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Self-hosted dyndns/dynamic DNS server and updater for bind
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README.md

sftdyn dynamic dns server

sftdyn is a minimalistic dynamic DNS server that accepts update requests via HTTP(S) and forwards them to a locally running DNS server via nsupdate -l.

It lets you easily create a dyndns.org-like service, using your own DNS server, and can (probably) be used with your router.

Operation

  • Some device submits a https request to a "secret URL" of sftdyn
  • From this, sftdyn knows the request origin IP
  • From the "secret URL", sftdyn updates the DNS record of the associated hostname
  • The request therfore updated an IP in your zone

Requirements

Quick Guide

sftdyn is for you if you host a DNS zone and can run a Python server so it updates the nameserver records. This guide assumes that you're using bind, your zone is dyn.sft.mx, and your server's IP is 12.345.678.90. Substitute the correct values for zone and IP as you use this guide.

Nameserver

bind has to be configured to serve the updatable zone.

Somewhere in named.conf, add

zone "dyn.sft.mx" IN {
    type master;
    file "/etc/bind/dyn.sft.mx.zone";
    journal "/var/cache/bind/dyn.sft.mx.zone.jnl";
    update-policy local;
};

/var/cache/bind and /etc/bind/dyn.sft.mx.zone must be writable for bind.

Create the empty zone file

cp /etc/bind/db.empty /etc/bind/dyn.sft.mx.zone

If you want to use dyn.sft.mx as the hostname for your update requests, add a record to the zone file:

@ IN A 12.345.678.90
@ IN AAAA some:ipv6::address

sftdyn

To install sftdyn, use pip install sftdyn or ./setup.py install.

Launch it with python3 -m sftdyn [command-line options].

Configuration is by command-line parameters and conf file. A sample conf file is provided in etc/sample.conf. If no conf file name is provided, /etc/sftdyn/conf is used. Hostnames/update keys are specified in the conf file.

systemd service

To run sftdyn automatically, you can use a systemd service.

The sftdyn distribution package should automatically install sftdyn.service.

If you have to manually install it, use the example unit etc/sftdyn.service and copy it to /etc/systemd/system/sftdyn.service on the sftdyn host machine.

Enable the launch on boot and also start sftdyn now:

sudo systemctl enable --now sftdyn.service

Unencrypted operation

You can use sftdyn in plain HTTP mode. Your average commercial dynamic DNS provider provides a HTTP interface, so most routers only support that.

Somebody could grab your "secret url" with this and perform unintended updates of your record.

Encrypted operation

Because of the above reason, you should use HTTPS to keep your update url token secret. For that, your server needs a X.509 key and certificate. You can create those with let's encrypt, buy those somewhere, or create a self-signed one.

Self-signed certificate

To generate server.key and a self-signed server.crt valid for 1337 days:

openssl genrsa -out server.key 4096
openssl req -new -key server.key -out server.csr
openssl x509 -req -days 1337 -in server.csr -signkey server.key -out server.crt
rm server.csr

Make sure you enter your server's domain name for Common Name.

sftdyn should run under the same user as your DNS server, or it might not be able to update it properly.

Client

The client triggers the IP update at the sftdyn server, so your DNS then delivers the correct IP.

Plastic router

To use your router as client, select user-defined provider, enter http://dyn.sft.mx:8080/yourupdatekey as the update URL, and random stuff as domain name/user name/password. (tested with my AVM Fritz!Box. YMMV). Most routers don't support HTTPS update requests (especially not with custom CA-cert, so you'll probably need HTTP.

Request with curl

If you want to update the external IP of some network, and a machine in that network can use curl, choose this client method.

If you use HTTPS with a self-signed certificate, curl will refuse to talk to the server.

  • Use curl -k to ignore the error (Warning: see the security considerations below).
  • Copy server.crt to the client, and use curl --cacert server.crt.
HTTP code Text Response interpretation
200 OK Update successful
200 UPTODATE Update unneccesary
403 BADKEY Unknown update key
500 FAIL Internal error (see the server log)
200 your ip Returned if no key is provided
systemd timer

systemd timers are like cronjobs. Use them to periodically run the update query.

Create /etc/systemd/system/sftdynupdate.timer:

[Unit]
Description=SFTdyn dns updater

[Timer]
OnCalendar=*:0/15
Persistent=true

[Install]
WantedBy=timers.target

Create /etc/systemd/system/sftdynupdate.service:

[Unit]
Description=SFTdyn name update

[Service]
Type=oneshot
User=nobody
ExecStart=/usr/bin/env curl -f -s --cacert /path/to/server.crt https://dyn.sft.mx:4443/yoursecretupdatekey

Activate the timer firing with:

sudo systemctl enable --now sftdyn.timer

Verify the timer is scheduled:

sudo systemctl list-timers

To manually trigger the update (e.g. for testing purposes):

sudo systemctl start sftdyn.service
Cronjob

Cronjobs are the legacy variant to periodically run a task, you could do this like this:

*/10 * * * * curl https://dyn.sft.mx:4443/mysecretupdatekey

About

This software was written after the free dyndns.org service was shut down. After a week or so of using plain nsupdate, I was annoyed enough to decide to write this.

It is the main goal to stay as minimal as possible; for example, I deliberately didn't implement a way to specify the hostname or IP that you want to update; just a simple secret update key is perfectly good for the intended purpose. If you feel like it, you can make the update key look like a more complex request; every character is allowed. Example: ?host=test.sft.mx&key=90bbd8698198ea76.

The conf file is interpreted as python code, so you can do arbitrarily complex stuff there.

Security considerations

  • When using HTTP, or if your server.key has been stolen or broken, an eavesdropper can steal your update key, and use that to steal your domain name.
  • When using HTTPS with curl -k, a man-in-the-middle can steal your update key.
  • When using HTTPS with a paid certificate, a man-in-the-middle with access to a CA can steal your update key (no problem for government agencies, but this is pretty unlikely to happen).
  • When using HTTPS with a self-signed certificate and curl --cacert server.crt, no man-in-the-middle can steal your update key.

sftdyn is pretty minimalistic, and written in python, so it's unlikely to contain any security vulnerabilities. The python ssl and http modules are used widely, and open-source, so there should be no security vulnerabilities there.

Somebody who knows a valid udpate key could semi-effectively DOS your server by spamming update requests from two different IPs. For each request, nsupdate would be launched and your zone file updated.

Development

IMHO, the project is feature-complete; it has everything that I currently need.

If you have any requests, ideas, feedback or bug reports, are simply filled with pure hatred, or just need help getting the damn thing to run, join our chatroom and just ask:

  • IRC: irc.freenode.net/#sfttech
  • Matrix: #SFTtech:matrix.org

If you actually did implement a useful feature, please send a pull request; I'd be happy to merge it.

The license is GNU GPLv3 or higher.

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