nullable reference type. Compiles to a constant.

  • isDefined(expression: *): bool
    Tests if the specified expression resolves to a defined element. Compiles to a constant.

  • isConstant(expression: *): bool
    Tests if the specified expression evaluates to a constant value. Compiles to a constant.

  • sizeof<T>(): usize
    Determines the byte size of the specified core or class type. Compiles to a constant.

  • offsetof<T>(fieldName?: string): usize
    Determines the offset of the specified field within the given class type. Returns the class type's end offset if field name has been omitted. Compiles to a constant.

  • alignof<T>(): usize
    Determines the alignment (log2) of the specified underlying core type. Compiles to a constant.

Note that constantOffset arguments must be compile-time constants (const global or local). Similarly, fieldName arguments must be string literals.

Note that whenever the compiler spots a constant condition, it will automatically eliminate untaken branches and not attempt to compile them. For example, if a generic function is intended to work with both integers and strings with just a few statements differing, a compile-time type check with a constant condition on an if-then-else statement can be utilized to make it behave differently in parts depending on the actual type argument:

function doSomething<T>(a: T): T {
  if (isString<T>()) {
    ... // eliminated if T is not a string
  } else {
    ... // eliminated if T is a string
  }
}

Math

  • isNaN<T = f32 | f64>(value: T): bool
    Tests if a 32-bit or 64-bit float is NaN.

  • isFinite<T = f32 | f64>(value: T): bool
    Tests if a 32-bit or 64-bit float is finite, that is not NaN or +/-Infinity.

  • clz<T = i32 | i64>(value: T): T
    Performs the sign-agnostic count leading zero bits operation on a 32-bit or 64-bit integer. All zero bits are considered leading if the value is zero.

  • ctz<T = i32 | i64>(value: T): T
    Performs the sign-agnostic count tailing zero bits operation on a 32-bit or 64-bit integer. All zero bits are considered trailing if the value is zero.

  • popcnt<T = i32 | i64>(value: T): T
    Performs the sign-agnostic count number of one bits operation on a 32-bit or 64-bit integer.

  • rotl<T = i32 | i64>(value: T, shift: T): T
    Performs the sign-agnostic rotate left operation on a 32-bit or 64-bit integer.

  • rotr<T = i32 | i64>(value: T, shift: T): T
    Performs the sign-agnostic rotate right operation on a 32-bit or 64-bit integer.

  • abs<T = i32 | i64 | f32 | f64>(value: T): T
    Computes the absolute value of an integer or float.

  • max<T = i32 | i64 | f32 | f64>(left: T, right: T): T
    Determines the maximum of two integers or floats. If either operand is NaN, returns NaN.

  • min<T = i32 | i64 | f32 | f64>(left: T, right: T): T
    Determines the minimum of two integers or floats. If either operand is NaN, returns NaN.

  • ceil<T = f32 | f64>(value: T): T
    Performs the ceiling operation on a 32-bit or 64-bit float.

  • floor<T = f32 | f64>(value: T): T
    Performs the floor operation on a 32-bit or 64-bit float.

  • copysign<T = f32 | f64>(x: T , y: T): T
    Composes a 32-bit or 64-bit float from the magnitude of x and the sign of y.

  • nearest<T = f32 | f64>(value: T): T
    Rounds to the nearest integer tied to even of a 32-bit or 64-bit float.

  • reinterpret<T = i32 | i64 | f32 | f64>(value: *): T
    Reinterprets the bits of the specified value as type T. Valid reinterpretations are u32/i32 to/from f32 and u64/i64 to/from f64.

  • sqrt<T = f32 | f64>(value: T): T
    Calculates the square root of a 32-bit or 64-bit float.

  • trunc<T = f32 | f64>(value: T): T
    Rounds to the nearest integer towards zero of a 32-bit or 64-bit float.

Memory access

  • load<T>(ptr: usize, constantOffset?: usize): T
    Loads a value of the specified type from memory. Equivalent to dereferencing a pointer in other languages.

  • store<T>(ptr: usize, value: T, constantOffset?: usize): void
    Stores a value of the specified type to memory. Equivalent to dereferencing a pointer in other languages when assigning a value.

Control flow

  • select<T>(ifTrue: T, ifFalse: T, condition: bool): T
    Selects one of two pre-evaluated values depending on the condition.

  • unreachable(): *
    Emits an unreachable operation that results in a runtime error when executed. Both a statement and an expression of any type.

Host operations

  • memory.size(): i32
    Returns the current size of the memory in units of pages. One page is 64kb.

  • memory.grow(value: i32): i32
    Grows linear memory by a given unsigned delta of pages. One page is 64kb. Returns the previous size of the memory in units of pages or -1 on failure. Note that calling memory.grow where a memory manager is present might break it.

Other

  • parseInt(str: string, radix?: i32): i64
    Parses a string to a 64-bit integer. Returns 0 on invalid inputs unlike NaN in JS.

  • parseFloat(str: string): f64
    Parses a string to a 64-bit float. Returns NaN on invalid inputs.

  • changetype<T>(value: *): T
    Changes the type of a value to another one. Useful for casting class instances to their pointer values and vice-versa.

  • assert<T>(isTrueish: T, message?: string): T
    Traps if the specified value is not true-ish, otherwise returns the non-nullable value.

  • unchecked(expr: *): *
    Explicitly requests no bounds checks on the provided expression. Useful for array accesses.

  • call_indirect<T>(target: u32, ...args: *[]): T
    Emits a call_indirect instruction, calling the specified function in the function table by index with the specified arguments. Does result in a runtime error if the arguments do not match the called function.

  • instantiate<T>(...args: *[]): T
    Instantiates a new instance of T using the specified constructor arguments.

Decorators

The following WebAssembly-specific operators can be used to annotate non-TS behavior:

  • @global
    Adds an element to the global scope.

  • @inline
    Forces inlining of a function.

  • @external([moduleName: string,] elementName: string)
    Changes the external name of a declared global or function.

  • @operator(token: string)
    Annotates a binary operator overload.

    • @operator.binary(token: string)
      Same as @operator.

    • @operator.prefix(token: string)
      Annotates a unary prefix operator overload.

    • @operator.postfix(token: string)
      Annotates a unary postfix operator overload.

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