A variation on cond which sports let bindings, when-let bindings and implicit else. The version for Clojure 1.8 and below is version 1.0.1. If you are using Clojure 1.9, check out the new features in version 2.0.0 or version 2.0.1 for alpha16 or later.
Add the following line to your leiningen dependencies:
Require better-cond in your namespace header:
(ns example.core (:require [better-cond.core :as b])) (b/cond (odd? a) 1 :let [a (quot a 2)] :when-let [x (fn-which-may-return-nil a), y (fn-which-may-return-nil (* 2 a))] ; bails early with nil unless x and y are both truthy (odd? (+ x y)) 2 3)
or alternatively, use it:
(ns example.core (:refer-clojure :exclude [cond]) (:require [better-cond.core :refer [cond]])) (cond (odd? a) 1 :let [a (quot a 2)] :when-let [x (fn-which-may-return-nil a), y (fn-which-may-return-nil (* 2 a))] ; bails early with nil unless x and y are both truthy (odd? (+ x y)) 2 3)
Note: better-cond also works in Clojurescript; simply change
In order to support multiple bindings in cond's :when-let clauses, better-cond.core also contains a version of
when-let which can take multiple name-expression pairs in the binding vector (the ones built into Clojure can only take a single name and expression). The test passes only when all the names evaluate to something truthy. You may find it useful to use better-cond's
cond, if you use
when-let you'll need to qualify with the namespace or namespace alias (i.e.,
b/when-let) or you'll need to exclude the Clojure version from your namespace:
(ns example.core (:refer-clojure :exclude [cond if-let when-let]) (:require [better-cond.core :refer [cond if-let when-let]]))
The aspect of the library I use the most is the :let binding inside of the cond. I use this on a daily basis, and it is hugely useful in preventing the code from getting deeply nested and helps make the code dramatically clearer. Try it -- you'll be hooked.
There has been a JIRA issue for this for several years, so hopefully this will make it into Clojure proper at some point. Please go vote for it.
As a heavy user of Clojure since its first release, I have observed in my own code and in others' that one of the biggest sources of deeply-nested code and creep-to-the-right indenting is an alternation of lets and if/cond tests.
In Clojure, we tend not to use looping constructs nearly as much as in mainstream languages, because higher-order functions like map, filter, and reduce handle the vast majority of our looping needs. This means that many Clojure functions are simply expressed as a series of name bindings (let) and conditional tests (cond), so alleviating this source of indenting has a big payoff.
As a teacher of Scheme and Clojure for many years, I've noticed that when newcomers balk at "all the parens", many times what they are really balking at is the increased level of nesting/indenting in the language. This is especially an issue for people coming from mainstream languages where names are introduced by assignments, which do not increase the indenting level. Several other functional languages have addressed this pain point for newcomers. One of the first changes that the F# designers made to the syntax they borrowed from OCaml was to change name binding so that it wouldn't increase the indentation level. Racket, a dialect of Scheme like Clojure, uses
define as a way to introduce local variables without increasing indenting (this strategy doesn't work in Clojure, because
def in Clojure always creates global variables).
I think one thing experienced programmers can all agree on is that names matter -- a lot. As someone who thinks a lot about the psychology of programming, I've observed that it is important to reduce as much as possible the psychological friction of introducing names in your code. If there's friction, programmers use names less frequently. Increased typing means increased friction, but more importantly, structural changes to the code means increased friction.
Let's say I'm writing a cond statement, and I realize that the next several tests will be about the same field of some data structure. A silly example:
(cond ... some other test/expressions (> (count (:name (:pet customer))) 20) (need-bigger-plaque) (= (:name (:pet customer)) "Fido") (use-premade-fido-plaque) ... tests continue
I know that it will be clearer if I give a name to
(:name (:pet customer)) (and also more efficient, since I won't have to lookup the field multiple times). But this refactoring causes cognitive friction:
(cond ... some other test/expressions :else (let [pet-name (:name (:pet customer))] (cond (> (count pet-name) 20) (need-bigger-plaque) (= pet-name "Fido") (use-premade-fido-plaque) ... tests continue
in a way that this does not:
(cond ... some other test/expressions :let [pet-name (:name (:pet customer))] (> (count pet-name) 20) (need-bigger-plaque) (= pet-name "Fido") (use-premade-fido-plaque) ... tests continue
Psychologically, these two versions feel totally different because the latter version is simply an insertion of a line that lets me refactor and simplify the later lines. The first way requires me to change the structure of my code, which I am unlikely to do unless I feel it is absolutely necessary. Also, from a practical standpoint, I can't do the indenting version more than a couple of times before my code gets unwieldy and unreadable because it is so far off to the right side of my screen.
Many Clojure programmers use the println debugging method when trying to understand the behavior of their code. When you want to inspect a value that is flowing through a cond, adding a println statement ordinarily involves significant refactoring, and no one wants to make major changes to their code just to inspect it. better-cond turns this into a simple matter:
(cond ... some other test/expressions :let [_ (println (:name (:pet customer)))] (> (count (:name (:pet customer))) 20) (need-bigger-plaque) ... tests continue
There is tremendous value in being able to drop a print statement into the middle of a cond so effortlessly.
Minimizing rightward drift
I have gotten so used to the power of better-cond to minimize rightward drift, that sometimes I even use it to help the aesthetics of a function that has little to do with cond. For example:
(defn solutions-general [clauses] (cond :let [[object->int int->object] (build-transforms clauses) transformed-clauses (mapv (clause-transformer object->int) clauses)] :when-let [solver (create-solver transformed-clauses)] :let [timeout (.getTimeoutMs solver)] :when-let [solution (.findModel solver timeout)] :let [untransformed-solution ((clause-transformer int->object) solution)] (vec untransformed-solution)))
Note: In the above example, I've taken advantage of the optional implicit else on the last line of better-cond, which feels especially natural when the second-to-last line is a :let or :when-let.
(defn solutions-general [clauses] (let [[object->int int->object] (build-transforms clauses) transformed-clauses (mapv (clause-transformer object->int) clauses)] (when-let [solver (create-solver transformed-clauses)] (let [timeout (.getTimeoutMs solver)] (when-let [solution (.findModel solver timeout)] (let [untransformed-solution ((clause-transformer int->object) solution)] (vec untransformed-solution)))))))
It's a matter of taste, of course, whether you want to use cond for a function like this, but I definitely am glad to have a tool in my arsenal to help tame and prevent heavily indented code.
What about threading macros?
My stylistic opinion is that threading macros are best used for short runs of piping the result from one function into another. It works best when the names of the functions clearly indicate what is being done to the value. But as the run gets longer, or you are using more general-purpose functions, there are significant benefits from giving names to the intermediate computations. Some people do this in the form of comments off to the right of each line, explaining what value is being threaded -- I personally prefer to use names that are actually part of the code.
The introduction of cond->, as->, and some-> addressed some of the pain points of interleaving naming and testing for heavy users of threading macros. I believe it is valuable to have similar functionality inside cond.
If you are a big fan of threading macros, take a look at https://github.com/maitria/packthread which addresses some of the same issues in that context.
Can't you just put all the name bindings at the top of your code?
No, a lot of the time you can't name something until it exists, and knowing it exists is predicated on making other tests. For example, you can't meaningfully start talking about the first and rest of a sequence until you know that the sequence is not empty, or that the thing even is a sequence.
How will I remember the syntax?
It's just like the way :let clauses work within a
Since this exists as a library, there's no reason for Clojure to include it, right?
Well, certainly one of the beautiful things about Lisp languages is that you can code up your own control constructs and use them whether they are officially part of the language or not. I've been happily using this version of
cond in my own code for several years.
But there is a social aspect to programming as well. When working as part of a company or as part of the open-source community, there's value to sticking with the standard set of control constructs. It can be confusing to read someone else's code littered with constructs you don't recognize, or constructs which look like a built-in construct but have special features. So, certainly I am still hopeful that one day we'll see inclusion of this feature in Clojure. Although I was not the person who originally proposed this feature for Clojure, I think it adds a lot of value so I took an active role in helping maintain the patch for the feature request over the years.
For the purposes of the JIRA patch, I've advocated using only the most conservative extension to cond as I think that would be the most realistic proposal for widespread use and would deliver the most "bang for the buck" (i.e., just adding the :let clause, no :when-let and no implicit else clause).
UPDATE The day after the better-cond library was announced, the JIRA issue for this enhancement, which had been open for 7 years, was declined, turning off the ability to vote for the feature. No comment or explanation for declining the patch was provided.
Derived from an early version of cgrand/utils, written by Christophe Grand under the Eclipse Public License.
Distributed under the Eclipse Public License either version 1.0 or (at your option) any later version.