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Accountable Watching Service
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PISA - An Accountable Watching Service

PISA is a solution to help alleviate the online requirement for smart contracts.

It was first devised for off-chain protocols, where PISA could be hired to watch for challenges on behalf of its customer. However, in a very generic sense, PISA can be hired to watch any smart contract when a user must respond within a fixed time period to an on-chain event.

Our infrastructure focuses on supporting several smart contracts including off-chain channels, plasma, auctions, e-voting, makerdao, etc.

We are working to minimise all integration effort - in the best case a smart contract may just need to post "logs" to a data registry - and we'll take care of the rest!

PISA to the rescue - fixing the bad UX for 2 step protocols

As a protocol designer, we love building protocols using commit and reveal to guarantee fairness. Good examples include auctions (seal bid, reveal bid), games (submit sealed choice, reveal choice), and e-voting (submit sealed vote, reveal vote). But so far, the UX around two-step protocols are really bad and users have lost money.

Why is commit and reveal a bad user experience? Generally, a commit and reveal protocols requires the user to be online "twice":

  • Users "commit" to their choice (all users must commit before time t1)
  • Users "reveal" their choice (all users must reveal before time t2)

Requiring users to be online within both time periods does not translate well to a good user experience in the real world - people can very easily just forget to respond. The big issue is not that they forget and lose-out, but the smart contract will actually slash the customer and make them lose their deposit. Not a great UX outcome, but a necessary evil in smart contract design.

How is PISA "Accountable"?

When PISA is hired by the customer, we provide the custoer with a signed receipt that proves we accepted the job. If we fail to respond on their behalf, then the customer can use on-chain evidence (via the DataRegistry) and the signed receipt as indisputable evidence of our wrongdoing.

Two outcomes for the customer if PISA fails Either the customer is refunded within a fixed time period (based on what we promised in advance) or eventually the customer can slash our security deposit.

We always have an opportunity to make right our mistake and refund the customer - but ultimately we are financially accountable for the mistake. Thus the customer does NOT have to blindly trust us!

When can I start using PISA?

We are currently working on the implementation and a set of standards to minimise integration efforts with us. If you want to partner with us such that your customers can hire PISA to respond on their behalf - please contact us at and check out the following standards (we will update this list as more are posted):

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