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Under the hood...

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Charles Xie, Interactive Heat Transfer Simulations for Everyone, The Physics Teacher, Volume 50, Issue 4, pp. 237-240, 2012.


The development of this open-source program was initially supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) of the United States under grant numbers 0918449, 1124281, and 1512868. The project is currently under the auspices of the Institute for Future Intelligence ( Special thanks to the Concord Consortium for kindly allowing the transfer of the intellectual properties of this product to the Institute for Future Intelligence.


This program has been used as a simulation tool in the following publications:

  1. Kalidasan Balasubramanian, Adarsh Kumar Pandey, Yasir Ali Bhutto, Anas Islam, Tareq Kareri, Saidur Rahman, Dharam Buddhi, & Vineet Veer Tyagi, Evolving Thermal Energy Storage Using Hybrid Nanoparticle: An Experimental Investigation on Salt Hydrate Phase Change Materials for Greener Future, Energy Technology, 2024, 2400248.
  2. Lydia Sin-Yau Chiu, WallaceWai-Lok Lai, Sónia Santos-Assunção, Sahib Singh Sandhu, Janet Fung-Chu Sham, Nelson Fat-Sang Chan, Jeffrey Chun-Fai Wong, & Wai-Kin Leung, A Feasibility Study of Thermal Infrared Imaging for Monitoring Natural Terrain—A Case Study in Hong Kong, Remote Sensing, 2023, 15(24), 5787;
  3. Tânia M. Ribeiro, Andrea D’Ambrosio, Guillermo J. Dominguez Calabuig, Dimitrios Athanasopoulos, Helena Bates, Clemens Riegler, Oriane Gassot, Selina-Barbara Gerig, Juan L. Gómez-González, Nikolaus Huber, Ragnar Seton, Tiago E.C. Magalhães, CARINA: A near-Earth D-type asteroid sample return mission, Acta Astronautica, Volume 212, November 2023, Pages 213-225,
  4. M. Ravikumar, M.K. Srinath, & M.S. Ganesha Prasad, Thermal modelling of microwave dehydration of fruit slice, Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, 2023.
  5. Milad Ramezankhani, Mehrtash Harandi, Rudolf Seethaler, & Abbas S. Milani, Smart manufacturing under limited and heterogeneous data: a sim-to-real transfer learning with convolutional variational autoencoder in thermoforming, International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 2023,
  6. Christine K. McGinn, Vikrant Kumar, Megan Noga, Zachary Lamport, & Ioannis Kymissis, Ultra-Thin Ceramic Substrates for Improved Heat sinking for MicroLEDs, Advanced Materials Technologies, 2023,
  7. Milad Ramezankhani, Data-efficient and uncertainty-aware hybrid machine learning in advanced composites manufacturing, PhD thesis, University of British Columbia, 2023
  8. Fu-Ye Du, Wang Zhang, Hui-Qiong Wang, & Jin-Cheng Zheng, Enhancement of thermal rectification by asymmetry engineering of thermal conductivity and geometric structure for the multi-segment thermal rectifier, Chinese Physics B, 2023
  9. Angela Terracina, Angelo Armano, Manuela Meloni, Annamaria Panniello, Gianluca Minervini, Antonino Madonia, Marco Cannas, Marinella Striccoli, Luca Malfatti, & Fabrizio Messina, Photobleaching and Recovery Kinetics of a Palette of Carbon Nanodots Probed by In Situ Optical Spectroscopy, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 14, 31, 36038–36051, 2022
  10. Laura Bragante Corssac, A digital twin based smart home : a Proof-of-concept study, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul,
  11. Ümit Aksoy, Dünya, Mars ve Ay'da yerel kaynaklar ile üretilen betonlardan yapılmış yapıların sonlu elemanlar yöntemi ile tasarlanması ve karşılaştırılması. KMÜ, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, İnşaat Mühendisliği Ana Bilim Dalı, 2022
  12. Martin Ferjan, Izdelava interaktivnega pripomočka za razumevanje bioklimatskih ukrepov za pasivno solarno ogrevanje [na spletu]. 2022. [Dostopano 8 julij 2022]. Pridobljeno
  13. Pau Chung Leng, Siew Bee Aw, Nor Eeda Haji Ali, Gabriel Hoh Teck Ling, Yoke Lai Lee, & Mohd Hamdan Ahmad, Solar Chimneys as an Effective Ventilation Strategy in Multi-Storey Public Housing in the Post-COVID-19 Era, Buildings, 12(6), 820, 2022
  14. Miguel Chen Austin, Análisis de la influencia de la masa térmica en climas tropicales mediante simulación con Energy2D, PRISMA Tecnológico | Vol. 13, n.° 1, edición, 2022
  15. Ren Tier, Mpemba Effect Demystified,
  16. Miguel Chen Austin, Kevin Araque, Paola Palacios, Katherine Rodríguez Maure, & Dafni Mora, Numerical Assessment of Zebra-Stripes-Based Strategies in Buildings Energy Performance: A Case Study under Tropical Climate, Biomimetics 2022, 7, 14
  17. Ipsita Negi & Kirti Pal, Effect of Tower Height and Collector Radius on Performance of Solar Updraft Tower Power Plant, International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development, vol. 13, no. 1, 2022
  18. Messaoud Moudjari, Hafida Marouf, Hameed Muhamad, Omar Chaalal, Marc Mequignon, Walid Maherzi, & Mahfoud Benzerzour, Using Local Materials to Optimize the Eco-design of a Resilient Urban Environment in Sustainable Urban Project Process, Civil Engineering and Architecture 9(6): 2084-2097, 2021
  19. Luis Bernardo López-Sosa, Mario Morales-Máximo, Rogelio Anastacio-Paulino, Abraham Custodio-Hernández, Juan Carlos Corral-Huacuz, & Arturo Aguilera-Mandujano, Electron Microscopy Characterization of Sargassum Spp. from the Mexican Caribbean for Application as a Bioconstruction Material, Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 27 S1, 2021
  20. S. Turkat,et al., Measurement of the 2H(p, γ) 3He S-factor at 265 - 1094 keV, Physical Review C 103, 045805, 2021
  21. Songsheng Li & Christopher Chiu, Improved Smart Pillow for Remote Health Care System, Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, 10, 9, 2021
  22. D. Thomas, H. Andoni, Steven, R.A.Achsani, I.M.Sutjahja, Mardiyati, & S.Wonorahardjo, Thermophysical studies of common wall panels for controlling building thermal environment, MaterialsToday Proceedings, 2021
  24. B. Budiana, Rifaldi Dwi Priana, Xena Mutiara Sinurat, & Politeknik Negeri Batam, Canderif Amsal Oloan SilabanPenggunaan Perangkat Lunak Energy2D dalam Mempelajari Konduktivitas Panas Pada Plastik, Jurnal Integrasi, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 40-45, 2021
  25. Jay Kalpesh Panchal, Jaysinh Rajendrasinh Dabhi, Harshil Dineshkumar Khurana, & Rutvik Jigneshkumar Jani, Effect of Different Chimney and Collector Contour on Output in a Solar Updraft Tower, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 2882-2885, 2021
  26. Shao Ing Wong, Han Lin, Jaka Sunarso, Basil T. Wong, & Baohua Jia, Triggering a Self-Sustaining Reduction of Graphenes Oxide for High-Performance Energy Storage Devices, ACS Applied Nano Materials, Vol. 3, Issue 9, pp. 9117–9126, 2020
  27. Norbert Schneider, Alexander Kolew, Marc Schneider, Matthias Worgull, Thurid Gspann, & Juerg Leuthold, High‐Resolution On‐Demand Nanostructures, Physica Status Solidi A, 217, 1900688, 2020
  28. Roshni Senthilkumar & Mohamed Al Musleh, Smart temperature-controlled infant car seat using thermoelectric devices, 2020 IEEE International IOT, Electronics and Mechatronics Conference (IEMTRONICS), 2020
  29. Jacob B. Setera, Brent D. Turrin, Gregory F. Herzog, Jill A. VanTongeren, Jeremy S. Delaney, & Carl C. Swisher III, 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology for sub‐milligram samples using a Ta‐platform micro‐furnace, with illustrations from the Bushveld Complex, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 2020
  30. Dario Valter Conca, Development of novel optical techniques for the study of cell-surface proteins in living cells at the single-molecule level, University College London, PhD dissertation, 2020
  31. Rui Li, Exploring the Use of Smartphone, Wireless Sensors, and 3D-Printing for Low-Cost Medical Technology: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Rehabilitation, University of Georgia, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 2020. 27833521
  32. Giovanni Dipierro, Alessandro Massaro, & Angelo Galiano, Characterization of an efficient thermal insulation composite system for non-residential buildings: a comprehensive theoretical, numerical and experimental approach, International Journal of Current Advanced Research, Vol. 9, pp. 22177-22185, 2020
  33. LI Da-peng, YANG Dao-yu, & HUANG Dan, Energy2D在传热学虚拟仿真教学中的应用研究, 教育现代化, Vol. 49, 2020
  34. Inge Magdalena Sutjahja, Sufiyah Assegaf, & Surjamanto Wonorahardjo, Digital Simulation as Learning Aid for Heat Flow in Solid Theoretical Understanding, Journal of Physical Science and Engineering, 5(1), 11-21, 2020
  35. Fabio Longo, Alessio Cascardi, Paola Lassandro, & Maria Antonietta Aiello, A New Fabric Reinforced Geopolymer Mortar (FRGM) with Mechanical and Energy Benefits, Fibers, 8(8), 49, 2020
  36. Abhar Bhattarai, Bivek Baral, & Malesh Shah, Redesigning Direct Air Capture Using Renewable Energy, Bhutan Journal of Research and Development, pp.86-106, Spring, 2020
  37. Erik Mukk, Reinforcement learning based smart home heating solution in Energy2D simulation software, University of Tartu, 2020
  38. Vaithinathan Karthikeyan, James UtamaSurjadi, Joseph C.K.Wong, Venkataraman Kannan, Kwok-Ho Lam, Xianfeng Chen, Yang Lu, & Vellaisamy A.L.Roy, Wearable and flexible thin film thermoelectric module for multi-scale energy harvesting, Journal of Power Sources, 455, 2020
  39. Stefano Oss, Infrared imaging of a non-stationary thermal conductive process and observation of its Green’s kernel, European Journal of Physics, 41(1), 015102, 2020
  40. Massimiliano Malgieri & Pasquale Onorato, Teaching the heat transfer law using a stochastic toy model, European Journal of Physics, 41(1), 015103, 2020
  41. Surjamanto Wonorahardjo, Inge Magdalena Sutjahja, Y. Mardiyati, Heri Andoni, Dixon Thomas, Rizky Amalia Achsani, & S. Steven, Characterising thermal behaviour of buildings and its effect on urban heat island in tropical areas, International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering, 11, pp. 129–142, 2020
  42. Kishan Narotam, Design of a Thermally Controlled System for Medications, University of the Witwatersrand, 2019
  43. Margarita Castillo Tellez, Beatriz Castillo Tellez, Jose Andres Alanís Navarro, Juan Carlos Ovando Sierra, & Gerardo A. Mejia Perez, Kinetics of Drying Medicinal Plants by Hybridization of Solar Technologies, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.89686, 2019
  44. S. Sufiandi, T. Darmawan, & W. Dwianto, Mechanism of heat transfer using water in wood pores during wood densification, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 374, 012013, 2019
  45. Bo Zhang, Tomas Mikysek, Veronika Cicmancova, Stanislav Slang, Roman Svoboda, Petr Kutalek, & Tomas Wagner, 2D GeSe2 amorphous monolayer, Pure and Applied Chemistry, 91(11), 2019
  46. Adem Yilmaz, Sinan Unvar, Ali Serkan Avci, & Bunyamin Aygun, Difference of Solar Chimney System Chimney Designs and Numerical Modeling in Collector Surface Areas, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 10, Issue 9, pp 82-89, 2019
  47. Attila Zakarias, Tamas Laszlo, Csaba Krizbai, Tamas Szabo, & Norbert Demeter, Design and Development of Computer-Controlled Temperature Gradient System, Muszaki Tudomanyos Kozlemenyek, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 187-190, 2019
  48. Graziella Gini, Thermal component conditioning: Creation of a temperature map using Energy2D, Department of Architecture, ETH Zurich, 2019
  49. Amardeep Singh, Simulation Of Coffee Stain Effects Using ANSYS Fluent, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1276, 012004, 2019
  50. Pasquale Onorato, Luigi M. Gratton, Stefano Oss, & Massimiliano Malgieri, From the dicey world to the physical laws: dice toy models for bridging microscopic and macroscopic understanding of physical phenomena, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1287, 012026, 2019
  51. Dorin Copaci, Dolores Blanco, & Luis E. Moreno, Flexible Shape-Memory Alloy-Based Actuator: Mechanical Design Optimization According to Application, Actuators, Volume 8, Issue 3, p. 63, 2019
  52. Sabri Pllana, Suejb Memeti, & Joanna Kolodziej, Customizing Pareto Simulated Annealing for Multi-objective Optimization of Control Cabinet Layout, The 22nd International Conference on Control Systems and Computer Science, 2019
  53. Surjamanto Wonorahardjo, Inge Sutjahja, Siti Aisyah Damiati, & Daniel Kurnia, Adjustment of Indoor Temperature using Internal Thermal Mass under Different Tropical Weather Conditions, Science and Technology for the Built Environment, 2019
  54. José Andrés Alanís Navarro, Margarita Castillo Téllez, Mario Arturo Rivera Martínez, Gabriel Pedroza Silvar, & Francisco Christian Martínez Tejeda, Computational thermal analysis of a double slope solar still using Energy2D, Desalination and Water Treatment, Volume 151, pp 26-33, 2019
  55. D. Copaci, F. Martin, L. Moreno, & D. Blanco, SMA-Based Elbow Exoskeleton for Rehabilitation Therapy and Patient Evaluation, IEEE Access, 2019
  56. R. C. G. M. Loonen, M. L. de Klijn-Chevalerias, & J. L. M. Hensen, Opportunities and Pitfalls of Using Building Performance Simulation in Explorative R&D Contexts, Journal of Building Performance Simulation, 2019
  57. Weera Punin, Somchai Maneewan, & Chantana Punlek, Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Thermoelectric Power Generator System for Low-Grade Waste Heat Recovery from the Sugar Industry, Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 55, Issue 4, pp 979-991, 2019
  58. SC Corrêa, Desenvolvimento de uma sequência didática para o ensino de conceitos de calor segundo princípios da teoria da flexibilidade cognitiva, 2019
  59. Alexandre Dubor, Edouard Cabay, & Angelos Chronis, Energy Efficient Design for 3D Printed Earth Architecture, Humanizing Digital Reality, pp 383-393, 2018
  60. Savior Billianos, Thermal phenomena and flow streams in urban environment and simulation with Energy2D program, Hellenic Open University, 2018
  61. Ashenafi Tesfaye, Solomon Mariam, & Tewodros Walle, Design and Development of Low-Power Output Solar Chimney Power Plant, Addis Ababa Institute of Technology, 2018
  62. Alessandro Massaro, Angelo Galiano, Giacomo Meuli, & Saverio Francesco Massari, Overview and Application of Enabling Technologies Oriented on Energy Routing Monitoring, on Network Installation and on Predictive Maintenance, International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Applications, Volume 9, No.2, pp 1-20, 2018
  63. Muammar Mansor, Khadouja Harouaka, Matthew S. Gonzales, Jennifer L. Macalady, & Matthew S. Fantle, Transport-Induced Spatial Patterns of Sulfur Isotopes (δ34S) as Biosignatures, Astrobiology, Volume 18, No. 1, pp 59-72, 2018
  64. Mahfoud Abderrezek & Mohamed Fathi, Effect of Dust Deposition on the Performance of Thin Film Solar Cell, Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika, Volume 24, pp 41-45, 2018
  66. Milan Marjanović, Snežana Dragićević, Ivan Milićević, Marko Popović, & Vojislav Vujičić, Application of Computer Simulation in Engineering Education, 7th International Scientific Conference Technics and Informatics in Education, 2018
  67. Rishi Gupta, Harsh Rathod, Balasubramanian Esakki, & Sean Blaney, NON-CONTACT NON-DESTRUCTIVE INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY BASED EVALUATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES, Leadership in Sustainable Infrastructure, 2017
  68. Amjad Nasser, Asmin Ashraf, & Dilna K. Salim, Comparative Study of Conventional and Green Residential Buildings, International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology, Volume 2, No. 4, 2017
  69. Stefan Heusler & Daniel Laumann, Himmlische Physik - Wolkenbilder als Ausgangspunkt fur die digitale Modellierung von Strukturbildungsprozessen, Unterricht Physik, 159/160, pp 69-73, 2017
  70. Faqih Rosyadi, Tomo Djudin, & Syaiful B Arsyid, REMEDIASI MISKONSEPSI PERPINDAHAN KALOR MENGGUNAKAN MODEL DIRECT INSTRUCTION BERBANTUAN ANIMASI ENERGY2D DI SMP, Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pembelajaran Khatulistiwa, Volume 6, No. 12, 2017
  71. Dorin Sabin Copaci, Non-Linear Actuators and Simulation Tools for Rehabilitation Devices, Ph.D. Dissertation, Carlos III University of Madrid, p. 89, 2017
  72. Proma Chakraborty, Impact of Furniture on the Energy Consumption of Commercial Buildings, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems, pp 316-319, 2017
  73. E. Rozos, I. Tsoukalas, & C. Makropoulos, Turning Black into Green: Ecosystem Services from Treated Wastewater, Desalination and Water Treatment, Volume 91, October, pp 198-205, 2017
  74. Gu Hai-Rong, Dong Qiang-Zhu, Li Jin-Ping, Liang Feng-Dian, Zhang Fei, Wang Zuo-Jia, Heating Modes and Heat Transfer Process of Asphalt Pavement Hot In-place Recycling (沥青路面就地热再生加热方式与传热过程), Road Machinery & Construction Mechanization, Volume 34, Issue 11, pp 96-99, 2017
  75. Sadik A. Yildizel, Mechanical and Thermal Behaviors Comparison of Basalt and Glass Fibers Reinforced Concrete with Two Different Fiber Length Distributions, Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics, Volume 3, Issue 4, pp 155-159, 2017
  76. Georgia Kaklamani, David Cheneler, Liam M. Grover, Michael J. Adams, Spiros H. Anastasiadis, & James Bowen, Anisotropic Dehydration of Hydrogel Surfaces, Progress in Biomaterials, Volume 6, Issue 4, pp157-164, 2017
  77. M. Stütz, F. Pixner, J. Wagner, N. Reheis, E. Raiser, H. Kestler, & N. Enzinger, Rotary Friction Welding of Molybdenum Components, The 19th Plansee Seminar, 2017
  78. Marie L. de Klijn-Chevalerias, Roel C.G.M. Loonen, A. Zarzycka, Dennis de Witte, M. V. Sarakinioti, & Jan L.M. Hensen, Assisting the Development of Innovative Responsive Facade Elements Using Building Performance Simulation, in M. Turrin, B. Peters, W. O'Brien, R. Stouffs, & T. Dogan (Eds.), Proceedings of the Symposium on Simulation for Architecture and Urban Design, pp. 243-250, 2017
  79. Mahfoud Abderrezek & Mohamed Fathi, Experimental Study of the Dust Effect on Photovoltaic Panels' Energy Yield, Solar Energy, Volume 142, pp 308-320, 2017
  80. Dennis de Witte, Marie L. de Klijn-Chevalerias, Roel C.G.M. Loonen, Jan L.M. Hensen, Ulrich Knaack, & Gregor Zimmermann, Convective Concrete: Additive Manufacturing to Facilitate Activation of Thermal Mass, Journal of Facade Design and Engineering, Volume 5, No. 1, 2017
  81. Javier G. Monroy & Javier Gonzalez-Jimenez, Gas Classification in Motion: An Experimental Analysis, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Volume 240, pp 1205-1215, 2017
  82. P Bas Calopa, Projecte d'una incubadora amb regulació atmosfèrica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 2017
  83. Jose Manuel Martín Perez-Solorzano, High-Efficiency SMA-Based Actuator, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 2016
  84. Tom Rainforth, Tuan Anh Le, Jan-Willem van de Meent, Michael A. Osborne, & Frank Wood, Bayesian Optimization for Probabilistic Programs, 30th Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems, Barcelona, Spain, 2016
  85. W. Taylor Shoulders, Richard Locke, & Romain M. Gaume, Elastic Airtight Container for the Compaction of Air-Sensitive Materials, Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 87, 063908, 2016
  86. Zachary R. Adam, Temperature Oscillations near Natural Nuclear Reactor Cores and the Potential for Prebiotic Oligomer Synthesis, Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp 171-187, 2016
  87. Jiarui Chen, Shuyu Qin, Xinglong Wu, & Paul K Chu, Morphology and Pattern Control of Diphenylalanine Self-Assembly via Evaporative Dewetting, ACS Nano, Volume 10, No. 1, pp 832-838, 2016
  88. Teresa Moro, Italo Gabriel Neide, & Marcia Jussara Hepp Rehfeldt, Experimental activities and computer simulations: integration for the construction of thermal energy transfer concepts in high school, Brazilian Notebook of Physics Teaching, Volume 36, No. 3, 2016
  89. Truong Minh Thang, Research and simulate basic heat transfer processes using Energy2D software, The University of Transport Vietnam, 2016
  90. Atanas Vasilev, Geothermal Evolution of Gas Hydrate Deposits: Bulgarian Exclusive Economic Zone in the Black Sea, Comptes rendus de l‘Académie bulgare des Sciences, Volume 68, No. 9, pp 1135-1144, 2015
  91. Yit Man Heng, Experimental Investigation of Roof Top Solar Chimney for Natural Ventilation, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 2015
  92. Mikolaj Michal Chojnacki, Modelling and Simulation of Transient Heat Transfer for Sustainable Buildings, Warsaw University of Technology, 2015
  93. Pedro A. Hernández, et al., Magma Emission Rates from Shallow Submarine Eruptions Using Airborne Thermal Imaging, Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 154, pp 219-225, November 2014