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Mid Go Report Card GoDoc

A small collection of lightweight, net/http compatible middlewares for common web server needs. It's a library that acts as a smart framework reducing the amount of work you need to do. It's a competitor to echo, gin, buffalo, and other web frameworks.

Mid currently solves:

Readme Table of Contents


Mid provides a net/http compatible middleware for protecting, validating, and automatically hydrating handlers with user input from JSON or multipart form bodies, route parameters, and query string values.

This makes code easier to read by removing the need to type input decoding and validation checks for every handler. Imagine a simpler, automatic gRPC for REST API's.

Compatible with:


For all user input you must define a struct that contains the expected fields and rules. For example, imagine we are saving a blog comment. We might get the blog post id from the URL path and the comment fields from a JSON body. We can use struct tags to specify the rules and location of the data we are expecting.

(We use asaskevich/govalidator for validation.)

type NewComment struct {
	PostID  int    `valid:"required" param:"post_id"`
	Comment string `valid:"required,stringlength(100|1000)"`
	Email   string `valid:"required,email"`

Note: the "param" struct tag specifies a route parameter named "post_id" holds the value

Next we write a http.HandlerFunc with one extra field: a reference to the populated NewComment:

handler := func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request, comment NewComment) error {
	// we now have access to populated fields like "comment.Email"
	return nil

We then wire this up to our router and are ready to start accepting input:

// julienschmidt/httprouter
router.Handler("POST", "/post/:post_id/comment", mid.Hydrate(handler))

// gorilla/mux
router.HandleFunc("/post/{post_id}/comment", mid.Hydrate(handler)).Methods("POST")

// net/http
http.Handle("/post/comment", mid.Hydrate(handler))

Note: the last net/http mux example does not provide "route parameters" so it won't actually pass the validation due to the PostID struct tag "param" not existing.

At this point we can rest assured that our handler will never be called unless input matching our exact validation rules is provided by the client. If the client passes invalid data, then a JSON response object is returned specifying the issues.

		error: string
		fields: map[string]string

We follow a simpler version of the Google style for JSON API responses:

"A JSON response should contain either a data object or an error object, but not both. If both data and error are present, the error object takes precedence." -

Responding to clients

What if you want to return data to the client? You can specify any type and it will be returned to the client packaged in a standard JSON wrapper.

handler := func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request, newComment NewComment) (Comment, error) {
	comment, err := commentService.Save(newComment)
	return comment, err

This will result in the following HTTP 200 response:

		data: { ...Comment fields here... }

See the examples for more.

Supported Validations can be found at the validation project:


Moved to

Single Page Apps

Javascript applications often have a single index.html + assets that should be served at every (unused) URL path because the client bundle handles the routing creating a "virtual" filesystem. (see window.history)

Furthermore, it is often a security threat to allow reading of "dot files" or directory listings. This file contains two http.FileSystem wrappers to solve these need: SpaFileSystem() and DotFileHidingFileSystem()

The FileSystem() wrapper provides both making it easy to serve React, Angular, or Vue apps in a safe way along with other HTTP endpoints.

http.Handle("/", mid.FileSystem(http.FileServer(http.Dir("./app/public"))))
http.HandleFunc("/api/news", newsHandler)

OS Signals

Easily respond to interrupt signals (SIGTERM, CTRL+C, etc..) using the InterruptContext() function which returns a context that deadlines when an OS signal is recived by the process. Helpful for restarting servers or writing terminal apps.

This can be combined with the ListenWithContext() function to handle gracefully stopping a HTTP server.

server := &http.Server{
	Addr:         ":0",
	Handler:      myhandler,
	ReadTimeout:  1 * time.Second,
	WriteTimeout: 1 * time.Second,
	IdleTimeout:  1 * time.Second,

ctx := mid.InterruptContext()

err := mid.ListenWithContext(ctx, server, &healthy)

Max Body Size

HTTP request bodies can be any size, it is recommended you limit them using the mid.MaxBodySize() middleware to prevent attacks.

Request Throttling

A large number of TCP requests can cause multiple issues including degraded performance and your OS terminating your Go service because of high memory usage. A Denial-of-service attack is one example. The mid.RequestThrottler exists to help keep a cap on how many requests your application instance will serve concurrently.

It is recommended you create a helper function that wraps both these (along with any other middleware you are using like Hydration).

// Close connection with a 503 error if not handled within 3 seconds
throttler := mid.RequestThrottler(20, 3*time.Second)

wrapper := func(function interface{}) http.Handler {
	return throttler(mid.MaxBodySize(mid.Hydrate(function), 1024*1024))


router.Handler("POST", "/:user/profile", wrapper(controller.SaveProfile))


Please see - a minimal wrapper to improve Go's html/template usage by providing pre-computed inheritance with no loss of speed or modifications to the standard library's template processing.


Much attention has been given to design mid components in a way that is

  1. Simple
  2. Reduces developer work
  3. Performs well

Since the main feature of mid is the input validation, it has been loosely compared to a couple other frameworks to give you an idea of the trade offs between these systems.

$ go test --bench=. --benchmem
goos: darwin
goarch: amd64
BenchmarkEcho-8       	  200000	      8727 ns/op	    3731 B/op	      39 allocs/op
BenchmarkGongular-8   	  100000	     18266 ns/op	    6511 B/op	      76 allocs/op
BenchmarkMid-8        	  100000	     12607 ns/op	    7174 B/op	     120 allocs/op
BenchmarkVanilla-8    	 2000000	       849 ns/op	     288 B/op	      17 allocs/op

Gongular is slower in these benchmarks because 1) it's a full framework with extra mux wrapping code and 2) calculations and allocs that go into handling dependency injection in a way mid is able to avoid completely by keeping the handler separate from the binding object.

Echo is the fastest, but also requires writing the most code because it is less feature-complete. Unlike the other two, the echo benchmark does not include things like URL parameter binding or standard response handling.


Simple Go HTTP middleware for reducing code substantially when building an API. `net/http` compatible.







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