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README.md

Bastille

Bastille is an open-source system for automating deployment and management of containerized applications on FreeBSD.

Looking for Bastille Templates?

Installation

Bastille is available in the official FreeBSD ports tree.

pkg

pkg install bastille

ports

portsnap fetch auto
make -C /usr/ports/sysutils/bastille install clean

Git (bleeding edge / unstable -- primarily for developers)

git clone https://github.com/BastilleBSD/bastille.git
cd bastille
make install

enable at boot

sysrc bastille_enable=YES

Basic Usage

Bastille is an open-source system for automating deployment and management of
containerized applications on FreeBSD.

Usage:
  bastille command TARGET args

Available Commands:
  bootstrap   Bootstrap a FreeBSD release for container base.
  clone       Clone an existing container.
  cmd         Execute arbitrary command on targeted container(s).
  console     Console into a running container.
  convert     Convert a thin container into a thick container.
  cp          cp(1) files from host to targeted container(s).
  create      Create a new thin or thick container.
  destroy     Destroy a stopped container or a bootstrapped release.
  edit        Edit container configuration files (advanced).
  export      Exports a container archive or image.
  help        Help about any command
  htop        Interactive process viewer (requires htop).
  import      Import a container archive or image.
  limits      Apply resources limits to targeted container(s). See rctl(8).
  list        List containers, releases, templates, logs, limits or backups.
  mount       Mount a volume inside the targeted container(s).
  pkg         Manipulate binary packages within targeted container(s). See pkg(8).
  rdr         Redirect host port to container port.
  restart     Restart a running container.
  service     Manage services within targeted container(s).
  start       Start a stopped container.
  stop        Stop a running container.
  sysrc       Safely edit rc files within targeted container(s).
  template    Apply automation templates to targeted container(s).
  top         Display and update information about the top(1) cpu processes.
  umount      Unmount a volume from within the targeted container(s).
  update      Update container base -pX release.
  upgrade     Upgrade container release to X.Y-RELEASE.
  verify      Verify bootstrapped release or automation template.
  zfs         Manage (get|set) zfs attributes on targeted container(s).

Use "bastille -v|--version" for version information.
Use "bastille command -h|--help" for more information about a command.

0.7-beta

This document outlines the basic usage of the Bastille container management framework. This release is still considered beta.

Network Requirements

Several networking options can be performed regarding the user needs. Basic containers can support IP alias networking, where the IP address is assigned to the host interface and used by the container, generally known as "shared IP" based containers.

If you administer your own network and can assign and remove unallocated IP addresses, then "shared IP" is a simple method to get started. If this is the case, skip ahead to ZFS Support.

If you are not the administator of the network, or perhaps you're in "the cloud" someplace and are only provided a single IP4 address. In this situation Bastille can create and attach containers to a private loopback interface. The host system then acts as the firewall, permitting and denying traffic as needed. (This method has been my primary method for years.)

bastille0

First, create the loopback interface:

ishmael ~ # sysrc cloned_interfaces+=lo1
ishmael ~ # sysrc ifconfig_lo1_name="bastille0"
ishmael ~ # service netif cloneup

Create the firewall config, or merge as necessary.

/etc/pf.conf

ext_if="vtnet0"

set block-policy return
scrub in on $ext_if all fragment reassemble
set skip on lo

table <jails> persist
nat on $ext_if from <jails> to any -> ($ext_if:0)

## static rdr example
# rdr pass inet proto tcp from any to any port {80, 443} -> 10.17.89.45

## Enable dynamic rdr (see below)
rdr-anchor "rdr/*"

block in all
pass out quick modulate state
antispoof for $ext_if inet
pass in inet proto tcp from any to any port ssh flags S/SA keep state

## make sure you also open up ports that you are going to use for dynamic rdr
# pass in inet proto tcp from any to any port <rdr-start>:<rdr-end> flags S/SA keep state
# pass in inet proto udp from any to any port <rdr-start>:<rdr-end> flags S/SA keep state

  • Make sure to change the ext_if variable to match your host system interface.
  • Note that if multiple interface aliases are in place, the index ($ext_if:0) can be changed accordingly; so if you want to send traffic out the second IP alias of the interface, change the value to ($ext_if:1) and so on.
  • Make sure to include the last line (port ssh) or you'll end up locked out of a remote system.

Note: if you have an existing firewall, the key lines for in/out traffic to containers are:

table <jails> persist
nat on $ext_if from <jails> to any -> ($ext_if:0)

## rdr example
## rdr pass inet proto tcp from any to any port {80, 443} -> 10.17.89.45

The nat routes traffic from the loopback interface to the external interface for outbound access.

The rdr pass ... will redirect traffic from the host firewall on port X to the ip of container Y. The example shown redirects web traffic (80 & 443) to the container at 10.17.89.45.

Finally, enable and (re)start the firewall:

dynamic rdr

The rdr-anchor "rdr/*" enables dynamic rdr rules to be setup using the bastille rdr command at runtime - eg.

  bastille rdr <jail> tcp 2001 22 # Redirects tcp port 2001 on host to 22 on jail
  bastille rdr <jail> udp 2053 53 # Same for udp
  bastille rdr <jail> list        # List dynamic rdr rules
  bastille rdr <jail> clear       # Clear dynamic rdr rules

Note that if you are rediirecting ports where the host is also listening (eg. ssh) you should make sure that the host service is not listening on the cloned interface - eg. for ssh set sshd_flags in rc.conf

Enable pf rules

ishmael ~ # sysrc pf_enable="YES"
ishmael ~ # service pf restart

At this point you'll likely be disconnected from the host. Reconnect the ssh session and continue.

This step only needs to be done once in order to prepare the host.

ZFS support

BastilleBSD Twitter Poll

Bastille 0.4 added initial support for ZFS. bastille bootstrap and bastille create will generate ZFS volumes based on settings found in the bastille.conf. This section outlines how to enable and configure Bastille for ZFS.

Two values are required for Bastille to use ZFS. The default values in the bastille.conf are empty. Populate these two to enable ZFS.

## ZFS options
bastille_zfs_enable=""                                  ## default: ""
bastille_zfs_zpool=""                                   ## default: ""
bastille_zfs_prefix="bastille"                          ## default: "${bastille_zfs_zpool}/bastille"
bastille_zfs_mountpoint=${bastille_prefix}              ## default: "${bastille_prefix}"
bastille_zfs_options="-o compress=lz4 -o atime=off"     ## default: "-o compress=lz4 -o atime=off"

Example

ishmael ~ # sysrc -f /usr/local/etc/bastille/bastille.conf bastille_zfs_enable=YES
ishmael ~ # sysrc -f /usr/local/etc/bastille/bastille.conf bastille_zfs_zpool=ZPOOL_NAME

Replace ZPOOL_NAME with the zpool you want Bastille to use. Tip: zpool list and zpool status will help. If you get 'no pools available' you are likely not using ZFS and can safely ignore these settings.

bastille bootstrap

Before you can begin creating containers, Bastille needs to "bootstrap" a release. Current supported releases are 11.3-RELEASE, 12.0-RELEASE and 12.1-RELEASE.

Important: If you need ZFS support see the above section BEFORE bootstrapping.

To bootstrap a release, run the bootstrap sub-command with the release version as the argument.

FreeBSD 11.3-RELEASE

ishmael ~ # bastille bootstrap 11.3-RELEASE

FreeBSD 12.1-RELEASE

ishmael ~ # bastille bootstrap 12.1-RELEASE

HardenedBSD 11-STABLE-BUILD-XX

ishmael ~ # bastille bootstrap 11-STABLE-BUILD-XX

HardenedBSD 12-STABLE-BUILD-XX

ishmael ~ # bastille bootstrap 12-STABLE-BUILD-XX

bastille bootstrap RELEASE update to apply updates automatically at bootstrap.

This command will ensure the required directory structures are in place and download the requested release. For each requested release, bootstrap will download the base.txz. If you need more than base (eg; ports, lib32, src) you can configure the bastille_bootstrap_archives in the configuration file. By default this value is set to "base". Additional components are added, space separated, without file extension.

Bastille will attempt to fetch the required archives if they are not found in the cache/$RELEASE directory.

Downloaded artifacts are stored in the cache/RELEASE directory. "bootstrapped" releases are stored in releases/RELEASE.

Advanced: If you want to create your own custom base.txz, or use an unsupported variant of FreeBSD, drop your own base.txz in cache/RELEASE/base.txz and bastille bootstrap will attempt to extract and use it.

The bootstrap subcommand is generally only used once to prepare the system. The other use cases for the bootstrap command are when a new FreeBSD version is released and you want to start building containers on that version, or bootstrapping templates from GitHub or GitLab.

See bastille update to ensure your bootstrapped releases include the latest patches.

bastille create

bastille create uses a bootstrapped release to create a lightweight container system. To create a container simply provide a name, release and a private (rfc1918) IP address. Optionally provide a network interface name to attach the IP at container creation.

  • name
  • release (bootstrapped)
  • ip (ip4 or ip6)
  • interface (optional)

ip4

ishmael ~ # bastille create folsom 12.1-RELEASE 10.17.89.10
Valid: (10.17.89.10).

NAME: folsom.
IP: 10.17.89.10.
RELEASE: 12.1-RELEASE.

syslogd_flags: -s -> -ss
sendmail_enable: NO -> NONE
cron_flags:  -> -J 60

This command will create a 12.1-RELEASE container assigning the 10.17.89.10 ip address to the new system.

ip6

ishmael ~ # bastille create folsom 12.1-RELEASE fd35:f1fd:2cb6:6c5c::13
Valid: (fd35:f1fd:2cb6:6c5c::13).

NAME: folsom.
IP: fd35:f1fd:2cb6:6c5c::13
RELEASE: 12.1-RELEASE.

syslogd_flags: -s -> -ss
sendmail_enable: NO -> NONE
cron_flags:  -> -J 60

This command will create a 12.1-RELEASE container assigning the fd35:f1fd:2cb6:6c5c::13 ip address to the new system.

VNET

ishmael ~ # bastille create -V vnetjail 12.1-RELEASE 192.168.87.55/24 em0
Valid: (192.168.87.55/24).
Valid: (em0).

NAME: vnettest0.
IP: 192.168.87.55/24.
INTERFACE: em0.
RELEASE: 12.1-RELEASE.

syslogd_flags: -s -> -ss
sendmail_enable: NO -> NONE
cron_flags:  -> -J 60
ifconfig_e0b_bastille0_name:  -> vnet0
ifconfig_vnet0:  -> inet 192.168.87.55/24

This command will create a 12.1-RELEASE container assigning the 192.168.87.55/24 ip address to the new system.

VNET-enabled containers are attached to a virtual bridge interface for connectivity. This bridge interface is defined by the interface argument in the create command (in this case, em0).

VNET also requires a custom devfs ruleset. Create the file as needed on the host system:

/etc/devfs.rules

[bastille_vnet=13]
add include $devfsrules_hide_all
add include $devfsrules_unhide_basic
add include $devfsrules_unhide_login
add include $devfsrules_jail
add path 'bpf*' unhide

Optionally bastille create [ -T | --thick ] will create a container with a private base. This is sometimes referred to as a "thick" container (whereas the shared base container is a "thin").

ishmael ~ # bastille create -T folsom 12.0-RELEASE 10.17.89.10

I recommend using private (rfc1918) ip address ranges for your containers. These ranges include:

  • 10.0.0.0/8
  • 172.16.0.0/12
  • 192.168.0.0/16

If your Bastille host also uses private (rfc1918) addresses, use a different range for your containers. ie; Host uses 192.168.0.0/16, containers use 10.0.0.0/8.

Bastille does its best to validate the submitted ip is valid. I generally use the 10.0.0.0/8 range for containers.

bastille start

To start a containers you can use the bastille start command.

ishmael ~ # bastille start folsom
[folsom]:
folsom: created

bastille stop

To stop a containers you can use the bastille stop command.

ishmael ~ # bastille stop folsom
[folsom]:
folsom: removed

bastille restart

To restart a container you can use the bastille restart command.

ishmael ~ # bastille restart folsom
[folsom]:
folsom: removed

[folsom]:
folsom: created

bastille list

This sub-command will show you the running containers on your system.

ishmael ~ # bastille list
 JID             IP Address      Hostname                      Path
 bastion         10.17.89.65      bastion                       /usr/local/bastille/jails/bastion/root
 unbound0        10.17.89.60      unbound0                      /usr/local/bastille/jails/unbound0/root
 unbound1        10.17.89.61      unbound1                      /usr/local/bastille/jails/unbound1/root
 squid           10.17.89.30      squid                         /usr/local/bastille/jails/squid/root
 nginx           10.17.89.45      nginx                         /usr/local/bastille/jails/nginx/root
 folsom          10.17.89.10      folsom                        /usr/local/bastille/jails/folsom/root

You can also list non-running containers with bastille list containers. In the same manner you can list archived logs, downloaded templates, and releases and backups. Providing the -j flag to list alone will result in JSON output.

bastille service

To restart services inside a containers you can use the bastille service command.

ishmael ~ # bastille service folsom postfix restart
[folsom]
postfix/postfix-script: stopping the Postfix mail system
postfix/postfix-script: starting the Postfix mail system

bastille cmd

To execute commands within the container you can use bastille cmd.

ishmael ~ # bastille cmd folsom ps -auxw
[folsom]:
USER   PID %CPU %MEM   VSZ  RSS TT  STAT STARTED    TIME COMMAND
root 71464  0.0  0.0 14536 2000  -  IsJ   4:52PM 0:00.00 /usr/sbin/syslogd -ss
root 77447  0.0  0.0 16632 2140  -  SsJ   4:52PM 0:00.00 /usr/sbin/cron -s
root 80591  0.0  0.0 18784 2340  1  R+J   4:53PM 0:00.00 ps -auxw

bastille pkg

To manage binary packages within the container use bastille pkg.

ishmael ~ # bastille pkg folsom install vim-console git-lite zsh
[folsom]:
Updating FreeBSD repository catalogue...
[folsom] Fetching meta.txz: 100%    944 B   0.9kB/s    00:01
[folsom] Fetching packagesite.txz: 100%    6 MiB   6.6MB/s    00:01
Processing entries: 100%
FreeBSD repository update completed. 32617 packages processed.
All repositories are up to date.
Updating database digests format: 100%
The following 10 package(s) will be affected (of 0 checked):

New packages to be INSTALLED:
	vim-console: 8.1.1954
	git-lite: 2.23.0
	zsh: 5.7.1_1
	expat: 2.2.8
	curl: 7.66.0
	libnghttp2: 1.39.2
	ca_root_nss: 3.47.1
	pcre: 8.43_2
	gettext-runtime: 0.20.1
	indexinfo: 0.3.1

Number of packages to be installed: 10

The process will require 87 MiB more space.
18 MiB to be downloaded.

Proceed with this action? [y/N]:
...[snip]...

The PKG sub-command can, of course, do more than just install. The expectation is that you can fully leverage the pkg manager. This means, install, update, upgrade, audit, clean, autoremove, etc.

ishmael ~ # bastille pkg ALL upgrade
[bastion]:
Updating pkg.bastillebsd.org repository catalogue...
[bastion] Fetching meta.txz: 100%    560 B   0.6kB/s    00:01
[bastion] Fetching packagesite.txz: 100%  118 KiB 121.3kB/s    00:01
Processing entries: 100%
pkg.bastillebsd.org repository update completed. 493 packages processed.
All repositories are up to date.
Checking for upgrades (1 candidates): 100%
Processing candidates (1 candidates): 100%
Checking integrity... done (0 conflicting)
Your packages are up to date.

[unbound0]:
Updating pkg.bastillebsd.org repository catalogue...
[unbound0] Fetching meta.txz: 100%    560 B   0.6kB/s    00:01
[unbound0] Fetching packagesite.txz: 100%  118 KiB 121.3kB/s    00:01
Processing entries: 100%
pkg.bastillebsd.org repository update completed. 493 packages processed.
All repositories are up to date.
Checking for upgrades (0 candidates): 100%
Processing candidates (0 candidates): 100%
Checking integrity... done (0 conflicting)
Your packages are up to date.

[unbound1]:
Updating pkg.bastillebsd.org repository catalogue...
[unbound1] Fetching meta.txz: 100%    560 B   0.6kB/s    00:01
[unbound1] Fetching packagesite.txz: 100%  118 KiB 121.3kB/s    00:01
Processing entries: 100%
pkg.bastillebsd.org repository update completed. 493 packages processed.
All repositories are up to date.
Checking for upgrades (0 candidates): 100%
Processing candidates (0 candidates): 100%
Checking integrity... done (0 conflicting)
Your packages are up to date.

[squid]:
Updating pkg.bastillebsd.org repository catalogue...
[squid] Fetching meta.txz: 100%    560 B   0.6kB/s    00:01
[squid] Fetching packagesite.txz: 100%  118 KiB 121.3kB/s    00:01
Processing entries: 100%
pkg.bastillebsd.org repository update completed. 493 packages processed.
All repositories are up to date.
Checking for upgrades (0 candidates): 100%
Processing candidates (0 candidates): 100%
Checking integrity... done (0 conflicting)
Your packages are up to date.

[nginx]:
Updating pkg.bastillebsd.org repository catalogue...
[nginx] Fetching meta.txz: 100%    560 B   0.6kB/s    00:01
[nginx] Fetching packagesite.txz: 100%  118 KiB 121.3kB/s    00:01
Processing entries: 100%
pkg.bastillebsd.org repository update completed. 493 packages processed.
All repositories are up to date.
Checking for upgrades (1 candidates): 100%
Processing candidates (1 candidates): 100%
The following 1 package(s) will be affected (of 0 checked):

Installed packages to be UPGRADED:
	nginx-lite: 1.14.0_14,2 -> 1.14.1,2

Number of packages to be upgraded: 1

315 KiB to be downloaded.

Proceed with this action? [y/N]: y
[nginx] [1/1] Fetching nginx-lite-1.14.1,2.txz: 100%  315 KiB 322.8kB/s    00:01
Checking integrity... done (0 conflicting)
[nginx] [1/1] Upgrading nginx-lite from 1.14.0_14,2 to 1.14.1,2...
===> Creating groups.
Using existing group 'www'.
===> Creating users
Using existing user 'www'.
[nginx] [1/1] Extracting nginx-lite-1.14.1,2: 100%
You may need to manually remove /usr/local/etc/nginx/nginx.conf if it is no longer needed.

bastille destroy

Containers can be destroyed and thrown away just as easily as they were created. Note: containers must be stopped before destroyed.

ishmael ~ # bastille stop folsom
[folsom]:
folsom: removed

ishmael ~ # bastille destroy folsom
Deleting Container: folsom.
Note: container console logs not destroyed.
/usr/local/bastille/logs/folsom_console.log

bastille template

Looking for ready made CI/CD validated Bastille Templates?

Bastille supports a templating system allowing you to apply files, pkgs and execute commands inside the container automatically.

Currently supported template hooks are: ARG, LIMITS, INCLUDE, PRE, FSTAB, PKG, OVERLAY, SYSRC, SERVICE, CMD, RENDER. Planned template hooks include: PF, LOG

Templates are created in ${bastille_prefix}/templates and can leverage any of the template hooks. Simply create a new directory in the format project/repo, ie; username/base-template

mkdir -p /usr/local/bastille/templates/username/base-template

To leverage a template hook, create an UPPERCASE file in the root of the template directory named after the hook you want to execute. eg;

echo "zsh vim-console git-lite htop" > /usr/local/bastille/templates/username/base-template/PKG
echo "/usr/bin/chsh -s /usr/local/bin/zsh" > /usr/local/bastille/templates/username/base-template/CMD
echo "usr" > /usr/local/bastille/templates/username/base-template/OVERLAY

Template hooks are executed in specific order and require specific syntax to work as expected. This table outlines that order and those requirements:

SUPPORTED format example
ARG name=value (one/line) domain=example.com (omit value for no default)
LIMITS resource value memoryuse 1G
INCLUDE template path/URL http?://TEMPLATE_URL or username/base-template
PRE /bin/sh command mkdir -p /usr/local/path
FSTAB fstab syntax /host/path container/path nullfs ro 0 0
PKG port/pkg name(s) vim-console zsh git-lite tree htop
OVERLAY paths (one/line) etc usr
SYSRC sysrc command(s) nginx_enable=YES
SERVICE service command(s) nginx restart
CMD /bin/sh command /usr/bin/chsh -s /usr/local/bin/zsh
RENDER paths (one/line) /usr/local/etc/nginx
PLANNED format example
RDR pf rdr entry rdr pass inet proto tcp from any to any port 80 -> 10.17.89.80
LOG path /var/log/nginx/access.log

Note: SYSRC requires NO quotes or that quotes (") be escaped. ie; \")

Any name provided in the ARG file can be used as a variable in the other hooks. For example, name=value in the ARG file will cause instances of ${name} to be replaced with value. The RENDER hook can be used to specify files or directories whose contents should have the variables replaced. Values can be specified either through the command line when applying the template or as a default in the ARG file.

In addition to supporting template hooks, Bastille supports overlaying files into the container. This is done by placing the files in their full path, using the template directory as "/".

An example here may help. Think of /usr/local/bastille/templates/username/base, our example template, as the root of our filesystem overlay. If you create an etc/hosts or etc/resolv.conf inside the base template directory, these can be overlayed into your container.

Note: due to the way FreeBSD segregates user-space, the majority of your overlayed template files will be in usr/local. The few general exceptions are the etc/hosts, etc/resolv.conf, and etc/rc.conf.local.

After populating usr/local/ with custom config files that your container will use, be sure to include usr in the template OVERLAY definition. eg;

echo "etc" > /usr/local/bastille/templates/username/base/OVERLAY
echo "usr" >> /usr/local/bastille/templates/username/base/OVERLAY

The above example will include anything under "etc" and "usr" inside the template. You do not need to list individual files. Just include the top-level directory name.

For more control over the order of operations when applying a template, create a Bastillefile inside the base template directory. Each line in the file should begin with an uppercase reference to a Bastille command followed by its arguments (omitting the target, which is deduced from the template arguments). Lines beginning with # are treated as comments. Variables can also be defined using ARG with one name=value pair per line. Subsequent references to ${name} would be replaced by value. Note that argument values are not available for use until after the point at which they are defined in the file.

Bastillefile example:

LIMITS memoryuse 1G

# This value can be overridden when the template is applied.
ARG domain=example.com

# Replace all argument variables inside the nginx config.
RENDER /usr/local/etc/nginx

# Install and start nginx.
PKG nginx
SYSRC nginx_enable=YES
SERVICE nginx restart

# Copy files to nginx.
CP www/ usr/local/www/nginx-dist/

# Use the "domain" arg to create a file on the server containing the domain.
CMD echo "${domain}" > /usr/local/www/nginx-dist/domain.txt

# Create a file on the server containing the jail's hostname.
CMD hostname > /usr/local/www/nginx-dist/hostname.txt

# Forward TCP port 80 on the host to port 80 in the container.
RDR tcp 80 80

Applying Templates

Containers must be running to apply templates.

Bastille includes a template sub-command. This sub-command requires a target and a template name. As covered in the previous section, template names correspond to directory names in the bastille/templates directory.

To provide values for arguments defined by ARG in the template, pass the optional --arg parameter as many times as needed. Alternatively, use --arg-file <fileName> with one name=value pair per line.

ishmael ~ # bastille template folsom username/base --arg domain=example.com
[folsom]:
Copying files...
Copy complete.
Installing packages.
...[snip]...
Executing final command(s).
chsh: user information updated
Template Complete.

bastille top

This one simply runs top in that container. This command is interactive, as top is interactive.

bastille htop

This one simply runs htop inside the container. This one is a quick and dirty addition. note: won't work if you don't have htop installed in the container.

bastille sysrc

The sysrc sub-command allows for safely editing system configuration files. In container terms, this allows us to toggle on/off services and options at startup.

ishmael ~ # bastille sysrc nginx nginx_enable=YES
[nginx]:
nginx_enable: NO -> YES

See man sysrc(8) for more info.

bastille console

This sub-command launches a login shell into the container. Default is password-less root login. If you provide an additional argument of a username you will be logged in as that user. (user must be created first)

ishmael ~ # bastille console folsom
[folsom]:
FreeBSD 11.3-RELEASE-p4 (GENERIC) #0: Thu Sep 27 08:16:24 UTC 2018

Welcome to FreeBSD!

Release Notes, Errata: https://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/
Security Advisories:   https://www.FreeBSD.org/security/
FreeBSD Handbook:      https://www.FreeBSD.org/handbook/
FreeBSD FAQ:           https://www.FreeBSD.org/faq/
Questions List: https://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-questions/
FreeBSD Forums:        https://forums.FreeBSD.org/

Documents installed with the system are in the /usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/
directory, or can be installed later with:  pkg install en-freebsd-doc
For other languages, replace "en" with a language code like de or fr.

Show the version of FreeBSD installed:  freebsd-version ; uname -a
Please include that output and any error messages when posting questions.
Introduction to manual pages:  man man
FreeBSD directory layout:      man hier

Edit /etc/motd to change this login announcement.
root@folsom:~ #

At this point you are logged in to the container and have full shell access. The system is yours to use and/or abuse as you like. Any changes made inside the container are limited to the container.

bastille cp

This sub-command allows efficiently copying files from host to container(s).

ishmael ~ # bastille cp ALL /tmp/resolv.conf-cf etc/resolv.conf
[folsom]:
/tmp/resolv.conf-cf -> /usr/local/bastille/jails/folsom/root/etc/resolv.conf

[nginx]:
/tmp/resolv.conf-cf -> /usr/local/bastille/jails/nginx/root/etc/resolv.conf

[squid]:
/tmp/resolv.conf-cf -> /usr/local/bastille/jails/squid/root/etc/resolv.conf

[unbound0]:
/tmp/resolv.conf-cf -> /usr/local/bastille/jails/unbound0/root/etc/resolv.conf

bastille rdr

bastille rdr allows you to configure dynamic rdr rules for your containers without modifying pf.conf (assuming you are using the bastille0 interface for a private network and have enabled rdr-anchor 'rdr/*' in /etc/pf.conf as described in the Networking section).

    # bastille rdr help
    Usage: bastille rdr TARGET [clear] | [list] | [tcp <host_port> <jail_port>] | [udp <host_port> <jail_port>]
    # bastille rdr dev1 tcp 2001 22
    # bastille rdr dev1 list
    rdr on em0 inet proto tcp from any to any port = 2001 -> 10.17.89.1 port 22
    # bastille rdr dev1 udp 2053 53
    # bastille rdr dev1 list
    rdr on em0 inet proto tcp from any to any port = 2001 -> 10.17.89.1 port 22
    rdr on em0 inet proto udp from any to any port = 2053 -> 10.17.89.1 port 53
    # bastille rdr dev1 clear
    nat cleared

bastille update

The update command targets a release instead of a container. Because every container is based on a release, when the release is updated all the containers are automatically updated as well.

To update all containers based on the 11.2-RELEASE release:

Up to date 11.2-RELEASE:

ishmael ~ # bastille update 11.2-RELEASE
Targeting specified release.
11.2-RELEASE

Looking up update.FreeBSD.org mirrors... 2 mirrors found.
Fetching metadata signature for 11.2-RELEASE from update4.freebsd.org... done.
Fetching metadata index... done.
Inspecting system... done.
Preparing to download files... done.

No updates needed to update system to 11.2-RELEASE-p4.
No updates are available to install.

To be safe, you may want to restart any containers that have been updated live.

bastille upgrade

This sub-command lets you upgrade a release to a new release. Depending on the workflow this can be similar to a bootstrap.

ishmael ~ # bastille upgrade 11.3-RELEASE 12.0-RELEASE
...

bastille verify

This sub-command scans a bootstrapped release and validates that everything looks in order. This is not a 100% comprehensive check, but it compares the release against a "known good" index.

If you see errors or issues here, consider deleting and re-bootstrapping the release.

It should be noted that releases bootstrapped through Bastille are validated using sha256 checksum against the release manifest. Archives that fail validation are not used.

bastille zfs

This sub-command allows managing zfs attributes for the targeted container(s). Common usage includes setting container quotas.

set quota

ishmael ~ # bastille zfs folsom set quota=1G

built-in: df

ishmael ~ # bastille zfs ALL df

built-in: df

ishmael ~ # bastille zfs folsom df

bastille export

Containers can be exported for archiving purposes easily. Note: On UFS systems containers must be stopped before export.

ishmael ~ # bastille export folsom
Exporting 'folsom' to a compressed .xz archive.
Sending zfs data stream...
  100 %     1057.2 KiB / 9231.5 KiB = 0.115                   0:01
Exported '/usr/local/bastille/jails/backups/folsom_2020-01-26-19:23:04.xz' successfully.

bastille import

Containers can be imported from supported archives easily.

ishmael ~ # bastille import folsom_2020-01-26-19:22:23.xz
Validating file: folsom_2020-01-26-19:22:23.xz...
File validation successful!
Importing 'folsom' from compressed .xz archive.
Receiving zfs data stream...
/usr/local/bastille/jails/backups/folsom_2020-01-26-19:22:23.xz (1/1)
  100 %      626.4 KiB / 9231.5 KiB = 0.068                   0:02
Container 'folsom' imported successfully.

bastille clone

bastille clone will duplicate an existing container. Please be aware that no host specific keys or hashes will be regenerated. E. g. remove OpenSSH host keys to avoid duplicate host keys rm /etc/ssh/ssh_host_*

Usage: bastille clone [TARGET] [NEWJAIL] [NEW_IPADRRESS]

ishmael ~ # bastille clone sourcejail targetjail 10.17.89.11

bastille mount

bastille mount will nullfs mount a path from the host inside the container. Uses the same format as an fstab entry. Filesystem type, options, dump, and pass number are optional and default to: nullfs ro 0 0

Usage: bastille mount [TARGET] [HOST_PATH] [CONTAINER_PATH] [FILESYSTEM_TYPE] [OPTIONS] [DUMP] [PASS_NUMBER]

ishmael ~ # bastille mount targetjail /host/path container/path
[targetjail]:
Added: /host/path container/path nullfs ro 0 0

bastille umount

bastille umount will unmount a volume from inside the container.

Usage: bastille umount [TARGET] [CONTAINER_PATH]

ishmael ~ # bastille umount targetjail container/path
[targetjail]:
Unmounted: container/path

Example (create, start, console)

This example creates, starts and consoles into the container.

ishmael ~ # bastille create alcatraz 11.2-RELEASE 10.17.89.7

RELEASE: 11.2-RELEASE.
NAME: alcatraz.
IP: 10.17.89.7.
ishmael ~ # bastille start alcatraz
[alcatraz]:
alcatraz: created
ishmael ~ # bastille console alcatraz
[alcatraz]:
FreeBSD 11.2-RELEASE-p4 (GENERIC) #0: Thu Sep 27 08:16:24 UTC 2018

Welcome to FreeBSD!

Release Notes, Errata: https://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/
Security Advisories:   https://www.FreeBSD.org/security/
FreeBSD Handbook:      https://www.FreeBSD.org/handbook/
FreeBSD FAQ:           https://www.FreeBSD.org/faq/
Questions List: https://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-questions/
FreeBSD Forums:        https://forums.FreeBSD.org/

Documents installed with the system are in the /usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/
directory, or can be installed later with:  pkg install en-freebsd-doc
For other languages, replace "en" with a language code like de or fr.

Show the version of FreeBSD installed:  freebsd-version ; uname -a
Please include that output and any error messages when posting questions.
Introduction to manual pages:  man man
FreeBSD directory layout:      man hier

Edit /etc/motd to change this login announcement.
root@alcatraz:~ #
root@alcatraz:~ # ps -auxw
USER   PID %CPU %MEM  VSZ  RSS TT  STAT STARTED    TIME COMMAND
root 83222  0.0  0.0 6412 2492  -  IsJ  02:21   0:00.00 /usr/sbin/syslogd -ss
root 88531  0.0  0.0 6464 2508  -  SsJ  02:21   0:00.01 /usr/sbin/cron -s
root  6587  0.0  0.0 6912 2788  3  R+J  02:42   0:00.00 ps -auxw
root 92441  0.0  0.0 6952 3024  3  IJ   02:21   0:00.00 login [pam] (login)
root 92565  0.0  0.0 7412 3756  3  SJ   02:21   0:00.01 -csh (csh)
root@alcatraz:~ #

Project Goals

These tools are created initially with the mindset of function over form. I want to simply prove the concept is sound for real work. The real work is a sort of meta-container-port system. Instead of installing the MySQL port directly on a system, you would use Bastille to install the MySQL port within a container template built for MySQL. The same goes for DNS servers, and everything else in the ports tree.

Eventually I would like to have Bastille templates created for popular FreeBSD-based services. From Plex Media Servers to ad-blocking DNS resolvers. From tiny SSH containers to dynamic web servers. [COMPLETE]

I don't want to tell you what you can and can't run within this framework. There are no arbitrary limitations based on what I think may or may not be the best way to design systems. This is not my goal.

My goal is to provide a secure framework where processes and services can run isolated. I want to limit the scope and reach of bad actors. I want to severely limit the target areas available to anyone that has (or has gained) access.

Networking Tips

Tip #1:

Ports and destinations can be defined as lists. eg;

rdr pass inet proto tcp from any to any port {80, 443} -> {10.17.89.45, 10.17.89.46, 10.17.89.47, 10.17.89.48}

This rule would redirect any traffic to the host on ports 80 or 443 and round-robin between containers with ips 45, 46, 47, and 48 (on ports 80 or 443).

Tip #2:

Ports can redirect to other ports. eg;

rdr pass inet proto tcp from any to any port 8080 -> 10.17.89.5 port 80
rdr pass inet proto tcp from any to any port 8081 -> 10.17.89.5 port 8080
rdr pass inet proto tcp from any to any port 8181 -> 10.17.89.5 port 443

Tip #3:

Don't worry too much about IP assignments.

Initially I spent time worrying about what IP addresses to assign. In the end I've come to the conclusion that it really doesn't matter. Pick any private address and be done with it. These are all isolated networks. In the end, what matters is you can map host:port to container:port reliably, and we can.

Community Support

If you've found a bug in Bastille, please submit it to the Bastille Issue Tracker.

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