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1.10 (2018-10-31)

  • No major changes from 1.10b1.

1.10b1 (2018-10-28)

Bug Fixes

1.10a1 (2018-10-15)


Bug Fixes

  • Set appropriate code and title attributes on the HTTPClientError and HTTPServerError exception classes. This prevents inadvertently returning a 520 error code. See
  • Replace webob.acceptparse.MIMEAccept from WebOb with webob.acceptparse.create_accept_header in the HTTP exception handling code. The old MIMEAccept has been deprecated. The new methods follow the RFC's more closely. See
  • Catch extra errors like AttributeError when unpickling "trusted" session cookies with bad pickle data in them. This would occur when sharing a secret between projects that shouldn't actually share session cookies, like when reusing secrets between projects in development. See


  • The pyramid.intefaces.ISession interface will move to require JSON-serializable objects in Pyramid 2.0. See "Upcoming Changes to ISession in Pyramid 2.0" in the "Sessions" chapter of the documentation for more information about this change. See
  • The pyramid.session.signed_serialize and pyramid.session.signed_deserialize functions will be removed in Pyramid 2.0, along with the removal of pyramid.session.UnencryptedCookieSessionFactoryConfig which was deprecated in Pyramid 1.5. Please switch to using the SignedCookieSessionFactory, copying the code, or another session implementation if you're still using these features. See
  • Media ranges are deprecated in the accept argument of pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route. Use a list of explicit media types to add_route to support multiple types.
  • Media ranges are deprecated in the accept argument of pyramid.config.Configurator.add_view. There is no replacement for ranges to add_view, but after much discussion the workflow is fundamentally ambiguous in the face of various client-supplied values for the Accept header. See

Backward Incompatibilities

  • On Python 3.4+ the repoze.lru dependency is dropped. If you were using this package directly in your apps you should make sure that you are depending on it directly within your project. See
  • Remove the permission argument from pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route. This was an argument left over from a feature removed in Pyramid 1.5 and has had no effect since then. See
  • Modify the builtin session implementations to set SameSite='Lax' on cookies. This affects pyramid.session.BaseCookieSessionFactory, pyramid.session.SignedCookieSessionFactory, and pyramid.session.UnencryptedCookieSessionFactoryConfig. See
  • Variables defined in the [pshell] section of the settings will no longer override those set by the setup function. See
  • pyramid.config.Configurator.add_notfound_view uses default redirect class exception pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPTemporaryRedirect instead of previous pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPFound. See
  • Removed pyramid.config.Configurator.set_request_property which had been deprecated since Pyramid 1.5. Instead use pyramid.config.Configurator.add_request_method with reify=True or property=True. See
  • Removed the principal keyword argument from which had been deprecated since Pyramid 1.6 and replaced by the userid argument. See
  • Removed the pyramid.tests subpackage that used to contain the Pyramid test suite. These changes also changed the format of the repository to move the code into a src folder. See

Documentation Changes

1.9 (2017-06-26)

  • No major changes from 1.9b1.
  • Updated documentation links for to use HTTPS.

1.9b1 (2017-06-19)

1.9a2 (2017-05-09)

Backward Incompatibilities

  • request.exception and request.exc_info will only be set if the response was generated by the EXCVIEW tween. This is to avoid any confusion where a response was generated elsewhere in the pipeline and not in direct relation to the original exception. If anyone upstream wants to catch and render responses for exceptions they should set request.exception and request.exc_info themselves to indicate the exception that was squashed when generating the response.

    Similar behavior occurs with request.invoke_exception_view in which the exception properties are set to reflect the exception if a response is successfully generated by the method.

    This is a very minor incompatibility. Most tweens right now would give priority to the raised exception and ignore request.exception. This change just improves and clarifies that bookkeeping by trying to be more clear about the relationship between the response and its squashed exception. See and

1.9a1 (2017-05-01)

Major Features

  • The file format used by all p* command line scripts such as pserve and pshell, as well as the pyramid.paster.bootstrap function is now replaceable thanks to a new dependency on plaster.

    For now, Pyramid is still shipping with integrated support for the PasteDeploy INI format by depending on the plaster_pastedeploy binding library. This may change in the future.


  • Added an execution policy hook to the request pipeline. An execution policy has the ability to control creation and execution of the request objects before they enter the rest of the pipeline. This means for a single request environ the policy may create more than one request object.

    The first library to use this feature is pyramid_retry.


  • CSRF support has been refactored out of sessions and into its own independent API in the pyramid.csrf module. It supports a pluggable pyramid.interfaces.ICSRFStoragePolicy which can be used to define your own mechanism for generating and validating CSRF tokens. By default, Pyramid continues to use the pyramid.csrf.LegacySessionCSRFStoragePolicy that uses the request.session.get_csrf_token and request.session.new_csrf_token APIs under the hood to preserve compatibility. Two new policies are shipped as well, pyramid.csrf.SessionCSRFStoragePolicy and pyramid.csrf.CookieCSRFStoragePolicy which will store the CSRF tokens in the session and in a standalone cookie, respectively. The storage policy can be changed by using the new pyramid.config.Configurator.set_csrf_storage_policy config directive.

    CSRF tokens should be used via the new pyramid.csrf.get_csrf_token, pyramid.csrf.new_csrf_token and pyramid.csrf.check_csrf_token APIs in order to continue working if the storage policy is changed. Also, the pyramid.csrf.get_csrf_token function is injected into templates to be used conveniently in UI code.

    See and

Minor Features

  • Support an open_url config setting in the pserve section of the config file. This url is used to open a web browser when pserve --browser is invoked. When this setting is unavailable the pserve script will attempt to guess the port the server is using from the server:<server_name> section of the config file but there is no requirement that the server is being run in this format so it may fail. See
  • The pyramid.config.Configurator can now be used as a context manager which will automatically push/pop threadlocals (similar to config.begin() and config.end()). It will also automatically perform a config.commit() and thus it is only recommended to be used at the top-level of your app. See
  • The threadlocals are now available inside any function invoked via config.include. This means the only config-time code that cannot rely on threadlocals is code executed from non-actions inside the main. This can be alleviated by invoking config.begin() and config.end() appropriately or using the new context manager feature of the configurator. See

Bug Fixes

  • HTTPException's accepts a detail kwarg that may be used to pass additional details to the exception. You may now pass objects so long as they have a valid __str__ method. See
  • Fix a reference cycle causing memory leaks in which the registry would keep a Configurator instance alive even after the configurator was discarded. Another fix was also added for the global_registries object in which the registry was stored in a closure preventing it from being deallocated. See
  • Fix a bug directly invoking pyramid.scripts.pserve.main with the --reload option in which sys.argv is always used in the subprocess instead of the supplied argv. See


  • Pyramid currently depends on plaster_pastedeploy to simplify the transition to plaster by maintaining integrated support for INI files. This dependency on plaster_pastedeploy should be considered subject to Pyramid's deprecation policy and may be removed in the future. Applications should depend on the appropriate plaster binding to satisfy their needs.

  • Retrieving CSRF token from the session has been deprecated in favor of equivalent methods in the pyramid.csrf module. The CSRF methods (ISession.get_csrf_token and ISession.new_csrf_token) are no longer required on the ISession interface except when using the default pyramid.csrf.LegacySessionCSRFStoragePolicy.

    Also, pyramid.session.check_csrf_token is now located at pyramid.csrf.check_csrf_token.

    See and

Documentation Changes

1.8 (2017-01-21)

  • No major changes from 1.8b1.

1.8b1 (2017-01-17)


Documentation Changes

1.8a1 (2016-12-25)

Backward Incompatibilities

  • Support for the IContextURL interface that was deprecated in Pyramid 1.3 has been removed. See

  • Following the Pyramid deprecation period (1.6 -> 1.8), daemon support for pserve has been removed. This includes removing the daemon commands (start, stop, restart, status) as well as the following arguments: --daemon, --pid-file, --log-file, --monitor-restart, --status, --user, --group, --stop-daemon

    To run your server as a daemon you should use a process manager instead of pserve.


  • pcreate is now interactive by default. You will be prompted if a file already exists with different content. Previously if there were similar files it would silently skip them unless you specified --interactive or --overwrite. See

  • Removed undocumented argument cachebust_match from pyramid.static.static_view. This argument was shipped accidentally in Pyramid 1.6. See

  • Change static view to avoid setting the Content-Encoding response header to an encoding guessed using Python's mimetypes module. This was causing clients to decode the content of gzipped files when downloading them. The client would end up with a foo.txt.gz file on disk that was already decoded, thus should really be foo.txt. Also, the Content-Encoding should only have been used if the client itself broadcast support for the encoding via Accept-Encoding request headers. See

  • Settings are no longer accessible as attributes on the settings object (e.g. This was deprecated in Pyramid 1.2. See


  • Python 3.6 compatibility.

  • pcreate learned about --package-name to allow you to create a new project in an existing folder with a different package name than the project name. See

  • The _get_credentials private method of BasicAuthAuthenticationPolicy has been extracted into standalone function extract_http_basic_credentials in pyramid.authentication module, this function extracts HTTP Basic credentials from a request object, and returns them as a named tuple. See

  • Pyramid 1.4 silently dropped a feature of the configurator that has been restored. It's again possible for action discriminators to conflict across different action orders. See

  • pyramid.paster.bootstrap and its sibling pyramid.scripting.prepare can now be used as context managers to automatically invoke the closer and pop threadlocals off of the stack to prevent memory leaks. See

  • Added pyramid.config.Configurator.add_exception_view and the pyramid.view.exception_view_config decorator. It is now possible using these methods or via the new exception_only=True option to add_view to add a view which will only be matched when handling an exception. Previously any exception views were also registered for a traversal context that inherited from the exception class which prevented any exception-only optimizations. See

  • Added the exception_only boolean to pyramid.interfaces.IViewDeriverInfo which can be used by view derivers to determine if they are wrapping a view which only handles exceptions. This means that it is no longer necessary to perform request-time checks for request.exception to determine if the view is handling an exception - the pipeline can be optimized at config-time. See

  • pserve should now work with gevent and other workers that need to monkeypatch the process, assuming the server and / or the app do so as soon as possible before importing the rest of pyramid. See

  • Pyramid no longer copies the settings object passed to the pyramid.config.Configurator(settings=). The original dict is kept. See

  • The csrf trusted origins setting may now be a whitespace-separated list of domains. Previously only a python list was allowed. Also, it can now be set using the PYRAMID_CSRF_TRUSTED_ORIGINS environment variable similar to other settings. See

  • pserve --reload now uses the hupper <> library to monitor file changes. This comes with many improvements:

    • If the watchdog package is installed then monitoring will be done using inotify instead of cpu and disk-intensive polling.
    • The monitor is now a separate process that will not crash and starts up before any of your code.
    • The monitor will not restart the process after a crash until a file is saved.
    • The monitor works on windows.
    • You can now trigger a reload manually from a pyramid view or any other code via hupper.get_reloader().trigger_reload(). Kind of neat.
    • You can trigger a reload by issuing a SIGHUP to the monitor process.


  • A new [pserve] section is supported in your config files with a watch_files key that can configure pserve --reload to monitor custom file paths. See

  • Allow streaming responses to be made from subclasses of pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPException. Previously the response would be unrolled while testing for a body, making it impossible to stream a response. See

  • Update starter, alchemy and zodb scaffolds to support IPv6 by using the new listen directives in waitress. See

  • All p* scripts now use argparse instead of optparse. This improves their --help output as well as enabling nicer documentation of their options. See

  • Any deferred configuration action registered via config.action may now depend on threadlocal state, such as asset overrides, being active when the action is executed. See

  • Asset specifications for directories passed to config.add_translation_dirs now support overriding the entire asset specification, including the folder name. Previously only the package name was supported and the folder would always need to have the same name. See

  • config.begin() will propagate the current threadlocal request through as long as the registry is the same. For example:

    request = Request.blank(...)
    config.begin(request)  # pushes a request
    config.begin()         # propagates the previous request through unchanged
    assert get_current_request() is request


  • Added a new callback option to config.set_default_csrf_options which can be used to determine per-request whether CSRF checking should be enabled to allow for a mix authentication methods. Only cookie-based methods generally require CSRF checking. See

Bug Fixes

  • Fixed bug in proutes such that it now shows the correct view when a class and attr is involved. See:
  • Fix a FutureWarning in Python 3.5 when using re.split on the format setting to the proutes script. See
  • Fix a RuntimeWarning emitted by WebOb when using arbitrary objects as the userid in the AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy. This is now caught by the policy and the object is serialized as a base64 string to avoid the cryptic warning. Since the userid will be read back as a string on subsequent requests a more useful warning is emitted encouraging you to use a primitive type instead. See
  • Pyramid 1.6 introduced the ability for an action to invoke another action. There was a bug in the way that config.add_view would interact with custom view derivers introduced in Pyramid 1.7 because the view's discriminator cannot be computed until view derivers and view predicates have been created in earlier orders. Invoking an action from another action would trigger an unrolling of the pipeline and would compute discriminators before they were ready. The new behavior respects the order of the action and ensures the discriminators are not computed until dependent actions from previous orders have executed. See
  • Fix bug in i18n where the default domain would always use the Germanic plural style, even if a different plural function is defined in the relevant messages file. See
  • The config.override_asset method now occurs during pyramid.config.PHASE1_CONFIG such that it is ordered to execute before any calls to config.add_translation_dirs. See


Documentation Changes

1.7 (2016-05-19)

1.7b4 (2016-05-12)

  • Fixed the exception view tween to re-raise the original exception if no exception view could be found to handle the exception. This better allows tweens further up the chain to handle exceptions that were left unhandled. Previously they would be converted into a PredicateMismatch exception if predicates failed to allow the view to handle the exception. See
  • Exposed the pyramid.interfaces.IRequestFactory interface to mirror the public pyramid.interfaces.IResponseFactory interface.

1.7b3 (2016-05-10)

  • Fix request.invoke_exception_view to raise an HTTPNotFound exception if no view is matched. Previously None would be returned if no views were matched and a PredicateMismatch would be raised if a view "almost" matched (a view was found matching the context). See
  • Add defaults for py.test configuration and coverage to all three scaffolds, and update documentation accordingly. See
  • Add linkcheck to Makefile for Sphinx. To check the documentation for broken links, use the command make linkcheck SPHINXBUILD=$VENV/bin/sphinx-build. Also removed and fixed dozens of broken external links.
  • Fix the internal runner for scaffold tests to ensure they work with pip and py.test. See

1.7b2 (2016-05-01)

  • Removed inclusion of pyramid_tm in development.ini for alchemy scaffold See
  • A default permission set via config.set_default_permission will no longer be enforced on an exception view. This has been the case for a while with the default exception views (config.add_notfound_view and config.add_forbidden_view), however for any other exception view a developer had to remember to set permission=NO_PERMISSION_REQUIRED or be surprised when things didn't work. It is still possible to force a permission check on an exception view by setting the permission argument manually to config.add_view. This behavior is consistent with the new CSRF features added in the 1.7 series. See

1.7b1 (2016-04-25)

1.7a2 (2016-04-19)


  • Automatic CSRF checks are now disabled by default on exception views. They can be turned back on by setting the appropriate require_csrf option on the view. See
  • The automatic CSRF API was reworked to use a config directive for setting the options. The pyramid.require_default_csrf setting is no longer supported. Instead, a new config.set_default_csrf_options directive has been introduced that allows the developer to specify the default value for require_csrf as well as change the CSRF token, header and safe request methods. The pyramid.csrf_trusted_origins setting is still supported. See

Bug fixes

1.7a1 (2016-04-16)

Backward Incompatibilities

  • Following the Pyramid deprecation period (1.4 -> 1.6), AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy's default hashing algorithm is changing from md5 to sha512. If you are using the authentication policy and need to continue using md5, please explicitly set hashalg to 'md5'.

    This change does mean that any existing auth tickets (and associated cookies) will no longer be valid, and users will no longer be logged in, and have to login to their accounts again.


  • The check_csrf_token function no longer validates a csrf token in the query string of a request. Only headers and request bodies are supported. See


  • Added a new setting, pyramid.require_default_csrf which may be used to turn on CSRF checks globally for every POST request in the application. This should be considered a good default for websites built on Pyramid. It is possible to opt-out of CSRF checks on a per-view basis by setting require_csrf=False on those views. See
  • Added a require_csrf view option which will enforce CSRF checks on any request with an unsafe method as defined by RFC2616. If the CSRF check fails a BadCSRFToken exception will be raised and may be caught by exception views (the default response is a 400 Bad Request). This option should be used in place of the deprecated check_csrf view predicate which would normally result in unexpected 404 Not Found response to the client instead of a catchable exception. See and
  • Added an additional CSRF validation that checks the origin/referrer of a request and makes sure it matches the current request.domain. This particular check is only active when accessing a site over HTTPS as otherwise browsers don't always send the required information. If this additional CSRF validation fails a BadCSRFOrigin exception will be raised and may be caught by exception views (the default response is 400 Bad Request). Additional allowed origins may be configured by setting pyramid.csrf_trusted_origins to a list of domain names (with ports if on a non standard port) to allow. Subdomains are not allowed unless the domain name has been prefixed with a .. See
  • Added a new pyramid.session.check_csrf_origin API for validating the origin or referrer headers against the request's domain. See
  • Pyramid HTTPExceptions will now take into account the best match for the clients Accept header, and depending on what is requested will return text/html, application/json or text/plain. The default for / is still text/html, but if application/json is explicitly mentioned it will now receive a valid JSON response. See
  • A new event and interface (BeforeTraversal) has been introduced that will notify listeners before traversal starts in the router. See and
  • Add a new "view deriver" concept to Pyramid to allow framework authors to inject elements into the standard Pyramid view pipeline and affect all views in an application. This is similar to a decorator except that it has access to options passed to config.add_view and can affect other stages of the pipeline such as the raw response from a view or prior to security checks. See
  • Allow a leading = on the key of the request param predicate. For example, '=abc=1' is equivalent down to request.params['=abc'] == '1'. See
  • A new request.invoke_exception_view(...) method which can be used to invoke an exception view and get back a response. This is useful for rendering an exception view outside of the context of the excview tween where you may need more control over the request. See
  • Allow using variable substitutions like %(LOGGING_LOGGER_ROOT_LEVEL)s for logging sections of the .ini file and populate these variables from the pserve command line -- e.g.: pserve development.ini LOGGING_LOGGER_ROOT_LEVEL=DEBUG See

Documentation Changes

  • A complete overhaul of the docs:

    • Use pip instead of easy_install.
    • Become opinionated by preferring Python 3.4 or greater to simplify installation of Python and its required packaging tools.
    • Use venv for the tool, and virtual environment for the thing created, instead of virtualenv.
    • Use py.test and pytest-cov instead of nose and coverage.
    • Further updates to the scaffolds as well as tutorials and their src files.


  • A complete overhaul of the alchemy scaffold as well as the Wiki2 SQLAlchemy + URLDispatch tutorial to introduce more modern features into the usage of SQLAlchemy with Pyramid and provide a better starting point for new projects. See

Bug Fixes

  • Fix pserve --browser to use the --server-name instead of the app name when selecting a section to use. This was only working for people who had server and app sections with the same name, for example [app:main] and [server:main]. See


1.6 (2016-01-03)


1.6b3 (2015-12-17)

Backward Incompatibilities

  • Remove the cachebust option from config.add_static_view. See config.add_cache_buster for the new way to attach cache busters to static assets. See

  • Modify the pyramid.interfaces.ICacheBuster API to be a simple callable instead of an object with match and pregenerate methods. Cache busters are now focused solely on generation. Matching has been dropped.

    Note this affects usage of pyramid.static.QueryStringCacheBuster and pyramid.static.ManifestCacheBuster.



Bug Fixes

1.6b2 (2015-10-15)


  • Allow asset specifications to be supplied to pyramid.static.ManifestCacheBuster instead of requiring a filesystem path.

1.6b1 (2015-10-15)

Backward Incompatibilities

  • IPython and BPython support have been removed from pshell in the core. To continue using them on Pyramid 1.6+ you must install the binding packages explicitly:

    $ pip install pyramid_ipython
    $ pip install pyramid_bpython
  • Remove default cache busters introduced in 1.6a1 including PathSegmentCacheBuster, PathSegmentMd5CacheBuster, and QueryStringMd5CacheBuster. See


Bug Fixes


  • Deprecate pserve --monitor-restart in favor of user's using a real process manager such as Systemd or Upstart as well as Python-based solutions like Circus and Supervisor. See

1.6a2 (2015-06-30)

Bug Fixes

1.6a1 (2015-04-15)


  • pcreate will now ask for confirmation if invoked with an argument for a project name that already exists or is importable in the current environment. See and
  • Make it possible to subclass pyramid.request.Request and also use pyramid.request.Request.add_request.method. See
  • The pyramid.config.Configurator has grown the ability to allow actions to call other actions during a commit-cycle. This enables much more logic to be placed into actions, such as the ability to invoke other actions or group them for improved conflict detection. We have also exposed and documented the config phases that Pyramid uses in order to further assist in building conforming addons. See
  • Add pyramid.request.apply_request_extensions function which can be used in testing to apply any request extensions configured via config.add_request_method. Previously it was only possible to test the extensions by going through Pyramid's router. See
  • pcreate when run without a scaffold argument will now print information on the missing flag, as well as a list of available scaffolds. See and
  • Added support / testing for 'pypy3' under Tox and Travis. See
  • Automate code coverage metrics across py2 and py3 instead of just py2. See
  • Cache busting for static resources has been added and is available via a new argument to pyramid.config.Configurator.add_static_view: cachebust. Core APIs are shipped for both cache busting via query strings and path segments and may be extended to fit into custom asset pipelines. See and
  • Add pyramid.config.Configurator.root_package attribute and init parameter to assist with includeable packages that wish to resolve resources relative to the package in which the Configurator was created. This is especially useful for addons that need to load asset specs from settings, in which case it is may be natural for a developer to define imports or assets relative to the top-level package. See
  • Added line numbers to the log formatters in the scaffolds to assist with debugging. See
  • Add new HTTP exception objects for status codes 428 Precondition Required, 429 Too Many Requests and 431 Request Header Fields Too Large in pyramid.httpexceptions. See
  • The pshell script will now load a PYTHONSTARTUP file if one is defined in the environment prior to launching the interpreter. See
  • Make it simple to define notfound and forbidden views that wish to use the default exception-response view but with altered predicates and other configuration options. The view argument is now optional in config.add_notfound_view and config.add_forbidden_view.. See
  • Greatly improve the readability of the pcreate shell script output. See
  • Improve robustness to timing attacks in the AuthTktCookieHelper and the SignedCookieSessionFactory classes by using the stdlib's hmac.compare_digest if it is available (such as Python 2.7.7+ and 3.3+). See
  • Assets can now be overidden by an absolute path on the filesystem when using the config.override_asset API. This makes it possible to fully support serving up static content from a mutable directory while still being able to use the request.static_url API and config.add_static_view. Previously it was not possible to use config.add_static_view with an absolute path and generate urls to the content. This change replaces the call, config.add_static_view('/abs/path', 'static'), with config.add_static_view('myapp:static', 'static') and config.override_asset(to_override='myapp:static/', override_with='/abs/path/'). The myapp:static asset spec is completely made up and does not need to exist - it is used for generating urls via request.static_url('myapp:static/foo.png'). See
  • Added pyramid.config.Configurator.set_response_factory and the response_factory keyword argument to the Configurator for defining a factory that will return a custom Response class. See
  • Allow an iterator to be returned from a renderer. Previously it was only possible to return bytes or unicode. See
  • pserve can now take a -b or --browser option to open the server URL in a web browser. See
  • Overall improvments for the proutes command. Added --format and --glob arguments to the command, introduced the method column for displaying available request methods, and improved the view output by showing the module instead of just __repr__. See
  • Support keyword-only arguments and function annotations in views in Python 3. See
  • request.response will no longer be mutated when using the pyramid.renderers.render_to_response() API. It is now necessary to pass in a response= argument to render_to_response if you wish to supply the renderer with a custom response object for it to use. If you do not pass one then a response object will be created using the application's IResponseFactory. Almost all renderers mutate the request.response response object (for example, the JSON renderer sets request.response.content_type to application/json). However, when invoking render_to_response it is not expected that the response object being returned would be the same one used later in the request. The response object returned from render_to_response is now explicitly different from request.response. This does not change the API of a renderer. See
  • The append_slash argument of `Configurator().add_notfound_view() will now accept anything that implements the IResponse interface and will use that as the response class instead of the default HTTPFound. See

Bug Fixes


  • The pserve command's daemonization features have been deprecated. This includes the [start,stop,restart,status] subcommands as well as the --daemon, --stop-server, --pid-file, and --status flags.

    Please use a real process manager in the future instead of relying on the pserve to daemonize itself. Many options exist including your Operating System's services such as Systemd or Upstart, as well as Python-based solutions like Circus and Supervisor.


  • Renamed the principal argument to to userid in order to clarify its intended purpose. See



  • Update scaffold generating machinery to return the version of pyramid and pyramid docs for use in scaffolds. Updated starter, alchemy and zodb templates to have links to correctly versioned documentation and reflect which pyramid was used to generate the scaffold.
  • Removed non-ascii copyright symbol from templates, as this was causing the scaffolds to fail for project generation.
  • You can now run the scaffolding func tests via tox py2-scaffolds and tox py3-scaffolds.

1.5 (2014-04-08)

  • Python 3.4 compatibility.
  • Avoid crash in pserve --reload under Py3k, when iterating over possibly mutated sys.modules.
  • UnencryptedCookieSessionFactoryConfig failed if the secret contained higher order characters. See
  • Fixed a bug in UnencryptedCookieSessionFactoryConfig and SignedCookieSessionFactory where timeout=None would cause a new session to always be created. Also in SignedCookieSessionFactory a reissue_time=None would cause an exception when modifying the session. See
  • Updated docs and scaffolds to keep in step with new 2.0 release of Lingua. This included removing all setup.cfg files from scaffolds and documentation environments.

1.5b1 (2014-02-08)


  • We no longer eagerly clear request.exception and request.exc_info in the exception view tween. This makes it possible to inspect exception information within a finished callback. See

1.5a4 (2014-01-28)


  • Updated scaffolds with new theme, fixed documentation and sample project.

Bug Fixes

  • Depend on a newer version of WebOb so that we pull in some crucial bug-fixes that were showstoppers for functionality in Pyramid.
  • Add a trailing semicolon to the JSONP response. This fixes JavaScript syntax errors for old IE versions. See
  • Fix a memory leak when the configurator's set_request_property method was used or when the configurator's add_request_method method was used with the property=True attribute. See .

1.5a3 (2013-12-10)


  • An authorization API has been added as a method of the request: request.has_permission.

    request.has_permission is a method-based alternative to the API and works exactly the same. The older API is now deprecated.

  • Property API attributes have been added to the request for easier access to authentication data: request.authenticated_userid, request.unauthenticated_userid, and request.effective_principals.

    These are analogues, respectively, of,, and They operate exactly the same, except they are attributes of the request instead of functions accepting a request. They are properties, so they cannot be assigned to. The older function-based APIs are now deprecated.

  • Pyramid's console scripts (pserve, pviews, etc) can now be run directly, allowing custom arguments to be sent to the python interpreter at runtime. For example:

    python -3 -m pyramid.scripts.pserve development.ini
  • Added a specific subclass of HTTPBadRequest named pyramid.exceptions.BadCSRFToken which will now be raised in response to failures in check_csrf_token. See

  • Added a new SignedCookieSessionFactory which is very similar to the UnencryptedCookieSessionFactoryConfig but with a clearer focus on signing content. The custom serializer arguments to this function should only focus on serializing, unlike its predecessor which required the serializer to also perform signing. See . Note that cookies generated using SignedCookieSessionFactory are not compatible with cookies generated using UnencryptedCookieSessionFactory, so existing user session data will be destroyed if you switch to it.

  • Added a new BaseCookieSessionFactory which acts as a generic cookie factory that can be used by framework implementors to create their own session implementations. It provides a reusable API which focuses strictly on providing a dictionary-like object that properly handles renewals, timeouts, and conformance with the ISession API. See

  • The anchor argument to pyramid.request.Request.route_url and pyramid.request.Request.resource_url and their derivatives will now be escaped via URL quoting to ensure minimal conformance. See

  • Allow sending of _query and _anchor options to pyramid.request.Request.static_url when an external URL is being generated. See

  • You can now send a string as the _query argument to pyramid.request.Request.route_url and pyramid.request.Request.resource_url and their derivatives. When a string is sent instead of a list or dictionary. it is URL-quoted however it does not need to be in k=v form. This is useful if you want to be able to use a different query string format than x-www-form-urlencoded. See

  • pyramid.testing.DummyRequest now has a domain attribute to match the new WebOb 1.3 API. Its value is

Bug Fixes

  • Fix the pcreate script so that when the target directory name ends with a slash it does not produce a non-working project directory structure. Previously saying pcreate -s starter /foo/bar/ produced different output than saying pcreate -s starter /foo/bar. The former did not work properly.
  • Fix the principals_allowed_by_permission method of ACLAuthorizationPolicy so it anticipates a callable __acl__ on resources. Previously it did not try to call the __acl__ if it was callable.
  • The pviews script did not work when a url required custom request methods in order to perform traversal. Custom methods and descriptors added via pyramid.config.Configurator.add_request_method will now be present, allowing traversal to continue. See
  • Remove unused renderer argument from Configurator.add_route.
  • Allow the BasicAuthenticationPolicy to work with non-ascii usernames and passwords. The charset is not passed as part of the header and different browsers alternate between UTF-8 and Latin-1, so the policy now attempts to decode with UTF-8 first, and will fallback to Latin-1. See
  • The @view_defaults now apply to notfound and forbidden views that are defined as methods of a decorated class. See


  • Added a "Quick Tutorial" to go with the Quick Tour
  • Removed mention of pyramid_beaker from docs. Beaker is no longer maintained. Point people at pyramid_redis_sessions instead.
  • Add documentation for pyramid.interfaces.IRendererFactory and pyramid.interfaces.IRenderer.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The key/values in the _query parameter of request.route_url and the query parameter of request.resource_url (and their variants), used to encode a value of None as the string 'None', leaving the resulting query string to be a=b&key=None. The value is now dropped in this situation, leaving a query string of a=b&key=. See


  • Deprecate the pyramid.interfaces.ITemplateRenderer interface. It was ill-defined and became unused when Mako and Chameleon template bindings were split into their own packages.
  • The pyramid.session.UnencryptedCookieSessionFactoryConfig API has been deprecated and is superseded by the pyramid.session.SignedCookieSessionFactory. Note that while the cookies generated by the UnencryptedCookieSessionFactoryConfig are compatible with cookies generated by old releases, cookies generated by the SignedCookieSessionFactory are not. See
  • The API is now deprecated. Instead, use the newly-added has_permission method of the request object.
  • The API is now deprecated. Instead, use the newly-added effective_principals attribute of the request object.
  • The API is now deprecated. Instead, use the newly-added authenticated_userid attribute of the request object.
  • The API is now deprecated. Instead, use the newly-added unauthenticated_userid attribute of the request object.


  • Pyramid now depends on WebOb>=1.3 (it uses webob.cookies.CookieProfile from 1.3+).

1.5a2 (2013-09-22)


  • Users can now provide dotted Python names to as the factory argument the Configurator methods named add_{view,route,subscriber}_predicate (instead of passing the predicate factory directly, you can pass a dotted name which refers to the factory).

Bug Fixes

  • Fix an exception in pyramid.path.package_name when resolving the package name for namespace packages that had no __file__ attribute.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • Pyramid no longer depends on or configures the Mako and Chameleon templating system renderers by default. Disincluding these templating systems by default means that the Pyramid core has fewer dependencies and can run on future platforms without immediate concern for the compatibility of its templating add-ons. It also makes maintenance slightly more effective, as different people can maintain the templating system add-ons that they understand and care about without needing commit access to the Pyramid core, and it allows users who just don't want to see any packages they don't use come along for the ride when they install Pyramid.

    This means that upon upgrading to Pyramid 1.5a2+, projects that use either of these templating systems will see a traceback that ends something like this when their application attempts to render a Chameleon or Mako template:

    ValueError: No such renderer factory .pt


    ValueError: No such renderer factory .mako


    ValueError: No such renderer factory .mak

    Support for Mako templating has been moved into an add-on package named pyramid_mako, and support for Chameleon templating has been moved into an add-on package named pyramid_chameleon. These packages are drop-in replacements for the old built-in support for these templating langauges. All you have to do is install them and make them active in your configuration to register renderer factories for .pt and/or .mako (or .mak) to make your application work again.

    To re-add support for Chameleon and/or Mako template renderers into your existing projects, follow the below steps.

    If you depend on Mako templates:

    • Make sure the pyramid_mako package is installed. One way to do this is by adding pyramid_mako to the install_requires section of your package's file and afterwards rerunning develop:

              'pyramid_mako',         # new dependency
    • Within the portion of your application which instantiates a Pyramid pyramid.config.Configurator (often the main() function in your project's file), tell Pyramid to include the pyramid_mako includeme:

      config = Configurator(.....)

    If you depend on Chameleon templates:

    • Make sure the pyramid_chameleon package is installed. One way to do this is by adding pyramid_chameleon to the install_requires section of your package's file and afterwards rerunning develop:

              'pyramid_chameleon',         # new dependency
    • Within the portion of your application which instantiates a Pyramid ~pyramid.config.Configurator (often the main() function in your project's file), tell Pyramid to include the pyramid_chameleon includeme:

      config = Configurator(.....)

    Note that it's also fine to install these packages into older Pyramids for forward compatibility purposes. Even if you don't upgrade to Pyramid 1.5 immediately, performing the above steps in a Pyramid 1.4 installation is perfectly fine, won't cause any difference, and will give you forward compatibility when you eventually do upgrade to Pyramid 1.5.

    With the removal of Mako and Chameleon support from the core, some unit tests that use the pyramid.renderers.render* methods may begin to fail. If any of your unit tests are invoking either pyramid.renderers.render() or pyramid.renderers.render_to_response() with either Mako or Chameleon templates then the pyramid.config.Configurator instance in effect during the unit test should be also be updated to include the addons, as shown above. For example:

    class ATest(unittest.TestCase):
        def setUp(self):
            self.config = pyramid.testing.setUp()
        def test_it(self):
            result = pyramid.renderers.render('mypkg:templates/home.mako', {})


    class ATest(unittest.TestCase):
        def setUp(self):
            self.config = pyramid.testing.setUp()
        def test_it(self):
            result = pyramid.renderers.render('mypkg:templates/', {})
  • If you're using the Pyramid debug toolbar, when you upgrade Pyramid to 1.5a2+, you'll also need to upgrade the pyramid_debugtoolbar package to at least version 1.0.8, as older toolbar versions are not compatible with Pyramid 1.5a2+ due to the removal of Mako support from the core. It's fine to use this newer version of the toolbar code with older Pyramids too.

  • Removed the request.response_* varying attributes. These attributes have been deprecated since Pyramid 1.1, and as per the deprecation policy, have now been removed.

  • request.response will no longer be mutated when using the pyramid.renderers.render() API. Almost all renderers mutate the request.response response object (for example, the JSON renderer sets request.response.content_type to application/json), but this is only necessary when the renderer is generating a response; it was a bug when it was done as a side effect of calling pyramid.renderers.render().

  • Removed the bfg2pyramid fixer script.

  • The event is now sent after response callbacks are executed. It previously executed before response callbacks were executed. Rationale: it's more useful to be able to inspect the response after response callbacks have done their jobs instead of before.

  • Removed the class named pyramid.view.static that had been deprecated since Pyramid 1.1. Instead use pyramid.static.static_view with use_subpath=True argument.

  • Removed the pyramid.view.is_response function that had been deprecated since Pyramid 1.1. Use the pyramid.request.Request.is_response method instead.

  • Removed the ability to pass the following arguments to pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route: view, view_context. view_for, view_permission, view_renderer, and view_attr. Using these arguments had been deprecated since Pyramid 1.1. Instead of passing view-related arguments to add_route, use a separate call to pyramid.config.Configurator.add_view to associate a view with a route using its route_name argument. Note that this impacts the pyramid.config.Configurator.add_static_view function too, because it delegates to add_route.

  • Removed the ability to influence and query a pyramid.request.Request object as if it were a dictionary. Previously it was possible to use methods like __getitem__, get, items, and other dictlike methods to access values in the WSGI environment. This behavior had been deprecated since Pyramid 1.1. Use methods of request.environ (a real dictionary) instead.

  • Removed ancient backwards compatibily hack in pyramid.traversal.DefaultRootFactory which populated the __dict__ of the factory with the matchdict values for compatibility with BFG 0.9.

  • The renderer_globals_factory argument to the pyramid.config.Configurator` constructor and its ``setup_registry method has been removed. The set_renderer_globals_factory method of pyramid.config.Configurator has also been removed. The (internal) pyramid.interfaces.IRendererGlobals interface was also removed. These arguments, methods and interfaces had been deprecated since 1.1. Use a BeforeRender event subscriber as documented in the "Hooks" chapter of the Pyramid narrative documentation instead of providing renderer globals values to the configurator.


  • The pyramid.config.Configurator.set_request_property method now issues a deprecation warning when used. It had been docs-deprecated in 1.4 but did not issue a deprecation warning when used.

1.5a1 (2013-08-30)


  • A new http exception subclass named pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPSuccessful was added. You can use this class as the context of an exception view to catch all 200-series "exceptions" (e.g. "raise HTTPOk"). This also allows you to catch only the HTTPOk exception itself; previously this was impossible because a number of other exceptions (such as HTTPNoContent) inherited from HTTPOk, but now they do not.

  • You can now generate "hybrid" urldispatch/traversal URLs more easily by using the new route_name, route_kw and route_remainder_name arguments to request.resource_url and request.resource_path. See the new section of the "Combining Traversal and URL Dispatch" documentation chapter entitled "Hybrid URL Generation".

  • It is now possible to escape double braces in Pyramid scaffolds (unescaped, these represent replacement values). You can use \{\{a\}\} to represent a "bare" {{a}}. See

  • Add localizer and locale_name properties (reified) to the request. See Note that the pyramid.i18n.get_localizer and pyramid.i18n.get_locale_name functions now simply look up these properties on the request.

  • Add pdistreport script, which prints the Python version in use, the Pyramid version in use, and the version number and location of all Python distributions currently installed.

  • Add the ability to invert the result of any view, route, or subscriber predicate using the not_ class. For example:

    from pyramid.config import not_
    @view_config(route_name='myroute', request_method=not_('POST'))
    def myview(request): ...

    The above example will ensure that the view is called if the request method is not POST (at least if no other view is more specific).

    The pyramid.config.not_ class can be used against any value that is a predicate value passed in any of these contexts:

    • pyramid.config.Configurator.add_view
    • pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route
    • pyramid.config.Configurator.add_subscriber
    • pyramid.view.view_config
  • scripts/ add support for submitting PUT and PATCH requests. See add support for submitting OPTIONS and PROPFIND requests, and allow users to specify basic authentication credentials in the request via a --login argument to the script. See

  • ACLAuthorizationPolicy supports __acl__ as a callable. This removes the ambiguity between the potential AttributeError that would be raised on the context when the property was not defined and the AttributeError that could be raised from any user-defined code within a dynamic property. It is recommended to define a dynamic ACL as a callable to avoid this ambiguity. See

  • Allow a protocol-relative URL (e.g. // to be passed to pyramid.config.Configurator.add_static_view. This allows externally-hosted static URLs to be generated based on the current protocol.

  • The AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy has two new options to configure its domain usage:

    • parent_domain: if set the authentication cookie is set on the parent domain. This is useful if you have multiple sites sharing the same domain.
    • domain: if provided the cookie is always set for this domain, bypassing all usual logic.

    See, and

  • The AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy now supports IPv6 addresses when using the include_ip=True option. This is possibly incompatible with alternative auth_tkt implementations, as the specification does not define how to properly handle IPv6. See

  • Make it possible to use variable arguments via pyramid.paster.get_appsettings. This also allowed the generated initialize_db script from the alchemy scaffold to grow support for options in the form a=1 b=2 so you can fill in values in a parameterized .ini file, e.g. initialize_myapp_db etc/development.ini a=1 b=2. See

  • The request.session.check_csrf_token() method and the check_csrf view predicate now take into account the value of the HTTP header named X-CSRF-Token (as well as the csrf_token form parameter, which they always did). The header is tried when the form parameter does not exist.

  • View lookup will now search for valid views based on the inheritance hierarchy of the context. It tries to find views based on the most specific context first, and upon predicate failure, will move up the inheritance chain to test views found by the super-type of the context. In the past, only the most specific type containing views would be checked and if no matching view could be found then a PredicateMismatch would be raised. Now predicate mismatches don't hide valid views registered on super-types. Here's an example that now works:

    class IResource(Interface):
    def get(context, request):
    @view_config(context=IResource, request_method='POST')
    def post(context, request):
    @view_config(context=IResource, request_method='DELETE')
    def delete(context, request):
    class MyResource:
    @view_config(context=MyResource, request_method='POST')
    def override_post(context, request):

    Previously the override_post view registration would hide the get and delete views in the context of MyResource -- leading to a predicate mismatch error when trying to use GET or DELETE methods. Now the views are found and no predicate mismatch is raised. See and and

  • The pserve command now takes a -v (or --verbose) flag and a -q (or --quiet) flag. Output from running pserve can be controlled using these flags. -v can be specified multiple times to increase verbosity. -q sets verbosity to 0 unconditionally. The default verbosity level is 1.

  • The alchemy scaffold tests now provide better coverage. See

  • The pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route method now supports being called with an external URL as pattern. See and the documentation section in the "URL Dispatch" chapter entitled "External Routes" for more information.

Bug Fixes

  • It was not possible to use pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPException as the context of an exception view as very general catchall for http-related exceptions when you wanted that exception view to override the default exception view. See
  • When the pyramid.reload_templates setting was true, and a Chameleon template was reloaded, and the renderer specification named a macro (e.g., renderings of the template after the template was reloaded due to a file change would produce the entire template body instead of just a rendering of the macro. See
  • Fix an obscure problem when combining a virtual root with a route with a *traverse in its pattern. Now the traversal path generated in such a configuration will be correct, instead of an element missing a leading slash.
  • Fixed a Mako renderer bug returning a tuple with a previous defname value in some circumstances. See for more information.
  • Make the pyramid.config.assets.PackageOverrides object implement the API for __loader__ objects specified in PEP 302. Proxies to the __loader__ set by the importer, if present; otherwise, raises NotImplementedError. This makes Pyramid static view overrides work properly under Python 3.3 (previously they would not). See for more information.
  • mako_templating: added defensive workaround for non-importability of mako due to upstream markupsafe dropping Python 3.2 support. Mako templating will no longer work under the combination of MarkupSafe 0.17 and Python 3.2 (although the combination of MarkupSafe 0.17 and Python 3.3 or any supported Python 2 version will work OK).
  • Spaces and dots may now be in mako renderer template paths. This was broken when support for the new makodef syntax was added in 1.4a1. See
  • pyramid.debug_authorization=true will now correctly print out Allowed for views registered with NO_PERMISSION_REQUIRED instead of invoking the permits method of the authorization policy. See
  • Pyramid failed to install on some systems due to being packaged with some test files containing higher order characters in their names. These files have now been removed. See
  • pyramid.testing.DummyResource didn't define __bool__, so code under Python 3 would use __len__ to find truthiness; this usually caused an instance of DummyResource to be "falsy" instead of "truthy". See
  • The alchemy scaffold would break when the database was MySQL during tables creation. See
  • The current_route_url method now attaches the query string to the URL by default. See
  • Make pserve.cherrypy_server_runner Python 3 compatible. See

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • Modified the current_route_url method in pyramid.Request. The method previously returned the URL without the query string by default, it now does attach the query string unless it is overriden.
  • The route_url and route_path APIs no longer quote / to %2F when a replacement value contains a /. This was pointless, as WSGI servers always unquote the slash anyway, and Pyramid never sees the quoted value.
  • It is no longer possible to set a locale_name attribute of the request, nor is it possible to set a localizer attribute of the request. These are now "reified" properties that look up a locale name and localizer respectively using the machinery described in the "Internationalization" chapter of the documentation.
  • If you send an X-Vhm-Root header with a value that ends with a slash (or any number of slashes), the trailing slash(es) will be removed before a URL is generated when you use use request.resource_url or request.resource_path. Previously the virtual root path would not have trailing slashes stripped, which would influence URL generation.
  • The pyramid.interfaces.IResourceURL interface has now grown two new attributes: virtual_path_tuple and physical_path_tuple. These should be the tuple form of the resource's path (physical and virtual).

1.4 (2012-12-18)


  • Fix functional tests in the ZODB tutorial

1.4b3 (2012-12-10)

  • Packaging release only, no code changes. 1.4b2 was a brownbag release due to missing directories in the tarball.

1.4b2 (2012-12-10)


  • Scaffolding is now PEP-8 compliant (at least for a brief shining moment).
  • Tutorial improvements.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • Modified the _depth argument to pyramid.view.view_config to accept a value relative to the invocation of view_config itself. Thus, when it was previously expecting a value of 1 or greater, to reflect that the caller of view_config is 1 stack frame away from venusian.attach, this implementation detail is now hidden.
  • Modified the _backframes argument to pyramid.util.action_method in a similar way to the changes described to _depth above. This argument remains undocumented, but might be used in the wild by some insane person.

1.4b1 (2012-11-21)


  • Small microspeed enhancement which anticipates that a pyramid.response.Response object is likely to be returned from a view. Some code is shortcut if the class of the object returned by a view is this class. A similar microoptimization was done to pyramid.request.Request.is_response.

  • Make it possible to use variable arguments on p* commands (pserve, pshell, pviews, etc) in the form a=1 b=2 so you can fill in values in parameterized .ini file, e.g. pshell etc/development.ini http_port=8080. See

  • A somewhat advanced and obscure feature of Pyramid event handlers is their ability to handle "multi-interface" notifications. These notifications have traditionally presented multiple objects to the subscriber callable. For instance, if an event was sent by code like this:

    registry.notify(event, context)

    In the past, in order to catch such an event, you were obligated to write and register an event subscriber that mentioned both the event and the context in its argument list:

    @subscriber([SomeEvent, SomeContextType])
    def asubscriber(event, context):

    In many subscriber callables registered this way, it was common for the logic in the subscriber callable to completely ignore the second and following arguments (e.g. context in the above example might be ignored), because they usually existed as attributes of the event anyway. You could usually get the same value by doing event.context or similar.

    The fact that you needed to put an extra argument which you usually ignored in the subscriber callable body was only a minor annoyance until we added "subscriber predicates", used to narrow the set of circumstances under which a subscriber will be executed, in a prior 1.4 alpha release. Once those were added, the annoyance was escalated, because subscriber predicates needed to accept the same argument list and arity as the subscriber callables that they were configured against. So, for example, if you had these two subscriber registrations in your code:

    @subscriber([SomeEvent, SomeContextType])
    def asubscriber(event, context):
    def asubscriber(event):

    And you wanted to use a subscriber predicate:

    @subscriber([SomeEvent, SomeContextType], mypredicate=True)
    def asubscriber1(event, context):
    @subscriber(SomeOtherEvent, mypredicate=True)
    def asubscriber2(event):

    If an existing mypredicate subscriber predicate had been written in such a way that it accepted only one argument in its __call__, you could not use it against a subscription which named more than one interface in its subscriber interface list. Similarly, if you had written a subscriber predicate that accepted two arguments, you couldn't use it against a registration that named only a single interface type.

    For example, if you created this predicate:

    class MyPredicate(object):
        # portions elided...
        def __call__(self, event):
            return self.val ==

    It would not work against a multi-interface-registered subscription, so in the above example, when you attempted to use it against asubscriber1, it would fail at runtime with a TypeError, claiming something was attempting to call it with too many arguments.

    To hack around this limitation, you were obligated to design the mypredicate predicate to expect to receive in its __call__ either a single event argument (a SomeOtherEvent object) or a pair of arguments (a SomeEvent object and a SomeContextType object), presumably by doing something like this:

    class MyPredicate(object):
        # portions elided...
        def __call__(self, event, context=None):
            return self.val ==

    This was confusing and bad.

    In order to allow people to ignore unused arguments to subscriber callables and to normalize the relationship between event subscribers and subscriber predicates, we now allow both subscribers and subscriber predicates to accept only a single event argument even if they've been subscribed for notifications that involve multiple interfaces. Subscribers and subscriber predicates that accept only one argument will receive the first object passed to notify; this is typically (but not always) the event object. The other objects involved in the subscription lookup will be discarded. You can now write an event subscriber that accepts only event even if it subscribes to multiple interfaces:

    @subscriber([SomeEvent, SomeContextType])
    def asubscriber(event):
        # this will work!

    This prevents you from needing to match the subscriber callable parameters to the subscription type unnecessarily, especially when you don't make use of any argument in your subscribers except for the event object itself.

    Note, however, that if the event object is not the first object in the call to notify, you'll run into trouble. For example, if notify is called with the context argument first:

    registry.notify(context, event)

    You won't be able to take advantage of the event-only feature. It will "work", but the object received by your event handler won't be the event object, it will be the context object, which won't be very useful:

    @subscriber([SomeContextType, SomeEvent])
    def asubscriber(event):
        # bzzt! you'll be getting the context here as ``event``, and it'll
        # be useless

    Existing multiple-argument subscribers continue to work without issue, so you should continue use those if your system notifies using multiple interfaces and the first interface is not the event interface. For example:

    @subscriber([SomeContextType, SomeEvent])
    def asubscriber(context, event):
        # this will still work!

    The event-only feature makes it possible to use a subscriber predicate that accepts only a request argument within both multiple-interface subscriber registrations and single-interface subscriber registrations. You needn't make slightly different variations of predicates depending on the subscription type arguments. Instead, just write all your subscriber predicates so they only accept event in their __call__ and they'll be useful across all registrations for subscriptions that use an event as their first argument, even ones which accept more than just event.

    However, the same caveat applies to predicates as to subscriber callables: if you're subscribing to a multi-interface event, and the first interface is not the event interface, the predicate won't work properly. In such a case, you'll need to match the predicate __call__ argument ordering and composition to the ordering of the interfaces. For example, if the registration for the subscription uses [SomeContext, SomeEvent], you'll need to reflect that in the ordering of the parameters of the predicate's __call__ method:

    def __call__(self, context, event):
        return event.request.path.startswith(self.val)

    tl;dr: 1) When using multi-interface subscriptions, always use the event type as the first subscription registration argument and 2) When 1 is true, use only event in your subscriber and subscriber predicate parameter lists, no matter how many interfaces the subscriber is notified with. This combination will result in the maximum amount of reusability of subscriber predicates and the least amount of thought on your part. Drink responsibly.

Bug Fixes

  • A failure when trying to locate the attribute __text__ on route and view predicates existed when the debug_routematch setting was true or when the pviews command was used. See


  • Sync up tutorial source files with the files that are rendered by the scaffold that each uses.

1.4a4 (2012-11-14)


  • pyramid.authentication.AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy has been updated to support newer hashing algorithms such as sha512. Existing applications should consider updating if possible for improved security over the default md5 hashing.
  • Added an effective_principals route and view predicate.
  • Do not allow the userid returned from the authenticated_userid or the userid that is one of the list of principals returned by effective_principals to be either of the strings system.Everyone or system.Authenticated when any of the built-in authorization policies that live in pyramid.authentication are in use. These two strings are reserved for internal usage by Pyramid and they will not be accepted as valid userids.
  • Slightly better debug logging from pyramid.authentication.RepozeWho1AuthenticationPolicy.
  • used to return True if no view could be found. It now raises a TypeError exception in that case, as it doesn't make sense to assert that a nonexistent view is execution-permitted. See
  • Allow a _depth argument to pyramid.view.view_config, which will permit limited composition reuse of the decorator by other software that wants to provide custom decorators that are much like view_config.
  • Allow an iterable of decorators to be passed to pyramid.config.Configurator.add_view. This allows views to be wrapped by more than one decorator without requiring combining the decorators yourself.

Bug Fixes

  • In the past if a renderer returned None, the body of the resulting response would be set explicitly to the empty string. Instead, now, the body is left unchanged, which allows the renderer to set a body itself by using e.g. request.response.body = b'foo'. The body set by the renderer will be unmolested on the way out. See
  • In uncommon cases, the pyramid_excview_tween_factory might have inadvertently raised a KeyError looking for request_iface as an attribute of the request. It no longer fails in this case. See
  • Be more tolerant of potential error conditions in match_param and physical_path predicate implementations; instead of raising an exception, return False.
  • pyramid.view.render_view was not functioning properly under Python 3.x due to a byte/unicode discrepancy. See


  • pyramid.authentication.AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy will emit a warning if an application is using the policy without explicitly passing a hashalg argument. This is because the default is "md5" which is considered theoretically subject to collision attacks. If you really want "md5" then you must specify it explicitly to get rid of the warning.


  • All of the tutorials that use pyramid.authentication.AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy now explicitly pass sha512 as a hashalg argument.


  • Move TopologicalSorter from pyramid.config.util to pyramid.util, move CyclicDependencyError from pyramid.config.util to pyramid.exceptions, rename Singleton to Sentinel and move from pyramid.config.util to pyramid.util; this is in an effort to move that stuff that may be an API one day out of pyramid.config.util, because that package should never be imported from non-Pyramid code. TopologicalSorter is still not an API, but may become one.
  • Get rid of shady monkeypatching of pyramid.request.Request and pyramid.response.Response done within the of Pyramid. Webob no longer relies on this being done. Instead, the ResponseClass attribute of the Pyramid Request class is assigned to the Pyramid response class; that's enough to satisfy WebOb and behave as it did before with the monkeypatching.

1.4a3 (2012-10-26)

Bug Fixes

  • The match_param predicate's text method was fixed to sort its values. Part of
  • 1.4a pyramid.scripting.prepare behaved differently than 1.3 series function of same name. In particular, if passed a request, it would not set the registry attribute of the request like 1.3 did. A symptom would be that passing a request to pyramid.paster.bootstrap (which uses the function) that did not have a registry attribute could assume that the registry would be attached to the request by Pyramid. This assumption could be made in 1.3, but not in 1.4. The assumption can now be made in 1.4 too (a registry is attached to a request passed to bootstrap or prepare).
  • When registering a view configuration that named a Chameleon ZPT renderer with a macro name in it (e.g. renderer='some/ as well as a view configuration without a macro name in it that pointed to the same template (e.g. renderer='some/'), internal caching could confuse the two, and your code might have rendered one instead of the other.


  • Allow multiple values to be specified to the request_param view/route predicate as a sequence. Previously only a single string value was allowed. See
  • Comments with references to documentation sections placed in scaffold .ini files.
  • Added an HTTP Basic authentication policy at pyramid.authentication.BasicAuthAuthenticationPolicy.
  • The Configurator testing_securitypolicy method now returns the policy object it creates.
  • The Configurator testing_securitypolicy method accepts two new arguments: remember_result and forget_result. If supplied, these values influence the result of the policy's remember and forget methods, respectively.
  • The DummySecurityPolicy created by testing_securitypolicy now sets a forgotten value on the policy (the value True) when its forget method is called.
  • The DummySecurityPolicy created by testing_securitypolicy now sets a remembered value on the policy, which is the value of the principal argument it's called with when its remember method is called.
  • New physical_path view predicate. If specified, this value should be a string or a tuple representing the physical traversal path of the context found via traversal for this predicate to match as true. For example: physical_path='/' or physical_path='/a/b/c' or physical_path=('', 'a', 'b', 'c'). This is not a path prefix match or a regex, it's a whole-path match. It's useful when you want to always potentially show a view when some object is traversed to, but you can't be sure about what kind of object it will be, so you can't use the context predicate. The individual path elements inbetween slash characters or in tuple elements should be the Unicode representation of the name of the resource and should not be encoded in any way.

1.4a2 (2012-09-27)

Bug Fixes


  • A new pyramid.session.check_csrf_token convenience function was added.
  • A check_csrf view predicate was added. For example, you can now do config.add_view(someview, check_csrf=True). When the predicate is checked, if the csrf_token value in request.params matches the CSRF token in the request's session, the view will be permitted to execute. Otherwise, it will not be permitted to execute.
  • Add Base.metadata.bind = engine to alchemy template, so that tables defined imperatively will work.


  • update wiki2 SQLA tutorial with the changes required after inserting Base.metadata.bind = engine into the alchemy scaffold.

1.4a1 (2012-09-16)

Bug Fixes

  • Forward port from 1.3 branch: When no authentication policy was configured, a call to would unconditionally return the empty list. This was incorrect, it should have unconditionally returned [Everyone], and now does.
  • Explicit url dispatch regexes can now contain colons.
  • On at least one 64-bit Ubuntu system under Python 3.2, using the view_config decorator caused a RuntimeError: dictionary changed size during iteration exception. It no longer does. See for more information.
  • In Mako Templates lookup, check if the uri is already adjusted and bring it back to an asset spec. Normally occurs with inherited templates or included components.
  • In Mako Templates lookup, check for absolute uri (using mako directories) when mixing up inheritance with asset specs.
  • HTTP Accept headers were not being normalized causing potentially conflicting view registrations to go unnoticed. Two views that only differ in the case ('text/html' vs. 'text/HTML') will now raise an error.
  • Forward-port from 1.3 branch: when registering multiple views with an accept predicate in a Pyramid application runing under Python 3, you might have received a TypeError: unorderable types: function() < function() exception.


  • Python 3.3 compatibility.

  • Configurator.add_directive now accepts arbitrary callables like partials or objects implementing __call__ which dont have __name__ and __doc__ attributes. See and

  • Third-party custom view, route, and subscriber predicates can now be added for use by view authors via pyramid.config.Configurator.add_view_predicate, pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route_predicate and pyramid.config.Configurator.add_subscriber_predicate. So, for example, doing this:

    config.add_view_predicate('abc', my.package.ABCPredicate)

    Might allow a view author to do this in an application that configured that predicate:


    Similar features exist for add_route, and add_subscriber. See "Adding A Third Party View, Route, or Subscriber Predicate" in the Hooks chapter for more information.

    Note that changes made to support the above feature now means that only actions registered using the same "order" can conflict with one another. It used to be the case that actions registered at different orders could potentially conflict, but to my knowledge nothing ever depended on this behavior (it was a bit silly).

  • Custom objects can be made easily JSON-serializable in Pyramid by defining a __json__ method on the object's class. This method should return values natively serializable by json.dumps (such as ints, lists, dictionaries, strings, and so forth).

  • The JSON renderer now allows for the definition of custom type adapters to convert unknown objects to JSON serializations.

  • As of this release, the request_method predicate, when used, will also imply that HEAD is implied when you use GET. For example, using @view_config(request_method='GET') is equivalent to using @view_config(request_method=('GET', 'HEAD')). Using @view_config(request_method=('GET', 'POST') is equivalent to using @view_config(request_method=('GET', 'HEAD', 'POST'). This is because HEAD is a variant of GET that omits the body, and WebOb has special support to return an empty body when a HEAD is used.

  • config.add_request_method has been introduced to support extending request objects with arbitrary callables. This method expands on the previous config.set_request_property by supporting methods as well as properties. This method now causes less code to be executed at request construction time than config.set_request_property in version 1.3.

  • Don't add a ? to URLs generated by request.resource_url if the query argument is provided but empty.

  • Don't add a ? to URLs generated by request.route_url if the _query argument is provided but empty.

  • The static view machinery now raises (rather than returns) HTTPNotFound and HTTPMovedPermanently exceptions, so these can be caught by the Not Found View (and other exception views).

  • The Mako renderer now supports a def name in an asset spec. When the def name is present in the asset spec, the system will render the template def within the template and will return the result. An example asset spec is package:path/to/template#defname.mako. This will render the def named defname inside the template.mako template instead of rendering the entire template. The old way of returning a tuple in the form ('defname', {}) from the view is supported for backward compatibility,

  • The Chameleon ZPT renderer now accepts a macro name in an asset spec. When the macro name is present in the asset spec, the system will render the macro listed as a define-macro and return the result instead of rendering the entire template. An example asset spec: package:path/to/ This will render the macro defined as macroname within the template instead of the entire templae.

  • When there is a predicate mismatch exception (seen when no view matches for a given request due to predicates not working), the exception now contains a textual description of the predicate which didn't match.

  • An add_permission directive method was added to the Configurator. This directive registers a free-standing permission introspectable into the Pyramid introspection system. Frameworks built atop Pyramid can thus use the permissions introspectable category data to build a comprehensive list of permissions supported by a running system. Before this method was added, permissions were already registered in this introspectable category as a side effect of naming them in an add_view call, this method just makes it possible to arrange for a permission to be put into the permissions introspectable category without naming it along with an associated view. Here's an example of usage of add_permission:

    config = Configurator()
  • The UnencryptedCookieSessionFactoryConfig now accepts signed_serialize and signed_deserialize hooks which may be used to influence how the sessions are marshalled (by default this is done with HMAC+pickle).

  • pyramid.testing.DummyRequest now supports methods supplied by the pyramid.util.InstancePropertyMixin class such as set_property.

  • Request properties and methods added via config.set_request_property or config.add_request_method are now available to tweens.

  • Request properties and methods added via config.set_request_property or config.add_request_method are now available in the request object returned from pyramid.paster.bootstrap.

  • request.context of environment request during bootstrap is now the root object if a context isn't already set on a provided request.

  • The pyramid.decorator.reify function is now an API, and was added to the API documentation.

  • Added the pyramid.testing.testConfig context manager, which can be used to generate a configurator in a test, e.g. with testing.testConfig(...):.

  • Users can now invoke a subrequest from within view code using a new request.invoke_subrequest API.


  • The pyramid.config.Configurator.set_request_property has been documentation-deprecated. The method remains usable but the more featureful pyramid.config.Configurator.add_request_method should be used in its place (it has all of the same capabilities but can also extend the request object with methods).

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The Pyramid router no longer adds the values bfg.routes.route or bfg.routes.matchdict to the request's WSGI environment dictionary. These values were docs-deprecated in repoze.bfg 1.0 (effectively seven minor releases ago). If your code depended on these values, use request.matched_route and request.matchdict instead.
  • It is no longer possible to pass an environ dictionary directly to pyramid.traversal.ResourceTreeTraverser.__call__ (aka ModelGraphTraverser.__call__). Instead, you must pass a request object. Passing an environment instead of a request has generated a deprecation warning since Pyramid 1.1.
  • Pyramid will no longer work properly if you use the webob.request.LegacyRequest as a request factory. Instances of the LegacyRequest class have a request.path_info which return a string. This Pyramid release assumes that request.path_info will unconditionally be Unicode.
  • The functions from pyramid.chameleon_zpt and pyramid.chameleon_text named get_renderer, get_template, render_template, and render_template_to_response have been removed. These have issued a deprecation warning upon import since Pyramid 1.0. Use pyramid.renderers.get_renderer(), pyramid.renderers.get_renderer().implementation(), pyramid.renderers.render() or pyramid.renderers.render_to_response respectively instead of these functions.
  • The pyramid.configuration module was removed. It had been deprecated since Pyramid 1.0 and printed a deprecation warning upon its use. Use pyramid.config instead.
  • The pyramid.paster.PyramidTemplate API was removed. It had been deprecated since Pyramid 1.1 and issued a warning on import. If your code depended on this, adjust your code to import pyramid.scaffolds.PyramidTemplate instead.
  • The pyramid.settings.get_settings() API was removed. It had been printing a deprecation warning since Pyramid 1.0. If your code depended on this API, use pyramid.threadlocal.get_current_registry().settings instead or use the settings attribute of the registry available from the request (request.registry.settings).
  • These APIs from the pyramid.testing module were removed. They have been printing deprecation warnings since Pyramid 1.0:
    • registerDummySecurityPolicy, use pyramid.config.Configurator.testing_securitypolicy instead.
    • registerResources (aka registerModels, use pyramid.config.Configurator.testing_resources instead.
    • registerEventListener, use pyramid.config.Configurator.testing_add_subscriber instead.
    • registerTemplateRenderer (aka registerDummyRenderer`), use pyramid.config.Configurator.testing_add_template instead.
    • registerView, use pyramid.config.Configurator.add_view instead.
    • registerUtility, use pyramid.config.Configurator.registry.registerUtility instead.
    • registerAdapter, use pyramid.config.Configurator.registry.registerAdapter instead.
    • registerSubscriber, use pyramid.config.Configurator.add_subscriber instead.
    • registerRoute, use pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route instead.
    • registerSettings, use pyramid.config.Configurator.add_settings instead.
  • In Pyramid 1.3 and previous, the __call__ method of a Response object was invoked before any finished callbacks were executed. As of this release, the __call__ method of a Response object is invoked after finished callbacks are executed. This is in support of the request.invoke_subrequest feature.
  • The 200-series exception responses named HTTPCreated, HTTPAccepted, HTTPNonAuthoritativeInformation, HTTPNoContent, HTTPResetContent, and HTTPPartialContent in pyramid.httpexceptions no longer inherit from HTTPOk. Instead they inherit from a new base class named HTTPSuccessful. This will have no effect on you unless you've registered an exception view for HTTPOk and expect that exception view to catch all the aforementioned exceptions.


  • Added an "Upgrading Pyramid" chapter to the narrative documentation. It describes how to cope with deprecations and removals of Pyramid APIs and how to show Pyramid-generated deprecation warnings while running tests and while running a server.
  • Added a "Invoking a Subrequest" chapter to the documentation. It describes how to use the new request.invoke_subrequest API.


  • Pyramid now requires WebOb 1.2b3+ (the prior Pyramid release only relied on 1.2dev+). This is to ensure that we obtain a version of WebOb that returns request.path_info as text.

1.3 (2012-03-21)

Bug Fixes

  • When pyramid.wsgi.wsgiapp2 calls the downstream WSGI app, the app's environ will no longer have (deprecated and potentially misleading) bfg.routes.matchdict or bfg.routes.route keys in it. A symptom of this bug would be a wsgiapp2-wrapped Pyramid app finding the wrong view because it mistakenly detects that a route was matched when, in fact, it was not.
  • The fix for issue (which made it possible for instance methods to be used as view callables) introduced a backwards incompatibility when methods that declared only a request argument were used. See

1.3b3 (2012-03-17)

Bug Fixes

  • config.add_view(<aninstancemethod>) raised AttributeError involving __text__. See
  • Remove references to do-nothing pyramid.debug_templates setting in all Pyramid-provided .ini files. This setting previously told Chameleon to render better exceptions; now Chameleon always renders nice exceptions regardless of the value of this setting.


  • The alchemy scaffold now shows an informative error message in the browser if the person creating the project forgets to run the initialization script.
  • The alchemy scaffold initialization script is now called initialize_<projectname>_db instead of populate_<projectname>.


  • Wiki tutorials improved due to collaboration at PyCon US 2012 sprints.

1.3b2 (2012-03-02)

Bug Fixes

  • The method pyramid.request.Request.partial_application_url is no longer in the API docs. It was meant to be a private method; its publication in the documentation as an API method was a mistake, and it has been renamed to something private.

  • When a static view was registered using an absolute filesystem path on Windows, the request.static_url function did not work to generate URLs to its resources. Symptom: "No static URL definition matching c:\foo\bar\baz".

  • Make all tests pass on Windows XP.

  • Bug in ACL authentication checking on Python 3: the permits and principals_allowed_by_permission method of pyramid.authorization.ACLAuthenticationPolicy could return an inappropriate True value when a permission on an ACL was a string rather than a sequence, and then only if the ACL permission string was a substring of the permission value passed to the function.

    This bug effects no Pyramid deployment under Python 2; it is a bug that exists only in deployments running on Python 3. It has existed since Pyramid 1.3a1.

    This bug was due to the presence of an __iter__ attribute on strings under Python 3 which is not present under strings in Python 2.

1.3b1 (2012-02-26)

Bug Fixes

  • pyramid.config.Configurator.with_package didn't work if the Configurator was an old-style pyramid.configuration.Configurator instance.
  • Pyramid authorization policies did not show up in the introspector.


  • All references to the tmpl_context request variable were removed from the docs. Its existence in Pyramid is confusing for people who were never Pylons users. It was added as a porting convenience for Pylons users in Pyramid 1.0, but it never caught on because the Pyramid rendering system is a lot different than Pylons' was, and alternate ways exist to do what it was designed to offer in Pylons. It will continue to exist "forever" but it will not be recommended or mentioned in the docs.

1.3a9 (2012-02-22)


  • Add an introspection boolean to the Configurator constructor. If this is True, actions registered using the Configurator will be registered with the introspector. If it is False, they won't. The default is True. Setting it to False during action processing will prevent introspection for any following registration statements, and setting it to True will start them up again. This addition is to service a requirement that the debug toolbar's own views and methods not show up in the introspector.
  • New API: pyramid.config.Configurator.add_notfound_view. This is a wrapper for pyramid.Config.configurator.add_view which provides easy append_slash support and does the right thing about permissions. It should be preferred over calling add_view directly with context=HTTPNotFound as was previously recommended.
  • New API: pyramid.view.notfound_view_config. This is a decorator constructor like pyramid.view.view_config that calls pyramid.config.Configurator.add_notfound_view when scanned. It should be preferred over using pyramid.view.view_config with context=HTTPNotFound as was previously recommended.
  • New API: pyramid.config.Configurator.add_forbidden_view. This is a wrapper for pyramid.Config.configurator.add_view which does the right thing about permissions. It should be preferred over calling add_view directly with context=HTTPForbidden as was previously recommended.
  • New API: pyramid.view.forbidden_view_config. This is a decorator constructor like pyramid.view.view_config that calls pyramid.config.Configurator.add_forbidden_view when scanned. It should be preferred over using pyramid.view.view_config with context=HTTPForbidden as was previously recommended.
  • New APIs: pyramid.response.FileResponse and pyramid.response.FileIter, for usage in views that must serve files "manually".

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • Remove pyramid.config.Configurator.with_context class method. It was never an API, it is only used by pyramid_zcml and its functionality has been moved to that package's latest release. This means that you'll need to use the 0.9.2 or later release of pyramid_zcml with this release of Pyramid.
  • The introspector argument to the pyramid.config.Configurator constructor API has been removed. It has been replaced by the boolean introspection flag.
  • The pyramid.registry.noop_introspector API object has been removed.
  • The older deprecated set_notfound_view Configurator method is now an alias for the new add_notfound_view Configurator method. Likewise, the older deprecated set_forbidden_view is now an alias for the new add_forbidden_view. This has the following impact: the context sent to views with a (context, request) call signature registered via the set_notfound_view or set_forbidden_view will now be an exception object instead of the actual resource context found. Use request.context to get the actual resource context. It's also recommended to disuse set_notfound_view in favor of add_notfound_view, and disuse set_forbidden_view in favor of add_forbidden_view despite the aliasing.


  • The API documentation for pyramid.view.append_slash_notfound_view and pyramid.view.AppendSlashNotFoundViewFactory was removed. These names still exist and are still importable, but they are no longer APIs. Use pyramid.config.Configurator.add_notfound_view(append_slash=True) or pyramid.view.notfound_view_config(append_slash=True) to get the same behavior.
  • The set_forbidden_view and set_notfound_view methods of the Configurator were removed from the documentation. They have been deprecated since Pyramid 1.1.

Bug Fixes

  • The static file response object used by config.add_static_view opened the static file twice, when it only needed to open it once.
  • The AppendSlashNotFoundViewFactory used request.path to match routes. This was wrong because request.path contains the script name, and this would cause it to fail in circumstances where the script name was not empty. It should have used request.path_info, and now does.


  • Updated the "Creating a Not Found View" section of the "Hooks" chapter, replacing explanations of registering a view using add_view or view_config with ones using add_notfound_view or notfound_view_config.
  • Updated the "Creating a Not Forbidden View" section of the "Hooks" chapter, replacing explanations of registering a view using add_view or view_config with ones using add_forbidden_view or forbidden_view_config.
  • Updated the "Redirecting to Slash-Appended Routes" section of the "URL Dispatch" chapter, replacing explanations of registering a view using add_view or view_config with ones using add_notfound_view or notfound_view_config
  • Updated all tutorials to use pyramid.view.forbidden_view_config rather than pyramid.view.view_config with an HTTPForbidden context.

1.3a8 (2012-02-19)


  • The scan method of a Configurator can be passed an ignore argument, which can be a string, a callable, or a list consisting of strings and/or callables. This feature allows submodules, subpackages, and global objects from being scanned. See for more information about how to use the ignore argument to scan.
  • Better error messages when a view callable returns a value that cannot be converted to a response (for example, when a view callable returns a dictionary without a renderer defined, or doesn't return any value at all). The error message now contains information about the view callable itself as well as the result of calling it.
  • Better error message when a .pyc-only module is config.include -ed. This is not permitted due to error reporting requirements, and a better error message is shown when it is attempted. Previously it would fail with something like "AttributeError: 'NoneType' object has no attribute 'rfind'".
  • Add pyramid.config.Configurator.add_traverser API method. See the Hooks narrative documentation section entitled "Changing the Traverser" for more information. This is not a new feature, it just provides an API for adding a traverser without needing to use the ZCA API.
  • Add pyramid.config.Configurator.add_resource_url_adapter API method. See the Hooks narrative documentation section entitled "Changing How pyramid.request.Request.resource_url Generates a URL" for more information. This is not a new feature, it just provides an API for adding a resource url adapter without needing to use the ZCA API.
  • The system value req is now supplied to renderers as an alias for request. This means that you can now, for example, in a template, do req.route_url(...) instead of request.route_url(...). This is purely a change to reduce the amount of typing required to use request methods and attributes from within templates. The value request is still available too, this is just an alternative.
  • A new interface was added: pyramid.interfaces.IResourceURL. An adapter implementing its interface can be used to override resource URL generation when request.resource_url is called. This interface replaces the now-deprecated pyramid.interfaces.IContextURL interface.
  • The dictionary passed to a resource's __resource_url__ method (see "Overriding Resource URL Generation" in the "Resources" chapter) now contains an app_url key, representing the application URL generated during request.resource_url. It represents a potentially customized URL prefix, containing potentially custom scheme, host and port information passed by the user to request.resource_url. It should be used instead of request.application_url where necessary.
  • The request.resource_url API now accepts these arguments: app_url, scheme, host, and port. The app_url argument can be used to replace the URL prefix wholesale during url generation. The scheme, host, and port arguments can be used to replace the respective default values of request.application_url partially.
  • A new API named request.resource_path now exists. It works like request.resource_url but produces a relative URL rather than an absolute one.
  • The request.route_url API now accepts these arguments: _app_url, _scheme, _host, and _port. The _app_url argument can be used to replace the URL prefix wholesale during url generation. The _scheme, _host, and _port arguments can be used to replace the respective default values of request.application_url partially.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The pyramid.interfaces.IContextURL interface has been deprecated. People have been instructed to use this to register a resource url adapter in the "Hooks" chapter to use to influence request.resource_url URL generation for resources found via custom traversers since Pyramid 1.0.

    The interface still exists and registering such an adapter still works, but this interface will be removed from the software after a few major Pyramid releases. You should replace it with an equivalent pyramid.interfaces.IResourceURL adapter, registered using the new pyramid.config.Configurator.add_resource_url_adapter API. A deprecation warning is now emitted when a pyramid.interfaces.IContextURL adapter is found when request.resource_url is called.


  • Don't create a session instance in SQLA Wiki tutorial, use raw DBSession instead (this is more common in real SQLA apps).


  • Put pyramid.includes targets within ini files in scaffolds on separate lines in order to be able to tell people to comment out only the pyramid_debugtoolbar line when they want to disable the toolbar.


  • Depend on venusian >= 1.0a3 to provide scan ignore support.


  • Create a "MakoRendererFactoryHelper" that provides customizable settings key prefixes. Allows settings prefixes other than "mako." to be used to create different factories that don't use the global mako settings. This will be useful for the debug toolbar, which can currently be sabotaged by someone using custom mako configuration settings.

1.3a7 (2012-02-07)


  • More informative error message when a config.include cannot find an includeme. See
  • Internal: catch unhashable discriminators early (raise an error instead of allowing them to find their way into resolveConflicts).
  • The match_param view predicate now accepts a string or a tuple. This replaces the broken behavior of accepting a dict. See for more information.

Bug Fixes

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The match_param view predicate no longer accepts a dict. This will have no negative affect because the implementation was broken for dict-based arguments.


  • Add a traversal hello world example to the narrative docs.

1.3a6 (2012-01-20)


  • New API: pyramid.config.Configurator.set_request_property. Add lazy property descriptors to a request without changing the request factory. This method provides conflict detection and is the suggested way to add properties to a request.
  • Responses generated by Pyramid's static_view now use a wsgi.file_wrapper (see when one is provided by the web server.

Bug Fixes

1.3a5 (2012-01-09)

Bug Fixes

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The path_info route and view predicates now match against request.upath_info (Unicode) rather than request.path_info (indeterminate value based on Python 3 vs. Python 2). This has to be done to normalize matching on Python 2 and Python 3.

1.3a4 (2012-01-05)


  • New API: pyramid.request.Request.set_property. Add lazy property descriptors to a request without changing the request factory. New properties may be reified, effectively caching the value for the lifetime of the instance. Common use-cases for this would be to get a database connection for the request or identify the current user.
  • Use the waitress WSGI server instead of wsgiref in scaffolding.

Bug Fixes

  • The documentation of indicated that using it as a decorator with no arguments like this:

    def somefunc(event):

    Would register somefunc to receive all events sent via the registry, but this was untrue. Instead, it would receive no events at all. This has now been fixed and the code matches the documentation. See also

  • Literal portions of route patterns were not URL-quoted when route_url or route_path was used to generate a URL or path.

  • The result of route_path or route_url might have been unicode or str depending on the input. It is now guaranteed to always be str.

  • URL matching when the pattern contained non-ASCII characters in literal parts was indeterminate. Now the pattern supplied to add_route is assumed to be either: a unicode value, or a str value that contains only ASCII characters. If you now want to match the path info from a URL that contains high order characters, you can pass the Unicode representation of the decoded path portion in the pattern.

  • When using a traverse= route predicate, traversal would fail with a URLDecodeError if there were any high-order characters in the traversal pattern or in the matched dynamic segments.

  • Using a dynamic segment named traverse in a route pattern like this:

    config.add_route('trav_route', 'traversal/{traverse:.*}')

    Would cause a UnicodeDecodeError when the route was matched and the matched portion of the URL contained any high-order characters. See .

  • When using a *traverse stararg in a route pattern, a URL that matched that possessed a @@ in its name (signifying a view name) would be inappropriately quoted by the traversal machinery during traversal, resulting in the view not being found properly. See and .

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • String values passed to route_url or route_path that are meant to replace "remainder" matches will now be URL-quoted except for embedded slashes. For example:

    config.add_route('remain', '/foo*remainder')
    request.route_path('remain', remainder='abc / def')
    # -> '/foo/abc%20/%20def'

    Previously string values passed as remainder replacements were tacked on untouched, without any URL-quoting. But this doesn't really work logically if the value passed is Unicode (raw unicode cannot be placed in a URL or in a path) and it is inconsistent with the rest of the URL generation machinery if the value is a string (it won't be quoted unless by the caller).

    Some folks will have been relying on the older behavior to tack on query string elements and anchor portions of the URL; sorry, you'll need to change your code to use the _query and/or _anchor arguments to route_path or route_url to do this now.

  • If you pass a bytestring that contains non-ASCII characters to add_route as a pattern, it will now fail at startup time. Use Unicode instead.

1.3a3 (2011-12-21)


  • Added a prequest script (along the lines of paster request). It is documented in the "Command-Line Pyramid" chapter in the section entitled "Invoking a Request".
  • Add undocumented __discriminator__ API to derived view callables. e.g. adapters.lookup(...).__discriminator__(context, request). It will be used by superdynamic systems that require the discriminator to be used for introspection after manual view lookup.

Bug Fixes

  • Normalized exit values and -h output for all p* scripts (pviews, proutes, etc).


  • Added a section named "Making Your Script into a Console Script" in the "Command-Line Pyramid" chapter.
  • Removed the "Running Pyramid on Google App Engine" tutorial from the main docs. It survives on in the Cookbook ( Rationale: it provides the correct info for the Python 2.5 version of GAE only, and this version of Pyramid does not support Python 2.5.

1.3a2 (2011-12-14)


  • New API: pyramid.view.view_defaults. If you use a class as a view, you can use the new view_defaults class decorator on the class to provide defaults to the view configuration information used by every @view_config decorator that decorates a method of that class. It also works against view configurations involving a class made imperatively.
  • Added a backwards compatibility knob to pcreate to emulate paster create handling for the --list-templates option.
  • Changed scaffolding machinery around a bit to make it easier for people who want to have extension scaffolds that can work across Pyramid 1.0.X, 1.1.X, 1.2.X and 1.3.X. See the new "Creating Pyramid Scaffolds" chapter in the narrative documentation for more info.


  • Added documentation to "View Configuration" narrative documentation chapter about view_defaults class decorator.
  • Added API docs for view_defaults class decorator.
  • Added an API docs chapter for pyramid.scaffolds.
  • Added a narrative docs chapter named "Creating Pyramid Scaffolds".

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The template_renderer method of pyramid.scaffolds.PyramidScaffold was renamed to render_template. If you were overriding it, you're a bad person, because it wasn't an API before now. But we're nice so we're letting you know.

1.3a1 (2011-12-09)


  • Python 3.2 compatibility.
  • New pyramid.compat module and API documentation which provides Python 2/3 straddling support for Pyramid add-ons and development environments.
  • A mako.directories setting is no longer required to use Mako templates Rationale: Mako template renderers can be specified using an absolute asset spec. An entire application can be written with such asset specs, requiring no ordered lookup path.
  • bpython interpreter compatibility in pshell. See the "Command-Line Pyramid" narrative docs chapter for more information.
  • Added get_appsettings API function to the pyramid.paster module. This function returns the settings defined within an [app:...] section in a PasteDeploy ini file.
  • Added setup_logging API function to the pyramid.paster module. This function sets up Python logging according to the logging configuration in a PasteDeploy ini file.
  • Configuration conflict reporting is reported in a more understandable way ("Line 11 in file..." vs. a repr of a tuple of similar info).
  • A configuration introspection system was added; see the narrative documentation chapter entitled "Pyramid Configuration Introspection" for more information. New APIs: pyramid.registry.Introspectable, pyramid.config.Configurator.introspector, pyramid.config.Configurator.introspectable, pyramid.registry.Registry.introspector.
  • Allow extra keyword arguments to be passed to the pyramid.config.Configurator.action method.
  • New APIs: pyramid.path.AssetResolver and pyramid.path.DottedNameResolver. The former can be used to resolve asset specifications, the latter can be used to resolve dotted names to modules or packages.

Bug Fixes

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • Pyramid no longer runs on Python 2.5 (which includes the most recent release of Jython and the Python 2.5 version of GAE as of this writing).
  • The paster command is no longer the documented way to create projects, start the server, or run debugging commands. To create projects from scaffolds, paster create is replaced by the pcreate console script. To serve up a project, paster serve is replaced by the pserve console script. New console scripts named pshell, pviews, proutes, and ptweens do what their paster <commandname> equivalents used to do. Rationale: the Paste and PasteScript packages do not run under Python 3.
  • The default WSGI server run as the result of pserve from newly rendered scaffolding is now the wsgiref WSGI server instead of the paste.httpserver server. Rationale: Rationale: the Paste and PasteScript packages do not run under Python 3.
  • The pshell command (see "paster pshell") no longer accepts a --disable-ipython command-line argument. Instead, it accepts a -p or --python-shell argument, which can be any of the values python, ipython or bpython.
  • Removed the pyramid.renderers.renderer_from_name function. It has been deprecated since Pyramid 1.0, and was never an API.
  • To use ZCML with versions of Pyramid >= 1.3, you will need pyramid_zcml version >= 0.8 and zope.configuration version >= 3.8.0. The pyramid_zcml package version 0.8 is backwards compatible all the way to Pyramid 1.0, so you won't be warned if you have older versions installed and upgrade Pyramid "in-place"; it may simply break instead.


  • Pyramid no longer depends on the zope.component package, except as a testing dependency.
  • Pyramid now depends on a zope.interface>=3.8.0, WebOb>=1.2dev, repoze.lru>=0.4, zope.deprecation>=3.5.0, translationstring>=0.4 (for Python 3 compatibility purposes). It also, as a testing dependency, depends on WebTest>=1.3.1 for the same reason.
  • Pyramid no longer depends on the Paste or PasteScript packages.


  • The SQLAlchemy Wiki tutorial has been updated. It now uses @view_config decorators and an explicit database population script.
  • Minor updates to the ZODB Wiki tutorial.
  • A narrative documentation chapter named "Extending Pyramid Configuration" was added; it describes how to add a new directive, and how use the pyramid.config.Configurator.action method within custom directives. It also describes how to add introspectable objects.
  • A narrative documentation chapter named "Pyramid Configuration Introspection" was added. It describes how to query the introspection system.


  • Rendered scaffolds have now been changed to be more relocatable (fewer mentions of the package name within files in the package).
  • The routesalchemy scaffold has been renamed alchemy, replacing the older (traversal-based) alchemy scaffold (which has been retired).
  • The starter scaffold now uses URL dispatch by default.

1.2 (2011-09-12)


1.2b3 (2011-09-11)

Bug Fixes

1.2b2 (2011-09-08)

Bug Fixes

  • The 1.2b1 tarball was a brownbag (particularly for Windows users) because it contained filenames with stray quotation marks in inappropriate places. We depend on setuptools-git to produce release tarballs, and when it was run to produce the 1.2b1 tarball, it didn't yet cope well with files present in git repositories with high-order characters in their filenames.


  • Minor tweaks to the "Introduction" narrative chapter example app and wording.

1.2b1 (2011-09-08)

Bug Fixes

  • Sometimes falling back from territory translations (de_DE) to language translations (de) would not work properly when using a localizer. See
  • The static file serving machinery could not serve files that started with a . (dot) character.
  • Static files with high-order (super-ASCII) characters in their names could not be served by a static view. The static file serving machinery inappropriately URL-quoted path segments in filenames when asking for files from the filesystem.
  • Within pyramid.traversal.traversal_path , canonicalize URL segments from UTF-8 to Unicode before checking whether a segment matches literally one of ., the empty string, or .. in case there's some sneaky way someone might tunnel those strings via UTF-8 that don't match the literals before decoded.


  • Added a "What Makes Pyramid Unique" section to the Introduction narrative chapter.

1.2a6 (2011-09-06)

Bug Fixes


  • Internalize code previously depended upon as imports from the paste.auth module (futureproof).
  • Replaced use of paste.urlparser.StaticURLParser with a derivative of Chris Rossi's "happy" static file serving code (futureproof).
  • Fixed test suite; on some systems tests would fail due to indeterminate test run ordering and a double-push-single-pop of a shared test variable.

Behavior Differences

  • An ETag header is no longer set when serving a static file. A Last-Modified header is set instead.
  • Static file serving no longer supports the wsgi.file_wrapper extension.
  • Instead of returning a 403 Forbidden error when a static file is served that cannot be accessed by the Pyramid process' user due to file permissions, an IOError (or similar) will be raised.


  • All scaffolds now send the cache_max_age parameter to the add_static_view method.

1.2a5 (2011-09-04)

Bug Fixes


  • The zope.configuration package is no longer a dependency.

1.2a4 (2011-09-02)


  • Support an onerror keyword argument to pyramid.config.Configurator.scan(). This onerror keyword argument is passed to venusian.Scanner.scan() to influence error behavior when an exception is raised during scanning.
  • The request_method predicate argument to pyramid.config.Configurator.add_view and pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route is now permitted to be a tuple of HTTP method names. Previously it was restricted to being a string representing a single HTTP method name.
  • Undeprecated pyramid.traversal.find_model, pyramid.traversal.model_path, pyramid.traversal.model_path_tuple, and pyramid.url.model_url, which were all deprecated in Pyramid 1.0. There's just not much cost to keeping them around forever as aliases to their renamed resource_* prefixed functions.
  • Undeprecated pyramid.view.bfg_view, which was deprecated in Pyramid 1.0. This is a low-cost alias to pyramid.view.view_config which we'll just keep around forever.


  • Pyramid now requires Venusian 1.0a1 or better to support the onerror keyword argument to pyramid.config.Configurator.scan.

1.2a3 (2011-08-29)

Bug Fixes

  • Pyramid did not properly generate static URLs using pyramid.url.static_url when passed a caller-package relative path due to a refactoring done in 1.2a1.
  • The settings object emitted a deprecation warning any time __getattr__ was called upon it. However, there are legitimate situations in which __getattr__ is called on arbitrary objects (e.g. hasattr). Now, the settings object only emits the warning upon successful lookup.


  • Use config.with_package in view_config decorator rather than manufacturing a new renderer helper (cleanup).

1.2a2 (2011-08-27)

Bug Fixes

  • When a renderers= argument is not specified to the Configurator constructor, eagerly register and commit the default renderer set. This permits the overriding of the default renderers, which was broken in 1.2a1 without a commit directly after Configurator construction.
  • Mako rendering exceptions had the wrong value for an error message.
  • An include could not set a root factory successfully because the Configurator constructor unconditionally registered one that would be treated as if it were "the word of the user".


  • A session factory can now be passed in using the dotted name syntax.

1.2a1 (2011-08-24)


  • The [pshell] section in an ini configuration file now treats a setup key as a dotted name that points to a callable that is passed the bootstrap environment. It can mutate the environment as necessary for great justice.

  • A new configuration setting named pyramid.includes is now available. It is described in the "Environment Variables and .ini Files Settings" narrative documentation chapter.

  • Added a route_prefix argument to the pyramid.config.Configurator.include method. This argument allows you to compose URL dispatch applications together. See the section entitled "Using a Route Prefix to Compose Applications" in the "URL Dispatch" narrative documentation chapter.

  • Added a constant for use in permission= statements to view configuration. This constant has a value of the string __no_permission_required__. This string value was previously referred to in documentation; now the documentation uses the constant.

  • Added a decorator-based way to configure a response adapter: pyramid.response.response_adapter. This decorator has the same use as pyramid.config.Configurator.add_response_adapter but it's declarative.

  • The event now has an attribute named rendering_val. This can be used to introspect the value returned by a view in a BeforeRender subscriber.

  • New configurator directive: pyramid.config.Configurator.add_tween. This directive adds a "tween". A "tween" is used to wrap the Pyramid router's primary request handling function. This is a feature may be used by Pyramid framework extensions, to provide, for example, view timing support and as a convenient place to hang bookkeeping code.

    Tweens are further described in the narrative docs section in the Hooks chapter, named "Registering Tweens".

  • New paster command paster ptweens, which prints the current "tween" configuration for an application. See the section entitled "Displaying Tweens" in the Command-Line Pyramid chapter of the narrative documentation for more info.

  • The Pyramid debug logger now uses the standard logging configuration (usually set up by Paste as part of startup). This means that output from e.g. debug_notfound, debug_authorization, etc. will go to the normal logging channels. The logger name of the debug logger will be the package name of the caller of the Configurator's constructor.

  • A new attribute is available on request objects: exc_info. Its value will be None until an exception is caught by the Pyramid router, after which it will be the result of sys.exc_info().

  • pyramid.testing.DummyRequest now implements the add_finished_callback and add_response_callback methods.

  • New methods of the pyramid.config.Configurator class: set_authentication_policy and set_authorization_policy. These are meant to be consumed mostly by add-on authors.

  • New Configurator method: set_root_factory.

  • Pyramid no longer eagerly commits some default configuration statements at Configurator construction time, which permits values passed in as constructor arguments (e.g. authentication_policy and authorization_policy) to override the same settings obtained via an "include".

  • Better Mako rendering exceptions via pyramid.mako_templating.MakoRenderingException

  • New request methods: current_route_url, current_route_path, and static_path.

  • New functions in pyramid.url: current_route_path and static_path.

  • The pyramid.request.Request.static_url API (and its brethren pyramid.request.Request.static_path, pyramid.url.static_url, and pyramid.url.static_path) now accept an asbolute filename as a "path" argument. This will generate a URL to an asset as long as the filename is in a directory which was previously registered as a static view. Previously, trying to generate a URL to an asset using an absolute file path would raise a ValueError.

  • The RemoteUserAuthenticationPolicy ``, ``AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy, and SessionAuthenticationPolicy constructors now accept an additional keyword argument named debug. By default, this keyword argument is False. When it is True, debug information will be sent to the Pyramid debug logger (usually on stderr) when the authenticated_userid or effective_principals method is called on any of these policies. The output produced can be useful when trying to diagnose authentication-related problems.

  • New view predicate: match_param. Example: a view added via config.add_view(aview, match_param='action=edit') will be called only when the request.matchdict has a value inside it named action with a value of edit.


  • The Pyramid "exception view" machinery is now implemented as a "tween" (pyramid.tweens.excview_tween_factory).
  • WSGIHTTPException (HTTPFound, HTTPNotFound, etc) now has a new API named "prepare" which renders the body and content type when it is provided with a WSGI environ. Required for debug toolbar.
  • Once __call__ or prepare is called on a WSGIHTTPException, the body will be set, and subsequent calls to __call__ will always return the same body. Delete the body attribute to rerender the exception body.
  • Previously the event wrapped a dictionary (it addressed it as its _system attribute). Now it is a dictionary (it inherits from dict), and it's the value that is passed to templates as a top-level dictionary.
  • The route_url, route_path, resource_url, static_url, and current_route_url functions in the pyramid.url package now delegate to a method on the request they've been passed, instead of the other way around. The pyramid.request.Request object now inherits from a mixin named pyramid.url.URLMethodsMixin to make this possible, and all url/path generation logic is embedded in this mixin.
  • Refactor pyramid.config into a package.
  • Removed the _set_security_policies method of the Configurator.
  • Moved the StaticURLInfo class from pyramid.static to pyramid.config.views.
  • Move the Settings class from pyramid.settings to pyramid.config.settings.
  • Move the OverrideProvider, PackageOverrides, DirectoryOverride, and FileOverride classes from pyramid.asset to pyramid.config.assets.


  • All Pyramid-related deployment settings (e.g. debug_all, debug_notfound) are now meant to be prefixed with the prefix pyramid.. For example: debug_all -> pyramid.debug_all. The old non-prefixed settings will continue to work indefinitely but supplying them may eventually print a deprecation warning. All scaffolds and tutorials have been changed to use prefixed settings.
  • The settings dictionary now raises a deprecation warning when you attempt to access its values via __getattr__ instead of via __getitem__.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • If a string is passed as the debug_logger parameter to a Configurator, that string is considered to be the name of a global Python logger rather than a dotted name to an instance of a logger.

  • The pyramid.config.Configurator.include method now accepts only a single callable argument (a sequence of callables used to be permitted). If you are passing more than one callable to pyramid.config.Configurator.include, it will break. You now must now instead make a separate call to the method for each callable. This change was introduced to support the route_prefix feature of include.

  • It may be necessary to more strictly order configuration route and view statements when using an "autocommitting" Configurator. In the past, it was possible to add a view which named a route name before adding a route with that name when you used an autocommitting configurator. For example:

    config = Configurator(autocommit=True)
    config.add_view('my.pkg.someview', route_name='foo')
    config.add_route('foo', '/foo')

    The above will raise an exception when the view attempts to add itself. Now you must add the route before adding the view:

    config = Configurator(autocommit=True)
    config.add_route('foo', '/foo')
    config.add_view('my.pkg.someview', route_name='foo')

    This won't effect "normal" users, only people who have legacy BFG codebases that used an autommitting configurator and possibly tests that use the configurator API (the configurator returned by pyramid.testing.setUp is an autocommitting configurator). The right way to get around this is to use a non-autocommitting configurator (the default), which does not have these directive ordering requirements.

  • The pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route directive no longer returns a route object. This change was required to make route vs. view configuration processing work properly.


  • Narrative and API documentation which used the route_url, route_path, resource_url, static_url, and current_route_url functions in the pyramid.url package have now been changed to use eponymous methods of the request instead.
  • Added a section entitled "Using a Route Prefix to Compose Applications" to the "URL Dispatch" narrative documentation chapter.
  • Added a new module to the API docs: pyramid.tweens.
  • Added a "Registering Tweens" section to the "Hooks" narrative chapter.
  • Added a "Displaying Tweens" section to the "Command-Line Pyramid" narrative chapter.
  • Added documentation for the pyramid.tweens and pyramid.includes configuration settings to the "Environment Variables and .ini Files Settings" chapter.
  • Added a Logging chapter to the narrative docs (based on the Pylons logging docs, thanks Phil).
  • Added a Paste chapter to the narrative docs (moved content from the Project chapter).
  • Added the pyramid.interfaces.IDict interface representing the methods of a dictionary, for documentation purposes only (IMultiDict and IBeforeRender inherit from it).
  • All tutorials now use - The route_url, route_path, resource_url, static_url, and current_route_url methods of the request rather than the function variants imported from pyramid.url.
  • The ZODB wiki tutorial now uses the pyramid_zodbconn package rather than the repoze.zodbconn package to provide ZODB integration.

Dependency Changes

  • Pyramid now relies on PasteScript >= 1.7.4. This version contains a feature important for allowing flexible logging configuration.


  • All scaffolds now use the pyramid_tm package rather than the repoze.tm2 middleware to manage transaction management.
  • The ZODB scaffold now uses the pyramid_zodbconn package rather than the repoze.zodbconn package to provide ZODB integration.
  • All scaffolds now use the pyramid_debugtoolbar package rather than the WebError package to provide interactive debugging features.
  • Projects created via a scaffold no longer depend on the WebError package at all; configuration in the production.ini file which used to require its error_catcher middleware has been removed. Configuring error catching / email sending is now the domain of the pyramid_exclog package (see

Bug Fixes

1.1 (2011-07-22)


  • Added the pyramid.renderers.null_renderer object as an API. The null renderer is an object that can be used in advanced integration cases as input to the view configuration renderer= argument. When the null renderer is used as a view renderer argument, Pyramid avoids converting the view callable result into a Response object. This is useful if you want to reuse the view configuration and lookup machinery outside the context of its use by the Pyramid router. This feature was added for consumption by the pyramid_rpc package, which uses view configuration and lookup outside the context of a router in exactly this way. pyramid_rpc has been broken under 1.1 since 1.1b1; adding it allows us to make it work again.
  • Change all scaffolding templates that point to to use /projects/pyramid/current rather than /projects/pyramid/dev.


  • Remove compat code that served only the purpose of providing backwards compatibility with Python 2.4.
  • Add a deprecation warning for non-API function pyramid.renderers.renderer_from_name which has seen use in the wild.
  • Add a clone method to pyramid.renderers.RendererHelper for use by the pyramid.view.view_config decorator.


  • Fixed two typos in wiki2 (SQLA + URL Dispatch) tutorial.
  • Reordered chapters in narrative section for better new user friendliness.
  • Added more indexing markers to sections in documentation.

1.1b4 (2011-07-18)


  • Added a section entitled "Writing a Script" to the "Command-Line Pyramid" chapter.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • We added the pyramid.scripting.make_request API too hastily in 1.1b3. It has been removed. Sorry for any inconvenience. Use the pyramid.request.Request.blank API instead.


  • The paster pshell, paster pviews, and paster proutes commands each now under the hood uses pyramid.paster.bootstrap, which makes it possible to supply an .ini file without naming the "right" section in the file that points at the actual Pyramid application. Instead, you can generally just run paster {pshell|proutes|pviews} development.ini and it will do mostly the right thing.

Bug Fixes

  • Omit custom environ variables when rendering a custom exception template in pyramid.httpexceptions.WSGIHTTPException._set_default_attrs; stringifying thse may trigger code that should not be executed; see

1.1b3 (2011-07-15)


  • Fix corner case to ease semifunctional testing of views: create a new rendererinfo to clear out old registry on a rescan. See

  • New API class: pyramid.static.static_view. This supersedes the deprecated pyramid.view.static class. pyramid.static.static_view by default serves up documents as the result of the request's path_info, attribute rather than it's subpath attribute (the inverse was true of pyramid.view.static, and still is). pyramid.static.static_view exposes a use_subpath flag for use when you want the static view to behave like the older deprecated version.

  • A new API function pyramid.paster.bootstrap has been added to make writing scripts that bootstrap a Pyramid environment easier, e.g.:

    from pyramid.paster import bootstrap
    info = bootstrap('/path/to/my/development.ini')
    request = info['request']
    print request.route_url('myroute')
  • A new API function pyramid.scripting.prepare has been added. It is a lower-level analogue of pyramid.paster.boostrap that accepts a request and a registry instead of a config file argument, and is used for the same purpose:

    from pyramid.scripting import prepare
    info = prepare(registry=myregistry)
    request = info['request']
    print request.route_url('myroute')
  • A new API function pyramid.scripting.make_request has been added. The resulting request will have a registry attribute. It is meant to be used in conjunction with pyramid.scripting.prepare and/or pyramid.paster.bootstrap (both of which accept a request as an argument):

    from pyramid.scripting import make_request
    request = make_request('/')
  • New API attribute pyramid.config.global_registries is an iterable object that contains references to every Pyramid registry loaded into the current process via pyramid.config.Configurator.make_app. It also has a last attribute containing the last registry loaded. This is used by the scripting machinery, and is available for introspection.


  • The pyramid.view.static class has been deprecated in favor of the newer pyramid.static.static_view class. A deprecation warning is raised when it is used. You should replace it with a reference to pyramid.static.static_view with the use_subpath=True argument.

Bug Fixes

  • Without a mo-file loaded for the combination of domain/locale, pyramid.i18n.Localizer.pluralize run using that domain/locale combination raised an inscrutable "translations object has no attr 'plural'" error. Now, instead it "works" (it uses a germanic pluralization by default). It's nonsensical to try to pluralize something without translations for that locale/domain available, but this behavior matches the behavior of pyramid.i18n.Localizer.translate so it's at least consistent; see

1.1b2 (2011-07-13)


  • New environment setting PYRAMID_PREVENT_HTTP_CACHE and new configuration file value prevent_http_cache. These are synomymous and allow you to prevent HTTP cache headers from being set by Pyramid's http_cache machinery globally in a process. see the "Influencing HTTP Caching" section of the "View Configuration" narrative chapter and the detailed documentation for this setting in the "Environment Variables and Configuration Settings" narrative chapter.

Behavior Changes

  • Previously, If a BeforeRender event subscriber added a value via the __setitem__ or update methods of the event object with a key that already existed in the renderer globals dictionary, a KeyError was raised. With the deprecation of the "add_renderer_globals" feature of the configurator, there was no way to override an existing value in the renderer globals dictionary that already existed. Now, the event object will overwrite an older value that is already in the globals dictionary when its __setitem__ or update is called (as well as the new setdefault method), just like a plain old dictionary. As a result, for maximum interoperability with other third-party subscribers, if you write an event subscriber meant to be used as a BeforeRender subscriber, your subscriber code will now need to (using .get or __contains__ of the event object) ensure no value already exists in the renderer globals dictionary before setting an overriding value.

Bug Fixes

  • The Configurator.add_route method allowed two routes with the same route to be added without an intermediate config.commit(). If you now receive a ConfigurationError at startup time that appears to be add_route related, you'll need to either a) ensure that all of your route names are unique or b) call config.commit() before adding a second route with the name of a previously added name or c) use a Configurator that works in autocommit mode.
  • The pyramid_routesalchemy and pyramid_alchemy scaffolds inappropriately used DBSession.rollback() instead of transaction.abort() in one place.
  • We now clear request.response before we invoke an exception view; an exception view will be working with a request.response that has not been touched by any code prior to the exception.
  • Views associated with routes with spaces in the route name may not have been looked up correctly when using Pyramid with zope.interface 3.6.4 and better. See


  • Wiki2 (SQLAlchemy + URL Dispatch) tutorial models.initialize_sql didn't match the pyramid_routesalchemy scaffold function of the same name; it didn't get synchronized when it was changed in the scaffold.
  • New documentation section in View Configuration narrative chapter: "Influencing HTTP Caching".

1.1b1 (2011-07-10)


  • It is now possible to invoke paster pshell even if the paste ini file section name pointed to in its argument is not actually a Pyramid WSGI application. The shell will work in a degraded mode, and will warn the user. See "The Interactive Shell" in the "Creating a Pyramid Project" narrative documentation section.

  • paster pshell now offers more built-in global variables by default (including app and settings). See "The Interactive Shell" in the "Creating a Pyramid Project" narrative documentation section.

  • It is now possible to add a [pshell] section to your application's .ini configuration file, which influences the global names available to a pshell session. See "Extending the Shell" in the "Creating a Pyramid Project" narrative documentation chapter.

  • The config.scan method has grown a **kw argument. kw argument represents a set of keyword arguments to pass to the Venusian Scanner object created by Pyramid. (See the Venusian documentation for more information about Scanner).

  • New request property: json_body. This property will return the JSON-decoded variant of the request body. If the request body is not well-formed JSON, this property will raise an exception.

  • A new value http_cache can be used as a view configuration parameter.

    When you supply an http_cache value to a view configuration, the Expires and Cache-Control headers of a response generated by the associated view callable are modified. The value for http_cache may be one of the following:

    • A nonzero integer. If it's a nonzero integer, it's treated as a number of seconds. This number of seconds will be used to compute the Expires header and the Cache-Control: max-age parameter of responses to requests which call this view. For example: http_cache=3600 instructs the requesting browser to 'cache this response for an hour, please'.
    • A datetime.timedelta instance. If it's a datetime.timedelta instance, it will be converted into a number of seconds, and that number of seconds will be used to compute the Expires header and the Cache-Control: max-age parameter of responses to requests which call this view. For example: http_cache=datetime.timedelta(days=1) instructs the requesting browser to 'cache this response for a day, please'.
    • Zero (0). If the value is zero, the Cache-Control and Expires headers present in all responses from this view will be composed such that client browser cache (and any intermediate caches) are instructed to never cache the response.
    • A two-tuple. If it's a two tuple (e.g. http_cache=(1, {'public':True})), the first value in the tuple may be a nonzero integer or a datetime.timedelta instance; in either case this value will be used as the number of seconds to cache the response. The second value in the tuple must be a dictionary. The values present in the dictionary will be used as input to the Cache-Control response header. For example: http_cache=(3600, {'public':True}) means 'cache for an hour, and add public to the Cache-Control header of the response'. All keys and values supported by the webob.cachecontrol.CacheControl interface may be added to the dictionary. Supplying {'public':True} is equivalent to calling response.cache_control.public = True.

    Providing a non-tuple value as http_cache is equivalent to calling response.cache_expires(value) within your view's body.

    Providing a two-tuple value as http_cache is equivalent to calling response.cache_expires(value[0], **value[1]) within your view's body.

    If you wish to avoid influencing, the Expires header, and instead wish to only influence Cache-Control headers, pass a tuple as http_cache with the first element of None, e.g.: (None, {'public':True}).

Bug Fixes

  • Framework wrappers of the original view (such as http_cached and so on) relied on being able to trust that the response they were receiving was an IResponse. It wasn't always, because the response was resolved by the router instead of early in the view wrapping process. This has been fixed.


  • Added a section in the "Webob" chapter named "Dealing With A JSON-Encoded Request Body" (usage of request.json_body).

Behavior Changes

  • The paster pshell, paster proutes, and paster pviews commands now take a single argument in the form /path/to/config.ini#sectionname rather than the previous 2-argument spelling /path/to/config.ini sectionname. #sectionname may be omitted, in which case #main is assumed.

1.1a4 (2011-07-01)

Bug Fixes

  • pyramid.testing.DummyRequest now raises deprecation warnings when attributes deprecated for pyramid.request.Request are accessed (like response_content_type). This is for the benefit of folks running unit tests which use DummyRequest instead of a "real" request, so they know things are deprecated without necessarily needing a functional test suite.

  • The directive behaved contrary to the documentation when passed more than one interface object to its constructor. For example, when the following listener was registered:

    @subscriber(IFoo, IBar)
    def expects_ifoo_events_and_ibar_events(event):
        print event

    The Events chapter docs claimed that the listener would be registered and listening for both IFoo and IBar events. Instead, it registered an "object event" subscriber which would only be called if an IObjectEvent was emitted where the object interface was IFoo and the event interface was IBar.

    The behavior now matches the documentation. If you were relying on the buggy behavior of the 1.0 subscriber directive in order to register an object event subscriber, you must now pass a sequence to indicate you'd like to register a subscriber for an object event. e.g.:

    @subscriber([IFoo, IBar])
    def expects_object_event(object, event):
        print object, event


  • Add JSONP renderer (see "JSONP renderer" in the Renderers chapter of the documentation).


  • Deprecated the set_renderer_globals_factory method of the Configurator and the renderer_globals Configurator constructor parameter.


  • The Wiki and Wiki2 tutorial "Tests" chapters each had two bugs: neither did told the user to depend on WebTest, and 2 tests failed in each as the result of changes to Pyramid itself. These issues have been fixed.
  • Move 1.0.X CHANGES.txt entries to HISTORY.txt.

1.1a3 (2011-06-26)


Bug fixes

  • Pyramid would raise an AttributeError in the Configurator when attempting to set a __text__ attribute on a custom predicate that was actually a classmethod. See .
  • Accessing or setting deprecated response_* attrs on request (e.g. response_content_type) now issues a deprecation warning at access time rather than at rendering time.

1.1a2 (2011-06-22)

Bug Fixes

  • 1.1a1 broke Akhet by not providing a backwards compatibility import shim for pyramid.paster.PyramidTemplate. Now one has been added, although a deprecation warning is emitted when Akhet imports it.
  • If multiple specs were provided in a single call to config.add_translation_dirs, the directories were inserted into the beginning of the directory list in the wrong order: they were inserted in the reverse of the order they were provided in the *specs list (items later in the list were added before ones earlier in the list). This is now fixed.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The pyramid Router attempted to set a value into the key environ['repoze.bfg.message'] when it caught a view-related exception for backwards compatibility with applications written for repoze.bfg during error handling. It did this by using code that looked like so:

    # "why" is an exception object
        msg = why[0]
        msg = ''
    environ['repoze.bfg.message'] = msg

    Use of the value environ['repoze.bfg.message'] was docs-deprecated in Pyramid 1.0. Our standing policy is to not remove features after a deprecation for two full major releases, so this code was originally slated to be removed in Pyramid 1.2. However, computing the repoze.bfg.message value was the source of at least one bug found in the wild (, and there isn't a foolproof way to both preserve backwards compatibility and to fix the bug. Therefore, the code which sets the value has been removed in this release. Code in exception views which relies on this value's presence in the environment should now use the exception attribute of the request (e.g. request.exception[0]) to retrieve the message instead of relying on request.environ['repoze.bfg.message'].

1.1a1 (2011-06-20)


  • The term "template" used to refer to both "paster templates" and "rendered templates" (templates created by a rendering engine. i.e. Mako, Chameleon, Jinja, etc.). "Paster templates" will now be refered to as "scaffolds", whereas the name for "rendered templates" will remain as "templates."
  • The wiki (ZODB+Traversal) tutorial was updated slightly.
  • The wiki2 (SQLA+URL Dispatch) tutorial was updated slightly.
  • Make pyramid.interfaces.IAuthenticationPolicy and pyramid.interfaces.IAuthorizationPolicy public interfaces, and refer to them within the pyramid.authentication and pyramid.authorization API docs.
  • Render the function definitions for each exposed interface in pyramid.interfaces.
  • Add missing docs reference to pyramid.config.Configurator.set_view_mapper and refer to it within Hooks chapter section named "Using a View Mapper".
  • Added section to the "Environment Variables and .ini File Settings" chapter in the narrative documentation section entitled "Adding a Custom Setting".
  • Added documentation for a "multidict" (e.g. the API of request.POST) as interface API documentation.
  • Added a section to the "URL Dispatch" narrative chapter regarding the new "static" route feature.
  • Added "What's New in Pyramid 1.1" to HTML rendering of documentation.
  • Added API docs for pyramid.authentication.SessionAuthenticationPolicy.
  • Added API docs for pyramid.httpexceptions.exception_response.
  • Added "HTTP Exceptions" section to Views narrative chapter including a description of pyramid.httpexceptions.exception_response.


  • Add support for language fallbacks: when trying to translate for a specific territory (such as en_GB) fall back to translations for the language (ie en). This brings the translation behaviour in line with GNU gettext and fixes partially translated texts when using C extensions.

  • New authentication policy: pyramid.authentication.SessionAuthenticationPolicy, which uses a session to store credentials.

  • Accessing the response attribute of a pyramid.request.Request object (e.g. request.response within a view) now produces a new pyramid.response.Response object. This feature is meant to be used mainly when a view configured with a renderer needs to set response attributes: all renderers will use the Response object implied by request.response as the response object returned to the router.

    request.response can also be used by code in a view that does not use a renderer, however the response object that is produced by request.response must be returned when a renderer is not in play (it is not a "global" response).

  • Integers and longs passed as elements to pyramid.url.resource_url or pyramid.request.Request.resource_url e.g. resource_url(context, request, 1, 2) (1 and 2 are the elements) will now be converted implicitly to strings in the result. Previously passing integers or longs as elements would cause a TypeError.

  • pyramid_alchemy paster template now uses query.get rather than query.filter_by to take better advantage of identity map caching.

  • pyramid_alchemy paster template now has unit tests.

  • Added pyramid.i18n.make_localizer API (broken out from get_localizer guts).

  • An exception raised by a NewRequest event subscriber can now be caught by an exception view.

  • It is now possible to get information about why Pyramid raised a Forbidden exception from within an exception view. The ACLDenied object returned by the permits method of each stock authorization policy (pyramid.interfaces.IAuthorizationPolicy.permits) is now attached to the Forbidden exception as its result attribute. Therefore, if you've created a Forbidden exception view, you can see the ACE, ACL, permission, and principals involved in the request as eg. context.result.permission, context.result.acl, etc within the logic of the Forbidden exception view.

  • Don't explicitly prevent the timeout from being lower than the reissue_time when setting up an AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy (previously such a configuration would raise a ValueError, now it's allowed, although typically nonsensical). Allowing the nonsensical configuration made the code more understandable and required fewer tests.

  • A new paster command named paster pviews was added. This command prints a summary of potentially matching views for a given path. See the section entitled "Displaying Matching Views for a Given URL" in the "View Configuration" chapter of the narrative documentation for more information.

  • The add_route method of the Configurator now accepts a static argument. If this argument is True, the added route will never be considered for matching when a request is handled. Instead, it will only be useful for URL generation via route_url and route_path. See the section entitled "Static Routes" in the URL Dispatch narrative chapter for more information.

  • A default exception view for the context pyramid.interfaces.IExceptionResponse is now registered by default. This means that an instance of any exception response class imported from pyramid.httpexceptions (such as HTTPFound) can now be raised from within view code; when raised, this exception view will render the exception to a response.

  • A function named pyramid.httpexceptions.exception_response is a shortcut that can be used to create HTTP exception response objects using an HTTP integer status code.

  • The Configurator now accepts an additional keyword argument named exceptionresponse_view. By default, this argument is populated with a default exception view function that will be used when a response is raised as an exception. When None is passed for this value, an exception view for responses will not be registered. Passing None returns the behavior of raising an HTTP exception to that of Pyramid 1.0 (the exception will propagate to middleware and to the WSGI server).

  • The pyramid.request.Request class now has a ResponseClass interface which points at pyramid.response.Response.

  • The pyramid.response.Response class now has a RequestClass interface which points at pyramid.request.Request.

  • It is now possible to return an arbitrary object from a Pyramid view callable even if a renderer is not used, as long as a suitable adapter to pyramid.interfaces.IResponse is registered for the type of the returned object by using the new pyramid.config.Configurator.add_response_adapter API. See the section in the Hooks chapter of the documentation entitled "Changing How Pyramid Treats View Responses".

  • The Pyramid router will now, by default, call the __call__ method of WebOb response objects when returning a WSGI response. This means that, among other things, the conditional_response feature of WebOb response objects will now behave properly.

  • New method named pyramid.request.Request.is_response. This method should be used instead of the pyramid.view.is_response function, which has been deprecated.

Bug Fixes

  • URL pattern markers used in URL dispatch are permitted to specify a custom regex. For example, the pattern /{foo:\d+} means to match /12345 (foo==12345 in the match dictionary) but not /abc. However, custom regexes in a pattern marker which used squiggly brackets did not work. For example, /{foo:\d{4}} would fail to match /1234 and /{foo:\d{1,2}} would fail to match /1 or /11. One level of inner squiggly brackets is now recognized so that the prior two patterns given as examples now work. See also
  • Don't send port numbers along with domain information in cookies set by AuthTktCookieHelper (see
  • pyramid.url.route_path (and the shortcut pyramid.request.Request.route_url method) now include the WSGI SCRIPT_NAME at the front of the path if it is not empty (see
  • pyramid.testing.DummyRequest now has a script_name attribute (the empty string).
  • Don't quote :@&+$, symbols in *elements passed to pyramid.url.route_url or pyramid.url.resource_url (see
  • Include SCRIPT_NAME in redirects issued by pyramid.view.append_slash_notfound_view (see
  • Static views registered with config.add_static_view which also included a permission keyword argument would not work as expected, because add_static_view also registered a route factory internally. Because a route factory was registered internally, the context checked by the Pyramid permission machinery never had an ACL. add_static_view no longer registers a route with a factory, so the default root factory will be used.
  • config.add_static_view now passes extra keyword arguments it receives to config.add_route (calling add_static_view is mostly logically equivalent to adding a view of the type pyramid.static.static_view hooked up to a route with a subpath). This makes it possible to pass e.g., factory= to add_static_view to protect a particular static view with a custom ACL.
  • testing.DummyRequest used the wrong registry (the global registry) as self.registry if a dummy request was created before testing.setUp was executed (testing.setUp pushes a local registry onto the threadlocal stack). Fixed by implementing registry as a property for DummyRequest instead of eagerly assigning an attribute. See also
  • When visiting a URL that represented a static view which resolved to a subdirectory, the index.html of that subdirectory would not be served properly. Instead, a redirect to /subdir would be issued. This has been fixed, and now visiting a subdirectory that contains an index.html within a static view returns the index.html properly. See also
  • Redirects issued by a static view did not take into account any existing SCRIPT_NAME (such as one set by a url mapping composite). Now they do.
  • The pyramid.wsgi.wsgiapp2 decorator did not take into account the SCRIPT_NAME in the origin request.
  • The pyramid.wsgi.wsgiapp2 decorator effectively only worked when it decorated a view found via traversal; it ignored the PATH_INFO that was part of a url-dispatch-matched view.


  • Deprecated all assignments to request.response_* attributes (for example request.response_content_type = 'foo' is now deprecated). Assignments and mutations of assignable request attributes that were considered by the framework for response influence are now deprecated: response_content_type, response_headerlist, response_status, response_charset, and response_cache_for. Instead of assigning these to the request object for later detection by the rendering machinery, users should use the appropriate API of the Response object created by accessing request.response (e.g. code which does request.response_content_type = 'abc' should be changed to request.response.content_type = 'abc').

  • Passing view-related parameters to pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route is now deprecated. Previously, a view was permitted to be connected to a route using a set of view* parameters passed to the add_route method of the Configurator. This was a shorthand which replaced the need to perform a subsequent call to add_view. For example, it was valid (and often recommended) to do:

    config.add_route('home', '/', view='mypackage.views.myview',

    Passing view* arguments to add_route is now deprecated in favor of connecting a view to a predefined route via Configurator.add_view using the route's route_name parameter. As a result, the above example should now be spelled:

    config.add_route('home', '/')
    config.add_view('mypackage.views.myview', route_name='home')

    This deprecation was done to reduce confusion observed in IRC, as well as to (eventually) reduce documentation burden (see also A deprecation warning is now issued when any view-related parameter is passed to Configurator.add_route.

  • Passing an environ dictionary to the __call__ method of a "traverser" (e.g. an object that implements pyramid.interfaces.ITraverser such as an instance of pyramid.traversal.ResourceTreeTraverser) as its request argument now causes a deprecation warning to be emitted. Consumer code should pass a request object instead. The fact that passing an environ dict is permitted has been documentation-deprecated since repoze.bfg 1.1, and this capability will be removed entirely in a future version.

  • The following (undocumented, dictionary-like) methods of the pyramid.request.Request object have been deprecated: __contains__, __delitem__, __getitem__, __iter__, __setitem__, get, has_key, items, iteritems, itervalues, keys, pop, popitem, setdefault, update, and values. Usage of any of these methods will cause a deprecation warning to be emitted. These methods were added for internal compatibility in repoze.bfg 1.1 (code that currently expects a request object expected an environ object in BFG 1.0 and before). In a future version, these methods will be removed entirely.

  • Deprecated pyramid.view.is_response function in favor of (newly-added) pyramid.request.Request.is_response method. Determining if an object is truly a valid response object now requires access to the registry, which is only easily available as a request attribute. The pyramid.view.is_response function will still work until it is removed, but now may return an incorrect answer under some (very uncommon) circumstances.

Behavior Changes

  • The default Mako renderer is now configured to escape all HTML in expression tags. This is intended to help prevent XSS attacks caused by rendering unsanitized input from users. To revert this behavior in user's templates, they need to filter the expression through the 'n' filter. For example, ${ myhtml | n }. See
  • A custom request factory is now required to return a request object that has a response attribute (or "reified"/lazy property) if they the request is meant to be used in a view that uses a renderer. This response attribute should be an instance of the class pyramid.response.Response.
  • The JSON and string renderer factories now assign to request.response.content_type rather than request.response_content_type.
  • Each built-in renderer factory now determines whether it should change the content type of the response by comparing the response's content type against the response's default content type; if the content type is the default content type (usually text/html), the renderer changes the content type (to application/json or text/plain for JSON and string renderers respectively).
  • The pyramid.wsgi.wsgiapp2 now uses a slightly different method of figuring out how to "fix" SCRIPT_NAME and PATH_INFO for the downstream application. As a result, those values may differ slightly from the perspective of the downstream application (for example, SCRIPT_NAME will now never possess a trailing slash).
  • Previously, pyramid.request.Request inherited from webob.request.Request and implemented __getattr__, __setattr__ and __delattr__ itself in order to overidde "adhoc attr" WebOb behavior where attributes of the request are stored in the environ. Now, pyramid.request.Request object inherits from (the more recent) webob.request.BaseRequest instead of webob.request.Request, which provides the same behavior. pyramid.request.Request no longer implements its own __getattr__, __setattr__ or __delattr__ as a result.
  • pyramid.response.Response is now a subclass of webob.response.Response (in order to directly implement the pyramid.interfaces.IResponse interface).
  • The "exception response" objects importable from pyramid.httpexceptions (e.g. HTTPNotFound) are no longer just import aliases for classes that actually live in webob.exc. Instead, we've defined our own exception classes within the module that mirror and emulate the webob.exc exception response objects almost entirely. See the "Design Defense" doc section named "Pyramid Uses its Own HTTP Exception Classes" for more information.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • Pyramid no longer supports Python 2.4. Python 2.5 or better is required to run Pyramid 1.1+.
  • The Pyramid router now, by default, expects response objects returned from view callables to implement the pyramid.interfaces.IResponse interface. Unlike the Pyramid 1.0 version of this interface, objects which implement IResponse now must define a __call__ method that accepts environ and start_response, and which returns an app_iter iterable, among other things. Previously, it was possible to return any object which had the three WebOb app_iter, headerlist, and status attributes as a response, so this is a backwards incompatibility. It is possible to get backwards compatibility back by registering an adapter to IResponse from the type of object you're now returning from view callables. See the section in the Hooks chapter of the documentation entitled "Changing How Pyramid Treats View Responses".
  • The pyramid.interfaces.IResponse interface is now much more extensive. Previously it defined only app_iter, status and headerlist; now it is basically intended to directly mirror the webob.Response API, which has many methods and attributes.
  • The pyramid.httpexceptions classes named HTTPFound, HTTPMultipleChoices, HTTPMovedPermanently, HTTPSeeOther, HTTPUseProxy, and HTTPTemporaryRedirect now accept location as their first positional argument rather than detail. This means that you can do, e.g. return pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPFound('http://foo') rather than return pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPFound(location='http//foo') (the latter will of course continue to work).


  • Pyramid now depends on WebOb >= 1.0.2 as tests depend on the bugfix in that release: "Fix handling of WSGI environs with missing SCRIPT_NAME". (Note that in reality, everyone should probably be using 1.0.4 or better though, as WebOb 1.0.2 and 1.0.3 were effectively brownbag releases.)

1.0 (2011-01-30)


  • Fixed bug in ZODB Wiki tutorial (missing dependency on docutils in "models" step within
  • Removed API documentation for pyramid.testing APIs named registerDummySecurityPolicy, registerResources, registerModels, registerEventListener, registerTemplateRenderer, registerDummyRenderer, registerView, registerUtility, registerAdapter, registerSubscriber, registerRoute, and registerSettings.
  • Moved "Using ZODB With ZEO" and "Using repoze.catalog Within Pyramid" tutorials out of core documentation and into the Pyramid Tutorials site (
  • Changed "Cleaning up After a Request" section in the URL Dispatch chapter to use request.add_finished_callback instead of jamming an object with a __del__ into the WSGI environment.
  • Remove duplication of add_route API documentation from URL Dispatch narrative chapter.
  • Remove duplication of API and narrative documentation in pyramid.view.view_config API docs by pointing to pyramid.config.add_view documentation and narrative chapter documentation.
  • Removed some API documentation duplicated in narrative portions of documentation
  • Removed "Overall Flow of Authentication" from SQLAlchemy + URL Dispatch wiki tutorial due to print space concerns (moved to Pyramid Tutorials site).

Bug Fixes

  • Deprecated-since-BFG-1.2 APIs from pyramid.testing now properly emit deprecation warnings.
  • Added egg:repoze.retry#retry middleware to the WSGI pipeline in ZODB templates (retry ZODB conflict errors which occur in normal operations).
  • Removed duplicate implementations of is_response. Two competing implementations existed: one in pyramid.config and one in pyramid.view. Now the one defined in pyramid.view is used internally by pyramid.config and continues to be advertised as an API.

1.0b3 (2011-01-28)

Bug Fixes

  • Use &copy; instead of copyright symbol in paster templates / tutorial templates for the benefit of folks who cutnpaste and save to a non-UTF8 format.
  • pyramid.view.append_slash_notfound_view now preserves GET query parameters across redirects.


  • Beef up documentation related to set_default_permission: explicitly mention that default permissions also protect exception views.
  • Paster templates and tutorials now use spaces instead of tabs in their HTML templates.

1.0b2 (2011-01-24)

Bug Fixes

  • The production.ini generated by all paster templates now have an effective logging level of WARN, which prevents e.g. SQLAlchemy statement logging and other inappropriate output.
  • The production.ini of the pyramid_routesalchemy and pyramid_alchemy paster templates did not have a sqlalchemy logger section, preventing paster serve production.ini from working.
  • The pyramid_routesalchemy and pyramid_alchemy paster templates used the {{package}} variable in a place where it should have used the {{project}} variable, causing applications created with uppercase letters e.g. paster create -t pyramid_routesalchemy Dibbus to fail to start when paster serve development.ini was used against the result. See
  • The render_view method of pyramid.renderers.RendererHelper passed an incorrect value into the renderer for renderer_info. It now passes an instance of RendererHelper instead of a dictionary, which is consistent with other usages. See
  • A bug existed in the pyramid.authentication.AuthTktCookieHelper which would break any usage of an AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy when one was configured to reissue its tokens (reissue_time < timeout / max_age). Symptom: ValueError: ('Invalid token %r', ''). See

1.0b1 (2011-01-21)


  • The AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy now accepts a tokens parameter via The value must be a sequence of strings. Tokens are placed into the auth_tkt "tokens" field and returned in the auth_tkt cookie.
  • Add wild_domain argument to AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy, which defaults to True. If it is set to False, the feature of the policy which sets a cookie with a wildcard domain will be turned off.
  • Add a file to each paster template. See

Bug Fixes

  • testing.setUp now adds a settings attribute to the registry (both when it's passed a registry without any settings and when it creates one).
  • The testing.setUp function now takes a settings argument, which should be a dictionary. Its values will subsequently be available on the returned config object as config.registry.settings.


  • Added "What's New in Pyramid 1.0" chapter to HTML rendering of documentation.
  • Merged caseman-master narrative editing branch, many wording fixes and extensions.
  • Fix deprecated example showing chameleon_zpt API call in testing narrative chapter.
  • Added "Adding Methods to the Configurator via add_directive" section to Advanced Configuration narrative chapter.
  • Add docs for add_finished_callback, add_response_callback, route_path, route_url, and static_url methods to pyramid.request.Request API docs.
  • Add (minimal) documentation about using I18N within Mako templates to "Internationalization and Localization" narrative chapter.
  • Move content of "Forms" chapter back to "Views" chapter; I can't think of a better place to put it.
  • Slightly improved interface docs for IAuthorizationPolicy.
  • Minimally explain usage of custom regular expressions in URL dispatch replacement markers within URL Dispatch chapter.


  • Using the pyramid.view.bfg_view alias for pyramid.view.view_config (a backwards compatibility shim) now issues a deprecation warning.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • Using testing.setUp now registers an ISettings utility as a side effect. Some test code which queries for this utility after testing.setUp via queryAdapter will expect a return value of None. This code will need to be changed.
  • When a pyramid.exceptions.Forbidden error is raised, its status code now 403 Forbidden. It was previously 401 Unauthorized, for backwards compatibility purposes with repoze.bfg. This change will cause problems for users of Pyramid with repoze.who, which intercepts 401 Unauthorized by default, but allows 403 Forbidden to pass through. Those deployments will need to configure repoze.who to also react to 403 Forbidden.
  • The default value for the cookie_on_exception parameter to pyramid.session.UnencyrptedCookieSessionFactory is now True. This means that when view code causes an exception to be raised, and the session has been mutated, a cookie will be sent back in the response. Previously its default value was False.

Paster Templates

  • The pyramid_zodb, pyramid_routesalchemy and pyramid_alchemy paster templates now use a default "commit veto" hook when configuring the repoze.tm2 transaction manager in development.ini. This prevents a transaction from being committed when the response status code is within the 400 or 500 ranges. See also

1.0a10 (2011-01-18)

Bug Fixes

  • URL dispatch now properly handles a .* or * appearing in a regex match when used inside brackets. Resolves issue #90.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The add_handler method of a Configurator has been removed from the Pyramid core. Handlers are now a feature of the pyramid_handlers package, which can be downloaded from PyPI. Documentation for the package should be available via, which describes how to add a configuration statement to your main block to reobtain this method. You will also need to add an install_requires dependency upon pyramid_handlers to your file.
  • The load_zcml method of a Configurator has been removed from the Pyramid core. Loading ZCML is now a feature of the pyramid_zcml package, which can be downloaded from PyPI. Documentation for the package should be available via, which describes how to add a configuration statement to your main block to reobtain this method. You will also need to add an install_requires dependency upon pyramid_zcml to your file.
  • The pyramid.includes subpackage has been removed. ZCML files which use include the package pyramid.includes (e.g. <include package="pyramid.includes"/>) now must include the pyramid_zcml package instead (e.g. <include package="pyramid_zcml"/>).
  • The pyramid.view.action decorator has been removed from the Pyramid core. Handlers are now a feature of the pyramid_handlers package. It should now be imported from pyramid_handlers e.g. from pyramid_handlers import action.
  • The handler ZCML directive has been removed. It is now a feature of the pyramid_handlers package.
  • The pylons_minimal, pylons_basic and pylons_sqla paster templates were removed. Use pyramid_sqla (available from PyPI) as a generic replacement for Pylons-esque development.
  • The make_app function has been removed from the pyramid.router module. It continues life within the pyramid_zcml package. This leaves the pyramid.router module without any API functions.
  • The configure_zcml setting within the deployment settings (within **settings passed to a Pyramid main function) has ceased to have any meaning.


  • pyramid.testing.setUp and pyramid.testing.tearDown have been undeprecated. They are now the canonical setup and teardown APIs for test configuration, replacing "direct" creation of a Configurator. This is a change designed to provide a facade that will protect against any future Configurator deprecations.
  • Add charset attribute to pyramid.testing.DummyRequest (unconditionally UTF-8).
  • Add add_directive method to configurator, which allows framework extenders to add methods to the configurator (ala ZCML directives).
  • When Configurator.include is passed a module as an argument, it defaults to attempting to find and use a callable named includeme within that module. This makes it possible to use config.include('some.module') rather than config.include('some.module.somefunc') as long as the include function within some.module is named includeme.
  • The bfg2pyramid script now converts ZCML include tags that have repoze.bfg.includes as a package attribute to the value pyramid_zcml. For example, <include package="repoze.bfg.includes"> will be converted to <include package="pyramid_zcml">.

Paster Templates

  • All paster templates now use pyramid.testing.setUp and pyramid.testing.tearDown rather than creating a Configurator "by hand" within their module, as per decision in features above.
  • The starter_zcml paster template has been moved to the pyramid_zcml package.


  • The wiki and wiki2 tutorials now use pyramid.testing.setUp and pyramid.testing.tearDown rather than creating a Configurator "by hand", as per decision in features above.
  • The "Testing" narrative chapter now explains pyramid.testing.setUp and pyramid.testing.tearDown instead of Configurator creation and Configurator.begin() and Configurator.end().
  • Document the request.override_renderer attribute within the narrative "Renderers" chapter in a section named "Overriding A Renderer at Runtime".
  • The "Declarative Configuration" narrative chapter has been removed (it was moved to the pyramid_zcml package).
  • Most references to ZCML in narrative chapters have been removed or redirected to pyramid_zcml locations.


  • Deprecation warnings related to import of the following API functions were added: pyramid.traversal.find_model, pyramid.traversal.model_path, pyramid.traversal.model_path_tuple, pyramid.url.model_url. The instructions emitted by the deprecation warnings instruct the developer to change these method spellings to their resource equivalents. This is a consequence of the mass concept rename of "model" to "resource" performed in 1.0a7.

1.0a9 (2011-01-08)

Bug Fixes

  • The proutes command tried too hard to resolve the view for printing, resulting in exceptions when an exceptional root factory was encountered. Instead of trying to resolve the view, if it cannot, it will now just print <unknown>.
  • The self argument was included in new methods of the ISession interface signature, causing pyramid_beaker tests to fail.
  • Readd pyramid.traversal.model_path_tuple as an alias for pyramid.traversal.resource_path_tuple for backwards compatibility.


  • Add a new API pyramid.url.current_route_url, which computes a URL based on the "current" route (if any) and its matchdict values.
  • config.add_view now accepts a decorator keyword argument, a callable which will decorate the view callable before it is added to the registry.
  • If a handler class provides an __action_decorator__ attribute (usually a classmethod or staticmethod), use that as the decorator for each view registration for that handler.
  • The pyramid.interfaces.IAuthenticationPolicy interface now specifies an unauthenticated_userid method. This method supports an important optimization required by people who are using persistent storages which do not support object caching and whom want to create a "user object" as a request attribute.
  • A new API has been added to the module named unauthenticated_userid. This API function calls the unauthenticated_userid method of the effective security policy.
  • An unauthenticated_userid method has been added to the dummy authentication policy returned by pyramid.config.Configurator.testing_securitypolicy. It returns the same thing as that the dummy authentication policy's authenticated_userid method.
  • The class pyramid.authentication.AuthTktCookieHelper is now an API. This class can be used by third-party authentication policy developers to help in the mechanics of authentication cookie-setting.
  • New constructor argument to Configurator: default_view_mapper. Useful to create systems that have alternate view calling conventions. A view mapper allows objects that are meant to be used as view callables to have an arbitrary argument list and an arbitrary result. The object passed as default_view_mapper should implement the pyramid.interfaces.IViewMapperFactory interface.
  • add a set_view_mapper API to Configurator. Has the same result as passing default_view_mapper to the Configurator constructor.
  • config.add_view now accepts a mapper keyword argument, which should either be None, a string representing a Python dotted name, or an object which is an IViewMapperFactory. This feature is not useful for "civilians", only for extension writers.
  • Allow static renderer provided during view registration to be overridden at request time via a request attribute named override_renderer, which should be the name of a previously registered renderer. Useful to provide "omnipresent" RPC using existing rendered views.
  • Instances of pyramid.testing.DummyRequest now have a session object, which is mostly a dictionary, but also implements the other session API methods for flash and CSRF.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • Since the pyramid.interfaces.IAuthenticationPolicy interface now specifies that a policy implementation must implement an unauthenticated_userid method, all third-party custom authentication policies now must implement this method. It, however, will only be called when the global function named is invoked, so if you're not invoking that, you will not notice any issues.
  • pyramid.interfaces.ISession.get_csrf_token now mandates that an implementation should return a new token if one doesn't already exist in the session (previously it would return None). The internal sessioning implementation has been changed.


  • The (weak) "Converting a CMF Application to Pyramid" tutorial has been removed from the tutorials section. It was moved to the pyramid_tutorials Github repository.
  • The "Resource Location and View Lookup" chapter has been replaced with a variant of Rob Miller's "Much Ado About Traversal" (originally published at
  • Many minor wording tweaks and refactorings (merged Casey Duncan's docs fork, in which he is working on general editing).
  • Added (weak) description of new view mapper feature to Hooks narrative chapter.
  • Split views chapter into 2: View Callables and View Configuration.
  • Reorder Renderers and Templates chapters after View Callables but before View Configuration.
  • Merge Session Objects, Cross-Site Request Forgery, and Flash Messaging chapter into a single Sessions chapter.
  • The Wiki and Wiki2 tutorials now have much nicer CSS and graphics.


  • The "view derivation" code is now factored into a set of classes rather than a large number of standalone functions (a side effect of the view mapper refactoring).
  • The pyramid.renderer.RendererHelper class has grown a render_view method, which is used by the default view mapper (a side effect of the view mapper refactoring).
  • The object passed as renderer to the "view deriver" is now an instance of pyramid.renderers.RendererHelper rather than a dictionary (a side effect of view mapper refactoring).
  • The class used as the "page template" in pyramid.chameleon_text was removed, in preference to using a Chameleon-inbuilt version.
  • A view callable wrapper registered in the registry now contains an __original_view__ attribute which references the original view callable (or class).
  • The (non-API) method of all internal authentication policy implementations previously named _get_userid is now named unauthenticated_userid, promoted to an API method. If you were overriding this method, you'll now need to override it as unauthenticated_userid instead.
  • Remove (non-API) function of named _map_view.

1.0a8 (2010-12-27)

Bug Fixes

  • The name registry was not available in the paster pshell environment under IPython.


  • If a resource implements a __resource_url__ method, it will be called as the result of invoking the pyramid.url.resource_url function to generate a URL, overriding the default logic. See the new "Generating The URL Of A Resource" section within the Resources narrative chapter.
  • Added flash messaging, as described in the "Flash Messaging" narrative documentation chapter.
  • Added CSRF token generation, as described in the narrative chapter entitled "Preventing Cross-Site Request Forgery Attacks".
  • Prevent misunderstanding of how the view and view_permission arguments to add_route work by raising an exception during configuration if view-related arguments exist but no view argument is passed.
  • Add paster proute command which displays a summary of the routing table. See the narrative documentation section within the "URL Dispatch" chapter entitled "Displaying All Application Routes".

Paster Templates

  • The pyramid_zodb Paster template no longer employs ZCML. Instead, it is based on scanning.


  • Added "Generating The URL Of A Resource" section to the Resources narrative chapter (includes information about overriding URL generation using __resource_url__).
  • Added "Generating the Path To a Resource" section to the Resources narrative chapter.
  • Added "Finding a Resource by Path" section to the Resources narrative chapter.
  • Added "Obtaining the Lineage of a Resource" to the Resources narrative chapter.
  • Added "Determining if a Resource is In The Lineage of Another Resource" to Resources narrative chapter.
  • Added "Finding the Root Resource" to Resources narrative chapter.
  • Added "Finding a Resource With a Class or Interface in Lineage" to Resources narrative chapter.
  • Added a "Flash Messaging" narrative documentation chapter.
  • Added a narrative chapter entitled "Preventing Cross-Site Request Forgery Attacks".
  • Changed the "ZODB + Traversal Wiki Tutorial" based on changes to pyramid_zodb Paster template.
  • Added "Advanced Configuration" narrative chapter which documents how to deal with configuration conflicts, two-phase configuration, include and commit.
  • Fix API documentation rendering for pyramid.view.static
  • Add "Pyramid Provides More Than One Way to Do It" to Design Defense documentation.
  • Changed "Static Assets" narrative chapter: clarify that name represents a prefix unless it's a URL, added an example of a root-relative static view fallback for URL dispatch, added an example of creating a simple view that returns the body of a file.
  • Move ZCML usage in Hooks chapter to Declarative Configuration chapter.
  • Merge "Static Assets" chapter into the "Assets" chapter.
  • Added narrative documentation section within the "URL Dispatch" chapter entitled "Displaying All Application Routes" (for paster proutes command).

1.0a7 (2010-12-20)

Terminology Changes

  • The Pyramid concept previously known as "model" is now known as "resource". As a result:

    • The following API changes have been made:

      pyramid.url.model_url ->
      pyramid.traversal.find_model ->
      pyramid.traversal.model_path ->
      pyramid.traversal.model_path_tuple ->
      pyramid.traversal.ModelGraphTraverser ->
      pyramid.config.Configurator.testing_models ->
      pyramid.testing.registerModels ->
      pyramid.testing.DummyModel ->
    • All documentation which previously referred to "model" now refers to "resource".
    • The starter and starter_zcml paster templates now have a module instead of a module.
    • Positional argument names of various APIs have been changed from model to resource.

    Backwards compatibility shims have been left in place in all cases. They will continue to work "forever".

  • The Pyramid concept previously known as "resource" is now known as "asset". As a result:

    • The (non-API) module previously known as pyramid.resource is now known as pyramid.asset.

    • All docs that previously referred to "resource specification" now refer to "asset specification".

    • The following API changes were made:

      pyramid.config.Configurator.absolute_resource_spec ->
      pyramid.config.Configurator.override_resource ->
    • The ZCML directive previously known as resource is now known as asset.

    • The setting previously known as BFG_RELOAD_RESOURCES (envvar) or reload_resources (config file) is now known, respectively, as PYRAMID_RELOAD_ASSETS and reload_assets.

    Backwards compatibility shims have been left in place in all cases. They will continue to work "forever".

Bug Fixes

  • Make it possible to succesfully run all tests via nosetests command directly (rather than indirectly via python nosetests).
  • When a configuration conflict is encountered during scanning, the conflict exception now shows the decorator information that caused the conflict.


  • Added debug_routematch configuration setting that logs matched routes (including the matchdict and predicates).
  • The name registry is now available in a pshell environment by default. It is the application registry object.


  • All environment variables which used to be prefixed with BFG_ are now prefixed with PYRAMID_ (e.g. BFG_DEBUG_NOTFOUND is now PYRAMID_DEBUG_NOTFOUND)


  • Added "Debugging Route Matching" section to the urldispatch narrative documentation chapter.
  • Added reference to PYRAMID_DEBUG_ROUTEMATCH envvar and debug_routematch config file setting to the Environment narrative docs chapter.
  • Changed "Project" chapter slightly to expand on use of paster pshell.
  • Direct Jython users to Mako rather than Jinja2 in "Install" narrative chapter.
  • Many changes to support terminological renaming of "model" to "resource" and "resource" to "asset".
  • Added an example of WebTest functional testing to the testing narrative chapter.
  • Rearranged chapter ordering by popular demand (URL dispatch first, then traversal). Put hybrid chapter after views chapter.
  • Split off "Renderers" as its own chapter from "Views" chapter in narrative documentation.

Paster Templates

  • Added debug_routematch = false to all paster templates.


  • Depend on Venusian >= 0.5 (for scanning conflict exception decoration).

1.0a6 (2010-12-15)

Bug Fixes

  • 1.0a5 introduced a bug when pyramid.config.Configurator.scan was used without a package argument (e.g. config.scan() as opposed to config.scan('packagename'). The symptoms were: lots of deprecation warnings printed to the console about imports of deprecated Pyramid functions and classes and non-detection of view callables decorated with view_config decorators. This has been fixed.
  • Tests now pass on Windows (no bugs found, but a few tests in the test suite assumed UNIX path segments in filenames).


  • If you followed it to-the-letter, the ZODB+Traversal Wiki tutorial would instruct you to run a test which would fail because the view callable generated by the pyramid_zodb tutorial used a one-arg view callable, but the test in the sample code used a two-arg call.
  • Updated ZODB+Traversal tutorial of all steps to match what's generated by pyramid_zodb.
  • Fix reference to repoze.bfg.traversalwrapper in "Models" chapter (point at pyramid_traversalwrapper instead).

1.0a5 (2010-12-14)


  • Add a handler ZCML directive. This directive does the same thing as pyramid.configuration.add_handler.
  • A new module named pyramid.config was added. It subsumes the duties of the older pyramid.configuration module.
  • The new pyramid.config.Configurator` class has API methods that the older ``pyramid.configuration.Configurator class did not: with_context (a classmethod), include, action, and commit. These methods exist for imperative application extensibility purposes.
  • The pyramid.testing.setUp function now accepts an autocommit keyword argument, which defaults to True. If it is passed False, the Config object returned by setUp will be a non-autocommiting Config object.
  • Add logging configuration to all paster templates.
  • pyramid_alchemy, pyramid_routesalchemy, and pylons_sqla paster templates now use idiomatic SQLAlchemy configuration in their respective .ini files and Python code.
  • pyramid.testing.DummyRequest now has a class variable, query_string, which defaults to the empty string.
  • Add support for json on GAE by catching NotImplementedError and importing simplejson from django.utils.
  • The Mako renderer now accepts a resource specification for mako.module_directory.
  • New boolean Mako settings variable mako.strict_undefined. See Mako Context Variables for its meaning.


  • Depend on Mako 0.3.6+ (we now require the strict_undefined feature).

Bug Fixes

  • When creating a Configurator from within a paster pshell session, you were required to pass a package argument although package is not actually required. If you didn't pass package, you would receive an error something like KeyError: '__name__' emanating from the pyramid.path.caller_module function. This has now been fixed.
  • The pyramid_routesalchemy paster template's unit tests failed (AssertionError: 'SomeProject' != 'someproject'). This is fixed.
  • Make default renderer work (renderer factory registered with no name, which is active for every view unless the view names a specific renderer).
  • The Mako renderer did not properly turn the mako.imports, mako.default_filters, and mako.imports settings into lists.
  • The Mako renderer did not properly convert the mako.error_handler setting from a dotted name to a callable.


  • Merged many wording, readability, and correctness changes to narrative documentation chapters from (up to and including "Models" narrative chapter).
  • "Sample Applications" section of docs changed to note existence of Cluegun, Shootout and Virginia sample applications, ported from their repoze.bfg origin packages.
  • SQLAlchemy+URLDispatch tutorial updated to integrate changes to pyramid_routesalchemy template.
  • Add pyramid.interfaces.ITemplateRenderer interface to Interfaces API chapter (has implementation() method, required to be used when getting at Chameleon macros).
  • Add a "Modifying Package Structure" section to the project narrative documentation chapter (explain turning a module into a package).
  • Documentation was added for the new handler ZCML directive in the ZCML section.


  • pyramid.configuration.Configurator is now deprecated. Use pyramid.config.Configurator, passing its constructor autocommit=True instead. The pyramid.configuration.Configurator alias will live for a long time, as every application uses it, but its import now issues a deprecation warning. The pyramid.config.Configurator class has the same API as pyramid.configuration.Configurator class, which it means to replace, except by default it is a non-autocommitting configurator. The now-deprecated pyramid.configuration.Configurator will autocommit every time a configuration method is called.

    The pyramid.configuration module remains, but it is deprecated. Use pyramid.config instead.

1.0a4 (2010-11-21)


  • URL Dispatch now allows for replacement markers to be located anywhere in the pattern, instead of immediately following a /.
  • URL Dispatch now uses the form {marker} to denote a replace marker in the route pattern instead of :marker. The old colon-style marker syntax is still accepted for backwards compatibility. The new format allows a regular expression for that marker location to be used instead of the default [^/]+, for example {marker:\d+} is now valid to require the marker to be digits.
  • Add a pyramid.url.route_path API, allowing folks to generate relative URLs. Calling route_path is the same as calling pyramid.url.route_url with the argument _app_url equal to the empty string.
  • Add a pyramid.request.Request.route_path API. This is a convenience method of the request which calls pyramid.url.route_url.
  • Make test suite pass on Jython (requires PasteScript trunk, presumably to be 1.7.4).
  • Make test suite pass on PyPy (Chameleon doesn't work).
  • Surrounding application configuration with config.begin() and config.end() is no longer necessary. All paster templates have been changed to no longer call these functions.
  • Fix configurator to not convert ImportError to ConfigurationError if the import that failed was unrelated to the import requested via a dotted name when resolving dotted names (such as view dotted names).


  • SQLAlchemy+URLDispatch and ZODB+Traversal tutorials have been updated to not call config.begin() or config.end().

Bug Fixes

  • Add deprecation warnings to import of pyramid.chameleon_text and pyramid.chameleon_zpt of get_renderer, get_template, render_template, and render_template_to_response.
  • Add deprecation warning for import of pyramid.zcml.zcml_configure and pyramid.zcml.file_configure.
  • The pyramid_alchemy paster template had a typo, preventing an import from working.
  • Fix apparent failures when calling pyramid.traversal.find_model(root, path) or pyramid.traversal.traverse(path) when path is (erroneously) a Unicode object. The user is meant to pass these APIs a string object, never a Unicode object. In practice, however, users indeed pass Unicode. Because the string that is passed must be ASCII encodeable, now, if they pass a Unicode object, its data is eagerly converted to an ASCII string rather than being passed along to downstream code as a convenience to the user and to prevent puzzling second-order failures from cropping up (all failures will occur within pyramid.traversal.traverse rather than later down the line as the result of calling e.g. traversal_path).

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The pyramid.testing.zcml_configure API has been removed. It had been advertised as removed since repoze.bfg 1.2a1, but hadn't actually been.


  • The pyramid.settings.get_settings API is now deprecated. Use pyramid.threadlocals.get_current_registry().settings instead or use the settings attribute of the registry available from the request (request.registry.settings).


  • Removed zodbsessions tutorial chapter. It's still useful, but we now have a SessionFactory abstraction which competes with it, and maintaining documentation on both ways to do it is a distraction.


  • Replace Twill with WebTest in internal integration tests (avoid deprecation warnings generated by Twill).

1.0a3 (2010-11-16)


  • Added Mako TemplateLookup settings for mako.error_handler, mako.default_filters, and mako.imports.
  • Normalized all paster templates: each now uses the name main to represent the function that returns a WSGI application, each now uses WebError, each now has roughly the same shape of development.ini style.
  • Added class vars matchdict and matched_route to pyramid.request.Request. Each is set to None.
  • New API method: pyramid.settings.asbool.
  • New API methods for pyramid.request.Request: model_url, route_url, and static_url. These are simple passthroughs for their respective functions in pyramid.url.
  • The settings object which used to be available only when request.settings.get_settings was called is now available as registry.settings (e.g. request.registry.settings in view code).

Bug Fixes

  • The pylons_* paster templates erroneously used the {squiggly} routing syntax as the pattern supplied to add_route. This style of routing is not supported. They were replaced with :colon style route patterns.
  • The pylons_* paster template used the same string (your_app_secret_string) for the session.secret setting in the generated development.ini. This was a security risk if left unchanged in a project that used one of the templates to produce production applications. It now uses a randomly generated string.


  • ZODB+traversal wiki (wiki) tutorial updated due to changes to pyramid_zodb paster template.
  • SQLAlchemy+urldispach wiki (wiki2) tutorial updated due to changes to pyramid_routesalchemy paster template.
  • Documented the matchdict and matched_route attributes of the request object in the Request API documentation.


  • Obtaining the settings object via registry.{get|query}Utility(ISettings) is now deprecated. Instead, obtain the settings object via the registry.settings attribute. A backwards compatibility shim was added to the registry object to register the settings object as an ISettings utility when setattr(registry, 'settings', foo) is called, but it will be removed in a later release.
  • Obtaining the settings object via pyramid.settings.get_settings is now deprecated. Obtain it as the settings attribute of the registry now (obtain the registry via pyramid.threadlocal.get_registry or as request.registry).

Behavior Differences

  • Internal: ZCML directives no longer call get_current_registry() if there's a registry attribute on the ZCML context (kill off use of threadlocals).
  • Internal: Chameleon template renderers now accept two arguments: path and lookup. Lookup will be an instance of a lookup class which supplies (late-bound) arguments for debug, reload, and translate. Any third-party renderers which use (the non-API) function pyramid.renderers.template_renderer_factory will need to adjust their implementations to obey the new callback argument list. This change was to kill off inappropriate use of threadlocals.

1.0a2 (2010-11-09)


  • All references to events by interface (e.g. pyramid.interfaces.INewRequest) have been changed to reference their concrete classes (e.g. in documentation about making subscriptions.
  • All references to Pyramid-the-application were changed from mod-pyramid to app-Pyramid. A custom role setting was added to docs/ to allow for this. (internal)

1.0a1 (2010-11-05)

Features (delta from BFG 1.3)

  • Mako templating renderer supports resource specification format for template lookups and within Mako templates. Absolute filenames must be used in Pyramid to avoid this lookup process.

  • Add pyramid.httpexceptions module, which is a facade for the webob.exc module.

  • Direct built-in support for the Mako templating language.

  • A new configurator method exists: add_handler. This method adds a Pylons-style "view handler" (such a thing used to be called a "controller" in Pylons 1.0).

  • New argument to configurator: session_factory.

  • New method on configurator: set_session_factory

  • Using request.session now returns a (dictionary-like) session object if a session factory has been configured.

  • The request now has a new attribute: tmpl_context for benefit of Pylons users.

  • The decorator previously known as pyramid.view.bfg_view is now known most formally as pyramid.view.view_config in docs and paster templates. An import of pyramid.view.bfg_view, however, will continue to work "forever".

  • New API methods in pyramid.session: signed_serialize and signed_deserialize.

  • New interface: pyramid.interfaces.IRendererInfo. An object of this type is passed to renderer factory constructors (see "Backwards Incompatibilities").

  • New event type: pyramid.interfaces.IBeforeRender. An object of this type is sent as an event before a renderer is invoked (but after the application-level renderer globals factory added via pyramid.configurator.configuration.set_renderer_globals_factory, if any, has injected its own keys). Applications may now subscribe to the IBeforeRender event type in order to introspect the and modify the set of renderer globals before they are passed to a renderer. The event object iself has a dictionary-like interface that can be used for this purpose. For example:

    from import subscriber
    from pyramid.interfaces import IRendererGlobalsEvent
    def add_global(event):
        event['mykey'] = 'foo'

    If a subscriber attempts to add a key that already exist in the renderer globals dictionary, a KeyError is raised. This limitation is due to the fact that subscribers cannot be ordered relative to each other. The set of keys added to the renderer globals dictionary by all subscribers and app-level globals factories must be unique.

  • New class: pyramid.response.Response. This is a pure facade for webob.Response (old code need not change to use this facade, it's existence is mostly for vanity and documentation-generation purposes).

  • All preexisting paster templates (except zodb) now use "imperative" configuration (starter, routesalchemy, alchemy).

  • A new paster template named pyramid_starter_zcml exists, which uses declarative configuration.

Documentation (delta from BFG 1.3)

  • Added a pyramid.httpexceptions API documentation chapter.
  • Added a pyramid.session API documentation chapter.
  • Added a Session Objects narrative documentation chapter.
  • Added an API chapter for the pyramid.personality module.
  • Added an API chapter for the pyramid.response module.
  • All documentation which previously referred to webob.Response now uses pyramid.response.Response instead.
  • The documentation has been overhauled to use imperative configuration, moving declarative configuration (ZCML) explanations to a separate narrative chapter declarative.rst.
  • The ZODB Wiki tutorial was updated to take into account changes to the pyramid_zodb paster template.
  • The SQL Wiki tutorial was updated to take into account changes to the pyramid_routesalchemy paster template.

Backwards Incompatibilities (with BFG 1.3)

  • There is no longer an IDebugLogger registered as a named utility with the name repoze.bfg.debug.

  • The logger which used to have the name of repoze.bfg.debug now has the name pyramid.debug.

  • The deprecated API pyramid.testing.registerViewPermission has been removed.

  • The deprecated API named pyramid.testing.registerRoutesMapper has been removed.

  • The deprecated API named pyramid.request.get_request was removed.

  • The deprecated API named was removed.

  • The deprecated API named pyramid.view.view_execution_permitted was removed.

  • The deprecated API named pyramid.view.NotFound was removed.

  • The bfgshell paster command is now named pshell.

  • The Venusian "category" for all built-in Venusian decorators (e.g. subscriber and view_config/bfg_view) is now pyramid instead of bfg.

  • pyramid.renderers.rendered_response function removed; use render_pyramid.renderers.render_to_response instead.

  • Renderer factories now accept a renderer info object rather than an absolute resource specification or an absolute path. The object has the following attributes: name (the renderer= value), package (the 'current package' when the renderer configuration statement was found), type: the renderer type, registry: the current registry, and settings: the deployment settings dictionary.

    Third-party repoze.bfg renderer implementations that must be ported to Pyramid will need to account for this.

    This change was made primarily to support more flexible Mako template rendering.

  • The presence of the key repoze.bfg.message in the WSGI environment when an exception occurs is now deprecated. Instead, code which relies on this environ value should use the exception attribute of the request (e.g. request.exception[0]) to retrieve the message.

  • The values bfg_localizer and bfg_locale_name kept on the request during internationalization for caching purposes were never APIs. These however have changed to localizer and locale_name, respectively.

  • The default cookie_name value of the authtktauthenticationpolicy ZCML now defaults to auth_tkt (it used to default to repoze.bfg.auth_tkt).

  • The default cookie_name value of the pyramid.authentication.AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy constructor now defaults to auth_tkt (it used to default to repoze.bfg.auth_tkt).

  • The request_type argument to the view ZCML directive, the pyramid.configuration.Configurator.add_view method, or the pyramid.view.view_config decorator (nee bfg_view) is no longer permitted to be one of the strings GET, HEAD, PUT, POST or DELETE, and now must always be an interface. Accepting the method-strings as request_type was a backwards compatibility strategy servicing repoze.bfg 1.0 applications. Use the request_method parameter instead to specify that a view a string request-method predicate.