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Two factor authentication extension for Devise
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Latest commit 675f651 Mar 13, 2016 @Houdini Merge pull request #73 from jlhonora/master
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README.md

Two factor authentication for Devise

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Features

  • configurable OTP code digit length
  • configurable max login attempts
  • customizable logic to determine if a user needs two factor authentication
  • customizable logic for sending the OTP code to the user
  • configurable period where users won't be asked for 2FA again
  • option to encrypt the OTP secret key in the database, with iv and salt

Configuration

Initial Setup

In a Rails environment, require the gem in your Gemfile:

gem 'two_factor_authentication'

Once that's done, run:

bundle install

Note that Ruby 2.0 or greater is required.

Installation

Automatic initial setup

To set up the model and database migration file automatically, run the following command:

bundle exec rails g two_factor_authentication MODEL

Where MODEL is your model name (e.g. User or Admin). This generator will add :two_factor_authenticatable to your model's Devise options and create a migration in db/migrate/, which will add the following columns to your table:

  • :second_factor_attempts_count
  • :encrypted_otp_secret_key
  • :encrypted_otp_secret_key_iv
  • :encrypted_otp_secret_key_salt

Manual initial setup

If you prefer to set up the model and migration manually, add the :two_factor_authentication option to your existing devise options, such as:

devise :database_authenticatable, :registerable, :recoverable, :rememberable,
       :trackable, :validatable, :two_factor_authenticatable

Then create your migration file using the Rails generator, such as:

rails g migration AddTwoFactorFieldsToUsers second_factor_attempts_count:integer encrypted_otp_secret_key:string:index encrypted_otp_secret_key_iv:string encrypted_otp_secret_key_salt:string

Open your migration file (it will be in the db/migrate directory and will be named something like 20151230163930_add_two_factor_fields_to_users.rb), and add unique: true to the add_index line so that it looks like this:

add_index :users, :encrypted_otp_secret_key, unique: true

Save the file.

Complete the setup

Run the migration with:

bundle exec rake db:migrate

Add the following line to your model to fully enable two-factor auth:

has_one_time_password(encrypted: true)

Set config values in config/initializers/devise.rb:

config.max_login_attempts = 3  # Maximum second factor attempts count.
config.allowed_otp_drift_seconds = 30  # Allowed time drift between client and server.
config.otp_length = 6  # OTP code length
config.remember_otp_session_for_seconds = 30.days  # Time before browser has to enter OTP code again. Default is 0.
config.otp_secret_encryption_key = ENV['OTP_SECRET_ENCRYPTION_KEY']

The otp_secret_encryption_key must be a random key that is not stored in the DB, and is not checked in to your repo. It is recommended to store it in an environment variable, and you can generate it with bundle exec rake secret.

Override the method to send one-time passwords in your model. This is automatically called when a user logs in:

def send_two_factor_authentication_code
  # use Model#otp_code and send via SMS, etc.
end

Customisation and Usage

By default, second factor authentication is required for each user. You can change that by overriding the following method in your model:

def need_two_factor_authentication?(request)
  request.ip != '127.0.0.1'
end

In the example above, two factor authentication will not be required for local users.

This gem is compatible with Google Authenticator. You can generate provisioning uris by invoking the following method on your model:

user.provisioning_uri # This assumes a user model with an email attribute

This provisioning uri can then be turned in to a QR code if desired so that users may add the app to Google Authenticator easily. Once this is done, they may retrieve a one-time password directly from the Google Authenticator app as well as through whatever method you define in send_two_factor_authentication_code.

Overriding the view

The default view that shows the form can be overridden by adding a file named show.html.erb (or show.html.haml if you prefer HAML) inside app/views/devise/two_factor_authentication/ and customizing it. Below is an example using ERB:

<h2>Hi, you received a code by email, please enter it below, thanks!</h2>

<%= form_tag([resource_name, :two_factor_authentication], :method => :put) do %>
  <%= text_field_tag :code %>
  <%= submit_tag "Log in!" %>
<% end %>

<%= link_to "Sign out", destroy_user_session_path, :method => :delete %>

Updating existing users with OTP secret key

If you have existing users that need to be provided with a OTP secret key, so they can use two factor authentication, create a rake task. It could look like this one below:

desc 'rake task to update users with otp secret key'
task :update_users_with_otp_secret_key  => :environment do
  User.find_each do |user|
    user.otp_secret_key = ROTP::Base32.random_base32
    user.save!
    puts "Rake[:update_users_with_otp_secret_key] => OTP secret key set to '#{key}' for User '#{user.email}'"
  end
end

Then run the task with bundle exec rake update_users_with_otp_secret_key

Adding the OTP encryption option to an existing app

If you've already been using this gem, and want to start encrypting the OTP secret key in the database (recommended), you'll need to perform the following steps:

  1. Generate a migration to add the necessary columns to your model's table:

    rails g migration AddEncryptionFieldsToUsers encrypted_otp_secret_key:string:index encrypted_otp_secret_key_iv:string encrypted_otp_secret_key_salt:string
    

    Open your migration file (it will be in the db/migrate directory and will be named something like 20151230163930_add_encryption_fields_to_users.rb), and add unique: true to the add_index line so that it looks like this:

    add_index :users, :encrypted_otp_secret_key, unique: true

    Save the file.

  2. Run the migration: bundle exec rake db:migrate

  3. Update the gem: bundle update two_factor_authentication

  4. Add encrypted: true to has_one_time_password in your model. For example: has_one_time_password(encrypted: true)

  5. Generate a migration to populate the new encryption fields:

    rails g migration PopulateEncryptedOtpFields
    

    Open the generated file, and replace its contents with the following:

    class PopulateEncryptedOtpFields < ActiveRecord::Migration
      def up
        User.reset_column_information
    
        User.find_each do |user|
          user.otp_secret_key = user.read_attribute('otp_secret_key')
          user.save!
        end
      end
    
      def down
        User.reset_column_information
    
        User.find_each do |user|
          user.otp_secret_key = ROTP::Base32.random_base32
          user.save!
        end
      end
    end
  6. Generate a migration to remove the :otp_secret_key column:

    rails g migration RemoveOtpSecretKeyFromUsers otp_secret_key:string
    
  7. Run the migrations: bundle exec rake db:migrate

If, for some reason, you want to switch back to the old non-encrypted version, use these steps:

  1. Remove (encrypted: true) from has_one_time_password

  2. Roll back the last 3 migrations (assuming you haven't added any new ones after them):

    bundle exec rake db:rollback STEP=3
    

Executing some code after the user signs in and before they sign out

In some cases, you might want to perform some action right after the user signs in, but before the OTP is sent, and also right before the user signs out. One scenario where you would need this is if you are requiring users to confirm their phone number first before they can receive an OTP. If they enter a wrong number, then sign out or close the browser before they confirm, they won't be able to confirm their real number. To solve this problem, we need to be able to reset their unconfirmed number before they sign out or sign in, and before the OTP code is sent.

To define this action, create a #{user.class}OtpSender class that takes the current user as its parameter, and defines a #reset_otp_state instance method. For example, if your user's class is User, you would create a UserOtpSender class, like this:

class UserOtpSender
  def initialize(user)
    @user = user
  end

  def reset_otp_state
    if @user.unconfirmed_mobile.present?
      @user.update(unconfirmed_mobile: nil)
    end
  end
end

If you have different types of users in your app (for example, User and Admin), and you need different logic for each type of user, create a second class for your admin user, such as AdminOtpSender, with its own logic for #reset_otp_state.

Example App

TwoFactorAuthenticationExample

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