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Fluent SQL generation for golang
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lann Merge pull request #179 from GeorgeMac/gm/stmt-cache-close
Add ability to Clear() statement cache
Latest commit d67d6a2 Feb 27, 2019
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.travis.yml Add go 1.11.x version Dec 11, 2018
LICENSE.txt Convert empty array/slice in expr to "IN (NULL)" rather than erroring Feb 26, 2016 Fix structable link Dec 29, 2018
go.sum Add go-module support Dec 19, 2018
placeholder_test.go Adding Placeholder Colon format. Sep 14, 2018
row.go Prepare for release Jan 28, 2014
row_test.go Use assert in tests Feb 9, 2014
select_ctx.go Update Context support Aug 11, 2017
select_ctx_test.go Go fmt Aug 23, 2017
select_test.go Add OrderByClause to SelectBuilder Feb 26, 2019
squirrel.go Fix Context methods with stdsqlRunner (#165) Nov 26, 2018
squirrel_ctx.go improve setRunWith to be more accepting. Nov 3, 2018
statement_test.go Select RunWith(*sql.Tx) supports QueryRow Aug 29, 2014
stmtcacher_ctx_test.go Rename StmtCacher to StmtCache and deprecate NewStmtCacher Feb 26, 2019
stmtcacher_noctx.go Rename StmtCacher to StmtCache and deprecate NewStmtCacher Feb 26, 2019
stmtcacher_test.go Rename StmtCacher to StmtCache and deprecate NewStmtCacher Feb 26, 2019
update.go Add query api to update. Mar 24, 2016
update_test.go Add Prefix and Suffix methods Jun 18, 2014
where.go fix: nested select placeholders numbering Jun 12, 2018
where_test.go Convert empty array/slice in expr to "IN (NULL)" rather than erroring Feb 26, 2016

Squirrel - fluent SQL generator for Go

import ""

or if you prefer using master (which may be arbitrarily ahead of or behind v1):

NOTE: as of Go 1.6, go get correctly clones the Github default branch (which is v1 in this repo).

import ""

GoDoc Build Status

_Note: This project has moved from to Lann remains the architect of the project, but we're helping him curate.

Squirrel is not an ORM. For an application of Squirrel, check out structable, a table-struct mapper

Squirrel helps you build SQL queries from composable parts:

import sq ""

users := sq.Select("*").From("users").Join("emails USING (email_id)")

active := users.Where(sq.Eq{"deleted_at": nil})

sql, args, err := active.ToSql()

sql == "SELECT * FROM users JOIN emails USING (email_id) WHERE deleted_at IS NULL"
sql, args, err := sq.
    Insert("users").Columns("name", "age").
    Values("moe", 13).Values("larry", sq.Expr("? + 5", 12)).

sql == "INSERT INTO users (name,age) VALUES (?,?),(?,? + 5)"

Squirrel can also execute queries directly:

stooges := users.Where(sq.Eq{"username": []string{"moe", "larry", "curly", "shemp"}})
three_stooges := stooges.Limit(3)
rows, err := three_stooges.RunWith(db).Query()

// Behaves like:
rows, err := db.Query("SELECT * FROM users WHERE username IN (?,?,?,?) LIMIT 3",
                      "moe", "larry", "curly", "shemp")

Squirrel makes conditional query building a breeze:

if len(q) > 0 {
    users = users.Where("name LIKE ?", fmt.Sprint("%", q, "%"))

Squirrel wants to make your life easier:

// StmtCache caches Prepared Stmts for you
dbCache := sq.NewStmtCacher(db)

// StatementBuilder keeps your syntax neat
mydb := sq.StatementBuilder.RunWith(dbCache)
select_users := mydb.Select("*").From("users")

Squirrel loves PostgreSQL:

psql := sq.StatementBuilder.PlaceholderFormat(sq.Dollar)

// You use question marks for placeholders...
sql, _, _ := psql.Select("*").From("elephants").Where("name IN (?,?)", "Dumbo", "Verna").ToSql()

/// ...squirrel replaces them using PlaceholderFormat.
sql == "SELECT * FROM elephants WHERE name IN ($1,$2)"

/// You can retrieve id ...
query := sq.Insert("nodes").
    Columns("uuid", "type", "data").
    Values(node.Uuid, node.Type, node.Data).
    Suffix("RETURNING \"id\"").


You can escape question mask by inserting two question marks:

SELECT * FROM nodes WHERE meta->'format' ??| array[?,?]

will generate with the Dollar Placeholder:

SELECT * FROM nodes WHERE meta->'format' ?| array[$1,$2]


  • How can I build an IN query on composite keys / tuples, e.g. WHERE (col1, col2) IN ((1,2),(3,4))? (#104)

    Squirrel does not explicitly support tuples, but you can get the same effect with e.g.:

      sq.Eq{"col1": 1, "col2": 2},
      sq.Eq{"col1": 3, "col2": 4}}
    WHERE (col1 = 1 AND col2 = 2) OR (col1 = 3 AND col2 = 4)

    (which should produce the same query plan as the tuple version)

  • Why doesn't Eq{"mynumber": []uint8{1,2,3}} turn into an IN query? (#114)

    Values of type []byte are handled specially by database/sql. In Go, byte is just an alias of uint8, so there is no way to distinguish []uint8 from []byte.

  • Some features are poorly documented!

    This isn't a frequent complaints section!

  • Some features are poorly documented?

    Yes. The tests should be considered a part of the documentation; take a look at those for ideas on how to express more complex queries.


Squirrel is released under the MIT License.

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