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The aim of this repository is:

  • to release data sets on fees paid for Open Access journal articles and monographs by Universities and Research Society Funds under an Open Database License
  • to demonstrate how reporting on fee-based Open Access publishing can be made more transparent and reproducible across institutions.

At the moment this project provides the following cost data:

Publication Type Count Aggregated Sum (€) Contributing Institutions
Articles 111,104 218,348,890 267
Monographs 938 4,096,861 2

Build Status  (What's this?)

How to access the data?

There are several options. You may simply download the the raw data sets in CSV format, query our OLAP server or use our Treemap site for visual data exploration.

Dataset CSV File OLAP Cube Treemap
articles APC file, data schema APC cube APC treemap
monographs BPC file, data schema BPC cube BPC treemap

How to contribute?

Any academic institution or research funder paying for Article Process Charges (APCs) or Book Processing Charges (BPCs) can contribute to OpenAPC, no formal registration is required. This page (German version) explains the details.

Participating German Universities

So far, the following German universities have agreed to share information on paid author processing charges (APC):

Participating German Research Organisations

Fraunhofer Society

Helmholtz Association

Leibniz Association

Max Planck Society

The data content covers APCs as paid for by the central budget for the Max Planck Society (MPS). APCs funded locally by Max Planck Institutes are not part of the data. The MPS has a limited input tax reduction. The refund of input VAT for APC is 20%. Until the end of 2007 the MPS was VAT exempt.

Other German Institutions

Participating Austrian Institutions

Participating Swiss Institutions

Participating Italian Institutions

Institutions from Norway:

  • Akershus University Hospital
  • BI Norwegian Business School
  • Bergen University College
  • Fridtjof Nansen Institute
  • GenØk - Centre for Biosafety
  • Harstad University College
  • Innlandet Hospital Trust
  • Institute of Marine Research
  • Molde University College
  • NILU - Norwegian Institute for Air Research
  • Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center
  • Nord University
  • Norwegian Center for Studies on Violence and Traumatic Stress
  • Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research
  • Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
  • Norwegian Institute of Public Health
  • Norwegian Institute of Water Research
  • Norwegian School of Sport Sciences
  • Norwegian University of Life Sciences
  • Norwegian University of Science and Technology
  • Oslo University Hospital
  • Oslo and Akershus university college
  • SINTEF (Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research)
  • Sørlandet Hospital Trust
  • Uni Research
  • University College of Southeast Norway
  • University of Agder
  • University of Bergen
  • University of Oslo
  • University of Stavanger
  • University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway
  • Vestfold Hospital Trust
  • Vestre Viken Hospital Trust

Participating Spanish Institutions:

Institutions from Sweden (via Open APC Sweden):

  • Chalmers University of Technology
  • Dalarna University
  • Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences
  • University of Gothenburg
  • University of Borås
  • University of Skövde
  • University West
  • Karlstad University
  • Karolinska Institutet
  • KTH Royal Institute of Technology
  • Linköping University
  • Linnaeus University
  • Luleå University of Technology
  • Lund University
  • Malmö University
  • Mälardalen University
  • Örebro University
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • Södertörns University
  • Stockholm School of Economics
  • Stockholm University
  • Umeå University
  • Uppsala University

Institutions from Finland:

Institutions from France

The Couperin consortium aggregates data on APC expenditures made by institutions in France:

  • Aix-Marseille Université
  • Université d'Angers
  • Université de Bordeaux
  • Université de Bourgogne
  • Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD)
  • Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS)
  • Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA)
  • Ecole normale supérieure de Paris
  • École supérieure de physique et de chimie industrielles de la Ville de Paris (ESPCI)
  • Hospices Civils de Lyon
  • Université Grenoble Alpes
  • Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD)
  • Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l'aménagement et des réseaux (IFSTTAR)
  • Institut national de recherche en informatique et en automatique (INRIA)
  • Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA)
  • Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture (IRSTEA)
  • Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM)
  • Institut national polytechnique de Toulouse (INPT)
  • Institut Pasteur
  • MINES ParisTech
  • Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle
  • Université d'Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse
  • Université de Caen Normandie
  • Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1
  • Université Clermont Auvergne
  • Université Technologique de Compiègne
  • Université Evry Val-d'Essonne
  • Université de Franche-Comté
  • Université de La Rochelle
  • Université Lille 1
  • Université Lille 2
  • Université de Montpellier
  • Université de Lorraine
  • Université de Nantes
  • Université Nice-Sophia-Antipolis
  • Université de Poitiers
  • Université de Rennes 1
  • Université de La Réunion
  • Université de Strasbourg
  • Université de Toulon
  • Université Toulouse III
  • Université Paris Descartes (Paris V)
  • Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris VI)
  • Université Paris Diderot (Paris VII)

Participating Institutions from the United Kingdom:

Jisc Collections released data on APC payments made by UK higher education institutions (HEIs):

  • Aberystwyth University
  • Aston University
  • Bangor University
  • Brunel University
  • Cardiff University
  • Cranfield University
  • Edinburgh Napier University
  • Glasgow Caledonian University
  • Goldsmiths
  • Heriot-Watt University
  • Imperial College London
  • Institute of Cancer Research (ICR)
  • Keele University
  • King's College London
  • Leeds Beckett University
  • Liverpool John Moores University
  • Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
  • London School of Economics (LSE)
  • London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM)
  • Lancaster University
  • Manchester Metropolitan University
  • Northumbria University
  • Plymouth University
  • Queen Mary, University of London
  • Queen's University Belfast
  • Royal Holloway
  • St George's, University of London
  • Swansea University
  • The Open University
  • University College London (UCL)
  • University of Aberdeen
  • University of Bath
  • University of Birmingham
  • University of Bristol
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Dundee
  • University of Durham
  • University of East Anglia
  • University of Edinburgh
  • University of Exeter
  • University of Glasgow
  • University of Huddersfield
  • University of Hull
  • University of Kent
  • University of Leeds
  • University of Leicester
  • University of Liverpool
  • University of Loughborough
  • University of Manchester
  • University of Newcastle
  • University of Nottingham
  • University of Oxford
  • University of Portsmouth
  • University of Reading
  • University of Salford
  • University of Sheffield
  • University of Southampton
  • University of St Andrews
  • University of Strathclyde
  • University of Surrey
  • University of Sussex
  • University of the West of England
  • University of Ulster
  • University of Warwick
  • University of York

Participating Institutions from the Czech Republic:

Participating Institutions from Hungary

Participating Institutions from Serbia

Participating Institutions from the United States:

Participating Canadian Institutions:

Participating Institutions from Qatar:

Supranational participants

  • OpenAIRE (FP7 Post-Grant Open Access Pilot)

Data sets

Note: The following numbers and plots are always based on the latest revision of the OpenAPC data set. The underlying code can be found in the associated R Markdown template.

Articles (APCs)

The article data set contains information on 111,104 open access journal articles being published in fully and hybrid open access journal. Publication fees for these articles were supported financially by 267 research performing institutions and research funders.

In total, article publication fee spending covered by the OpenAPC initiative amounted to € 218,348,890. The average payment was € 1,965 and the median was € 1,773.

66,216 articles in the data set were published in fully open access journals. Total spending on publication fees for these articles amounts to € 105,886,065, including value-added tax; the average payment was € 1,599 (median = € 1,514, SD = € 788).

Hybrid open access journals rely on both publication fees and subscriptions as revenue source. 44,888 articles in the data set were published in hybrid journals. Total expenditure amounts to 112,462,825 €; the average fee was € 2,505 (median = € 2,476, SD = € 1,003).

Spending distribution over fully and hybrid open access journals

Spending distribution details

period OA articles OA mean OA median OA min - max Hybrid Articles Hybrid mean Hybrid median Hybrid min - max
2005 7 858 871 480 - 1,350 1 2,983 2,983 2,983 - 2,983
2006 52 1,021 1,095 665 - 1,340 NA NA NA NA
2007 88 1,081 1,062 870 - 1,825 NA NA NA NA
2008 205 1,170 1,025 441 - 2,830 1 2,660 2,660 2,660 - 2,660
2009 356 1,181 1,060 125 - 4,386 NA NA NA NA
2010 397 1,261 1,139 159 - 7,419 2 2,401 2,401 2,173 - 2,630
2011 770 1,157 1,127 105 - 4,666 6 1,781 2,085 552 - 2,631
2012 1,528 1,174 1,180 69 - 4,498 19 2,298 2,376 997 - 2,700
2013 2,345 1,229 1,180 50 - 4,574 1,098 2,257 2,260 120 - 4,679
2014 5,075 1,375 1,257 40 - 9,028 6,518 2,239 2,200 132 - 6,000
2015 8,269 1,524 1,452 60 - 5,669 6,684 2,610 2,621 100 - 8,636
2016 9,623 1,636 1,532 63 - 5,985 7,879 2,552 2,516 2 - 9,079
2017 14,180 1,722 1,560 9 - 14,634 10,578 2,532 2,474 37 - 9,858
2018 13,204 1,705 1,595 13 - 8,926 8,983 2,568 2,545 18 - 9,073
2019 9,886 1,653 1,642 22 - 7,684 3,118 2,541 2,553 75 - 7,745
2020 231 1,717 1,741 117 - 5,212 1 3,318 3,318 3,318 - 3,318

Books (BPCs)

The book data set contains information on 938 open access books. Publication fees were supported financially by 2 research performing institutions and funders.

In total, book processing charges covered by the OpenAPC initiative amounted to € 4,096,861. The average payment was € 4,368 and the median was € 1,981.

Books can be made Open Access right from the beginning ("frontlist") or only retroactively after having been published traditionally in the first place ("backlist"), which can have a big influence on the paid BPCs.

Spending distribution over frontlist and backlist OA books

Spending distribution details

period Frontlist books mean BPC median BPC BPC min - max Backlist books mean BPC median BPC BPC min - max
2017 142 8,726 8,780 1,075 - 8,780 195 1,981 1,981 1,981 - 1,981
2018 107 8,245 8,250 6,486 - 8,780 191 1,875 1,875 1,875 - 1,875
2019 100 7,995 8,250 2,975 - 8,978 194 1,876 1,875 1,875 - 1,981
2020 8 8,250 8,250 8,250 - 8,250 1 1,875 1,875 1,875 - 1,875

Use of external sources

Metadata representing publication titles or publisher names is obtained from Crossref in order to avoid extensive validation of records. Cases where we don't re-use information from Crossref to disambiguate the spending metadata are documented here. Moreover, indexing coverage in Europe PMC and the Web of science is automatically checked.


Source Variable Description
CrossRef publisher Title of Publisher
CrossRef journal_full_title Full title of the journal
CrossRef issn International Standard Serial Numbers (collapsed)
CrossRef issn_print ISSN print
CrossRef issn_electronic ISSN electronic
CrossRef license_ref License of the article
CrossRef indexed_in_crossref Is the article metadata registered with CrossRef? (logical)
EuropePMC pmid PubMed ID
EuropePMC pmcid PubMed Central ID
Web of Science ut Web of Science record ID
DOAJ doaj Is the journal indexed in the DOAJ? (logical)


Source Variable Description
CrossRef publisher Title of Publisher
CrossRef book_title Full Title of a Book
CrossRef isbn International Standard Book Number
CrossRef isbn_print ISBN print
CrossRef isbn_electronic ISBN electronic
CrossRef license_ref License of the article
CrossRef indexed_in_crossref Is the article metadata registered with CrossRef? (logical)
DOAB doab Is the book indexed in the DOAB? (logical)

Indexing coverage

Identifier Coverage
DOI 99.75%
PubMed ID 76.39%
PubMed Central ID 69.76%
Web of Science record ID 93.87%


The data sets are made available under the Open Database License: Any rights in individual contents of the database are licensed under the Database Contents License:

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License.

How to cite?

When citing this data set, please indicate the release you are referring to. The releases also contain information on contributors relating to the respective release.

Please do not cite the master branch of the Github repository (, but use the release numbers/tags.

Bielefeld University Library archives a copy (including commit history). To cite:

{Contributors:} Datasets on fee-based Open Access publishing across German Institutions. Bielefeld University. 10.4119/UNIBI/UB.2014.18


This project was set up in collaboration with the DINI working group Electronic Publishing. It follows Wellcome Trust example to share data on paid APCs and recognises efforts from JISC and the ESAC initative to standardise APC reporting.


Jens Harald Aasheim, Benjamin Ahlborn, Chelsea Ambler, Magdalena Andrae, Jochen Apel, Hans-Georg Becker, Roland Bertelmann, Daniel Beucke, Peter Blume, Ute Blumtritt, Sabine Boccalini, Stefanie Bollin, Katrin Bosselmann, Kim Braun, Christoph Broschinski, Paolo Buoso, Cliff Buschhart, Dorothea Busjahn, Pablo de Castro, Ann-Kathrin Christann, Roberto Cozatl, Amanda Cullin, Patrick Danowski, Gernot Deinzer, Julia Dickel, Andrea Dorner, Stefan Drößler, Karin Eckert, Carsten Elsner, Clemens Engelhardt, Katrin Falkenstein-Feldhoff, Ashley Farley, Inken Feldsien-Sudhaus, Silke Frank, Fabian Franke, Claudia Frick, Marléne Friedrich, Paola Galimberti, Agnes Geißelmann, Kai Karin Geschuhn, Steffi Grimm, Birgit Hablizel, Ulrich Herb, Ute Grimmel-Holzwarth, Evgenia Grishina, Christian Gutknecht, Uli Hahn, Kristina Hanig, Margit L. Hartung, Dominik Hell, Ulrich Herb, Stephanie Herzog, Kathrin Höhner, Christie Hurrell, Arto Ikonen, Doris Jaeger, Najko Jahn, Alexandra Jobmann, Juho Jussila, Nadja Kalinna, Mirjam Kant, Andreas Kennecke, Robert Kiley, Ilka Kleinod, Lydia Koglin, Biljana Kosanovic, Stephanie Kroiß, Gerrit Kuehle, Anna Laakkonen, Ignasi Labastida i Juan, Gerald Langhanke, Inga Larres, Stuart Lawson, Sari Leppänen, Camilla Lindelöw, Jutta Lotz, Kathrin Lucht-Roussel, Jan Lüth, Frank Lützenkirchen, Steffen Malo, Anna Marini, Manuel Moch, Max Mosterd, Anja Oberländer, Jere Odell, Linda Ohrtmann, Vitali Peil, Gabriele Pendorf, Mikko Pennanen, Dirk Pieper, Tobias Pohlmann, Thomas Porquet, Markus Putnings, Andrée Rathemacher, Edith Reschke, Katharina Rieck, Friedrich Riedel, Florian Ruckelshausen, Ilka Rudolf, Pavla Rygelová, Annette Scheiner, Michael Schlachter, Birgit Schlegel, Barbara Schmidt, Stefanie Seeh, Barbara Senkbeil-Stoffels, Adriana Sikora, Tereza Simandlová, Lisa Spindler, Susanne Stemmler, Matti Stöhr, Eva Stopková, Kálmán Szőke, Linda Thomas, Laura Tobler, Johanna Tönsing, Marco Tullney, Milan Vasiljevic, Astrid Vieler, Lena Vinnemann, Viola Voß, Roland Wagner, Martin Wimmer, Marco Winkler, Sabine Witt, Michael Wohlgemuth, Verena Wohlleben, Qingbo Xu, Philip Young, Philipp Zumstein


For bugs, feature requests and other issues, please submit an issue via Github.

For general comments, email openapc at


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