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ACCESS NYC

ACCESS NYC provides a mobile-friendly front door for New Yorkers to screen for City, State, and Federal benefit and program eligibility as well as learn how to apply to programs and find local help. The site is for benefits-seeking residents in NYC and accommodates residents...

  • With low digital literacy
  • With limited technology access, especially those who are mobile dependent
  • Who do not speak fluent English
  • Who have limited visual capabilities

Learn more about ACCESS NYC at nyc.gov/opportunity.

Contents

Tech

ACCESS NYC is a publicly available WordPress site hosted on WP Engine. Source code is available in this repository. All benefit program information on ACCESS NYC is publicly available through the Benefits and Programs API on the City of New York’s Open Data portal.

The ACCESS NYC eligibility screener is a single-page web application powered by an API built on the Drools Business Rules Management System hosted on Amazon Web Services through the NYC Department of Information Technology and Telecommunications. The NYC Benefits Screening API is an open API that allows developers to utilize the rules engine that governs the ACCESS NYC Eligibility Screener.

The ACCESS NYC Patterns provide mobile-first stylesheets, fonts, icons, and JavaScript-enhanced components that support WCAG AA compliance, and multi-lingual (right-to-left, and left-to-right) layouts. They are distributed as an NPM Package which can be installed in any project.

Local Installation

Requirements

  • Virtualization (Docker, Vagrant + Virtualbox, Local, or other). The technology team at NYC Opportunity uses Docker for Mac and the NYCO WordPress Boilerplate for running and managing the application locally.

  • Composer. PHP and WordPress plugin dependencies for WordPress core and the ACCESS Theme are managed via Composer. Learn more about Composer on its website.

  • Node and NPM. The ACCESS Theme uses Node with NPM to manage packages such as Gulp to compile assets for the front-end. Learn more about Node, NPM, and Gulp at their respective websites. NVM is a recommended tool for managing versions of Node. The supported Node version can be set in the theme using the .nvmrc file.

Installation

This guide covers running the WordPress site without a specific virtualization method. The NYCO WordPress Boilerplate is used by the team to manage WordPress sites locally.

$1 Rename wp-config-sample.php to wp-config.php. Modify the MySQL settings, Authentication Unique Keys, Salts, and WordPress debugging mode. If using the NYCO WordPress Boilerplate, you can use the wp-config.php included in the repository but you should still update the salts.

$2 To get un-tracked composer packages when you install the site you will need to run the following in the root of the WordPress site where the composer.json file lives:

$ composer install

$3 This will install plugins included in the Composer package, including NYCO WordPress Config (see details in Configuration below). This plugin includes a sample config that needs to be renamed from mu-plugins/config/config-sample.yml to mu-plugins/config/config.yml.

WordPress Site Structure

Configuration

ACCESS NYC integrates the NYCO WordPress Config plugin for determining configurations based on the environment. This plugin will pull from an array of variables set in the mu-plugins/config/config.yml file and set the appropriate group to environment variables that can be accessed by site functions, templates, and plugins.

ACCESS Theme

The theme for the site contains all of the PHP functions, templates, styling, and scripts for the site front-end and can be found in the themes directory. This is the only WordPress theme that is compatible with the WordPress site.

  • /acf-json - Advanced Custom Fields JSON files for syncing custom fields between environments.
  • /assets - The source for image, style, and script files live in the src and are compiled to the /assets directory. This is done with NPM Scripts in package.json and tasks in the GulpFile. The theme relies on the ACCESS NYC Patterns for sourcing Stylesheets and JavaScript modules. Refer to the documentation for details on the different patterns and their usage.
  • /blocks - Custom Gutenburg Block source.
  • /controllers - Site and Post Type controllers that extend Timber and provide processed data to views.
  • /lib - Theme functions, filters, and other helpers that assist in rendering views.
  • /shortcodes - Theme shortcodes available to the admin.
  • /src - JavaScript and stylesheet source (described below).
  • /views - View templates are generally organized on a component level and by site feature and include Twig, Underscore.js, and Vue.js templates.
    • /components - Component pattern templates.
    • /elements - Element pattern templates.
    • /emails - Email view templates
    • /jst - Underscore templates used by twig files are pre-rendered buy Gulp and stored here.
    • /locations - Locations feature templates.
    • /objects - Object pattern templates.
    • /partials - Misc. view template partials.
    • /programs - Programs feature templates.
    • /screener - Screener feature templates.

Twig Templates

The theme is built on Timber which uses the Twig Templating Engine. Templates can be edited in the /views directory.

Functions

The functions.php is a proxy used to require and instantiate dependencies for rendering views only. Any other site configuration such as a filter, hook, or action will be found in the must use plugins directory. Functions available to the theme are stored in the lib/functions.php file.

Dependencies include path helpers, theme functions, WordPress Gutenberg Blocks, shortcodes, the site controller, and Timber filters.

Path Helpers

Path helpers are shorthand functions that return path strings for including various dependencies within the theme. They are used throughout theme files and generally accept a single string parameter referencing the filename (without extension) of the dependency.

<?php

require_once ACCESS\controller('programs');
  • ACCESS\lib - Return the path to a file in the /lib directory.
  • ACCESS\functions - Return the path to the /lib/functions.php file. No arguments required.
  • ACCESS\controller - Return the path to the site or a post type controller from /controllers directory.
  • ACCESS\block - Return the path to a Gutenburg Block from the /blocks directory.
  • ACCESS\require_blocks - Require all Gutenburg Blocks. No arguments required.
  • ACCESS\shortcode - Return the path to a shortcode in the /shortcodes directory.
  • ACCESS\require_shortcodes - Require all shortcodes from the /shortcodes. No arguments required.

Controllers

Site and Post Type controllers extend Timber functionality and make it easy for providing extra or customized context to different views and even the WordPress REST API. Controllers are based on post types and are included in the theme when rendering posts on the homepage, in an archive, or a single view.

Controllers are required using the controller path helper (described above):

<?php

require_once ACCESS\controller('programs');
require_once ACCESS\controller('alert');

And instantiated (below in a single view):

<?php

$program = new Controller\Programs();

$context = Timber::get_context();

$context['post'] = $program;

Instantiated Controllers accept either a post object or post ID argument if used outside of their single view context. The following example instantiates a list of alert posts:

<?php

$context['alerts'] = array_map(function($post) {
  return new Controller\Alert($post);
}, get_field('alert'));

Plugins

WordPress Plugins are managed via Composer and the WordPress Admin. They are tracked by the repository to be easily shipped to different environments. Plugins utilized by the WordPress site can be found in the plugins directory. Key plugins include Advanced Custom Fields Pro, WordPress Multilingual, and the Gather Content WordPress Integration. There are a few ways of managing plugins.

WordPress Admin Plugins

Not all plugins can be managed by Composer. Specifically Advanced Custom Fields Pro and WordPress Multilingual. These plugins must be updated by either downloading from their respective sites and adding directly to the wp-content/plugins directory or by logging into the WordPress Admin and updating via the /wp-admin/plugins page.

Must Use Plugins

Must Use Plugins are used to handle most of the custom configuration for the WordPress site including custom post types, plugin configuration, and special plugins that enable additional functionality for major features of the site. Those can be found in the mu-plugins directory.

Additional configuration and functions can be found in the ACCESS Theme.

Composer Plugins

The composer.json file illustrates which plugins can be managed by Composer. WordPress Plugins can be installed either from WordPress Packagist or from Packagist via the Composer Libray Installer. Other PHP packages that are not plugins and stored in the /vendor directory are tracked by git so they can be deployed with the code. See the .gitignore file under the "Composer" block.

Using Composer

Installer Paths

Composer will install packages in one of three directory locations on the site depending on the type of package it is.

  • /vendor - By default, Composer will install packages here. These may include helper libraries or SDKs used for PHP programming.

Packages that have the Composer Library Installer included as a dependency can reroute their installation to directories alternative to the ./vendor directory. This is to support different PHP-based application frameworks. For WordPress, there are four possible directories (see the Composer Library Installer documentation for details), however, for this site, most packages are installed the two following directories:

  • /wp-content/plugins - Packages that are WordPress plugins are installed in the WordPress plugin directory.
  • /wp-content/mu-plugins - Packages that are Must Use WordPress plugins are installed in the Must Use plugin directory.

/vendor and git

Normally, /vendor packages wouldn't be checked into version control. They are installed on the server level in each environment. However, this site is deployed to WP Engine which does not support Composer so the packages need to be checked in and deployed to the site using git. By default /vendor packages are not tracked by the repository. If a composer package is required by production it needs to be included in the repository so it can be deployed to WP Engine. The .gitignore manually includes tracked repositories using the ! prefix. This does not apply to WordPress plugins.

# Composer #
############
/vendor/*             # Exclude all /vendor packages
!/vendor/autoload.php # Include the autoloader
!/vendor/altorouter   # etc.
...

Autoloader

The autoloader is what includes PHP package files in the application. It works by requiring package PHP files when the class names they include are invoked. The autoloader needs to be required in every application before Composer packages can be run. The site requires the autoloader in /wp-content/mu-plugins/config/default.php. This only applies to packages in the /vendor directory. WordPress Plugins and Must Use Plugins are not autoloaded.

<?php

require_once ABSPATH . '/vendor/autoload.php';

Development build

Different types of autoloaders can be generated. The composer.json includes scripts that will generate a "development" autoloader that requires packages defined in the require and require-dev json blocks (including whoops).

$ composer run development

Production build

The "production" autoloader will only require packages in the require JSON block. Once you are done developing and before deployment, regenerate the production autoloader which will prevent development dependencies from being required.

$ composer run production

Requiring Packages

The command to install new packages is composer require. See the Composer docs for more details on the CLI. Packages can be installed from Packagist or WordPress Packagist. To require a package run:

$ composer require {{ vendor }}/{{ package }}:{{ version constraint }}

For example:

$ composer require timber/timber:^1.18

... will require the Timber package and install the latest minor version, greater than 1.18 and less than 2.0.0. The caret designates the version range. Version constraints can be read about in more detail in the Composer documentation.

Updating Packages

The command to update packages is composer update. Running it will install packages based on their version constraint in the composer.json file. Individual packages can be updated by specifying the package name.

$ composer update {{ vendor }}/{{ package }}

For example:

$ composer update timber/timber

Composer scripts

The Composer package includes scripts that can be run via the command:

$ composer run {{ script }}
Script Description
development Rebuilds the autoloader including development dependencies.
production Rebuilds the autoloader omitting development dependencies.
predeploy Rebuilds the autoloader using the production script then runs PHP Code Sniffer using the lint script (described below).
lint Runs PHP Code Sniffer which will display violations of the standard defined in the phpcs.xml file.
fix Runs PHP Code Sniffer in fix mode which will attempt to fix violations automatically. It is not necessarily recommended to run this on large scripts because if it fails it will leave a script partially formatted and malformed.
version Regenerates the composer.lock file and rebuilds the autoloader for production.
deps This is a shorthand for composer show --tree for illustrating package dependencies.

Using NPM

NPM is used to manage the assets in the ACCESS Theme. To get started with modifying the theme front-end, navigate to the /wp-content/themes/access theme in your terminal. If using NVM, the .nvmrc will set the supported Node version for you by running the following command:

$ nvm use

If not using NVM, refer to the file for the supported version and run:

$ npm install

This will install all node dependencies in the same directory.

Then run:

$ npm run start

To start the development server for asset management. The NPM package comes scripts that can be run via the command:

$ npm run {{ script }}
Script Description
gulp Gulp is included as a dependency so this proxy enables running gulp tasks in the gulpfile.babel.js file if it is not globally installed. Any task in the GulpFile can be run with npm run gulp {{ task name }}.
start This is a proxy script for the development script below.
development This runs the default Gulp task in development mode NODE_ENV=development which watches and compiles assets.
production This runs the default Gulp task in production mode NODE_ENV=production which watches assets and compiles assets. The main difference is that the production mode uses ESLint and will enforce JavaScript writing style.
predeploy This runs a one-off compilation of assets in production mode.
scripts This runs a one-off compilation of JavaScript assets in production mode.
styles This runs a one-off compilation of stylesheet assets in production mode.

Git Hooks

Before contributing, configure git hooks to use the repository's hooks.

$ git config core.hooksPath .githooks
Hook Description
pre-push Runs the Composer predeploy script. See composer scripts.

Debug Browsing

The query parameter ?debug=1 to the site URL in any environment to help in debugging front-end issues. This will do several things. It will serve a non-minified version of the JavaScript with some logging enabled. It will also allow you to jump around to different steps in the eligibility screener, e.g. /eligiblity?debug=1#step-8, and if the web inspector is open will pause the app before and after the screener form is submitted while outputting the data payload and response object respectively.

Coding Style

PHP

PHP is linted using PHP Code Sniffer with the PSR-2 standard. The configuration can be found in the phpcs.xml. Linting must be done manually using the command:

$ composer run lint

PHP Code Sniffer can attempt to fix violations using composer run fix but it is not recommended for multiple files or large scripts as it can fail and leave malformed PHP files.

Javascript

The JavaScript is written in ES6 syntax. Source files are located in the theme /src/js directory. JavaScript is linted by the gulp lint task with the ESLint Google's standards. It is compiled, concatenated, and minified by the gulp scripts task, using Webpack Stream.

The main JavaScript dependencies used are jQuery, Underscore.js, and Vue.js.

SCSS

The theme relies on the ACCESS NYC Patterns for sourcing Stylesheets. Refer to the documentation for details on the different patterns and their usage. The Pattern SCSS files are processed, concatenated, and minified by the gulp styles task.

Security

The team @NYCOpportunity actively maintains and releases updates to the site to ensure security using a combination of practices for WordPress. The NYCO WordPress Boilerplate README file documents some of these tools and best practices.

Reporting a Vulnerability

Please report any vulnerabilities confidentially using the GitHub Security Advisories Feature.


The Mayors Office for Economic Opportunity

The Mayors Office for Economic Opportunity (NYC Opportunity) is committed to sharing open-source software that we use in our products. Feel free to ask questions and share feedback. Interested in contributing? See our open positions on buildwithnyc.github.io. Follow our team on Github (if you are part of the @cityofnewyork organization) or browse our work on Github.