A Data Integrity framework for building efficient blockchains, transparency logs, secure file systems and more.
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Bargad is a service which implements the concepts and data strucutures described in the Certificate Transparency whitepaper RFC6962 and the Compact Sparse Merkle tree whitepaper.

The data structures mentioned above are implemented through a Merkle tree which provides all the crytographic guarantees for the data. We provide a storage layer for this Merkle tree which allows us to scale it for extremely large sets of data. This storage layer is flexible to accomodate many types of backends.

The Bargad service can operate in two modes

  • Log Mode - A verifiable append only log which is filled from left to right and provides the proof for inclusion and consistency of data.

  • Map Mode - A verifiable map which allows for the storage and retrieval of key value pairs and provides a cryptographic proof for the inclusion of this data.


The Bargad Service as a whole supports the features listed below

  • Support for mutiple backends for persistence.
  • Multi-tenanted i.e it supports multiple tree heads.
  • Support for multiple hashing algorithms.
  • Uses Protocol Buffers for efficient serialization and deserialization of data.
  • Very resilient, recovers from crashes. Utilizes Erlang OTP constructs.

Features specific to different modes are given below

Verifiable Log

  • Implemented as a dense merkle tree, filled from left to right.
  • Supports generation of consistency proofs for the log.
  • Supports verification of the generated consistency proofs.
  • Supports generation of inclusion proofs for the log.
  • Supports verfication of the generated inclusion proof.

Verifiable Map

  • Implemented as a sparse merkle tree with support for storing very large amounts of data.
  • If SHA256 is used has the hashing algorithm for the underlying merkle tree, the map can support upto 2^256 keys.
  • Supports generation of audit/inclusion proofs for the map.
  • Supports verfication of the generated inclusion proof.


Bargad Trillian Merkle Patricia Tree Merkle Tree
Persistence Yes Yes Yes No
Multiple Backends Yes Yes Yes No
Multiple Trees Yes Yes No No
Protocol Buffers Yes Yes No No
Verifiable Log Yes Yes Yes* Yes*
Verifiable Map Yes Yes No No
Consistency Proof for Log Yes Yes No No
Inclusion Proof for Log Yes Yes Yes Yes
Inclusion/Non-Inclusion Proof for Map Yes Yes No No
Filters/Personalities No Yes No No
Batch writes No Yes No No
Second Preimage attack prevention Yes Yes No No


  • Add Filters
  • Add signature to tree nodes
  • Support for batch writes
  • Support for LevelDB and PostgreSQL
  • Support synchronization of two trees
  • Provide snapshots of Map

Using Bargad


Bargad is developed as an Elixir application, and is published to Hex, Elixir's package manager. The package can be installed to your mix project by adding bargad to the list of dependencies and applications in mix.exs:

defp deps do
  {:bargad, "~> 1.0"}
def application do
  extra_applications : [ :bargad, ....]

And run:

 $ mix deps.get 

The docs can be found at https://hexdocs.pm/bargad.


Bargad includes an integration test suite which covers most of the features Bargad service provides.

Nevertheless here is a basic usage of Bargad in Verifiable Log mode.

## Bargad in Verifiable Log mode
## Note that here we are directly using Bargad.Log module for simplicity, 
## it is recommended to use the Superwised LogClient and MapClient.

  iex> tree =
  ...> Bargad.Log.new("FRZ", :sha256, [{"module", "ETSBackend"}]) |>
  ...> Bargad.Log.insert("3") |>
  ...> Bargad.Log.insert("7")

  iex> audit_proof = Bargad.Log.audit_proof(tree, 1)
    hash: <<63, 219, 163, 95, 4, 220, 140, 70, 41, 134, 201, 146, 188, 248, 117,
      84, 98, 87, 17, 48, 114, 169, 9, 193, 98, 247, 228, 112, 229, 129, 226,
    proof: [
      {<<103, 6, 113, 205, 151, 64, 65, 86, 34, 110, 80, 121, 115, 242, 171, 131,
        48, 211, 2, 44, 169, 110, 12, 147, 189, 189, 179, 32, 196, 26, 220,
        175>>, "R"}
    value: "3"

  iex(3)> Bargad.Log.verify_audit_proof(tree, audit_proof)

  iex(2)> consistency_proof = Bargad.Log.consistency_proof(tree, 1) 
    <<63, 219, 163, 95, 4, 220, 140, 70, 41, 134, 201, 146, 188, 248, 117, 84, 98
      87, 17, 48, 114, 169, 9, 193, 98, 247, 228, 112, 229, 129, 226, 120>>      

Integration Tests

The integration tests can be found in the ./test/bargad_test.exs file and can be run with the mix test command.


  1. Fork it!
  2. Create your feature branch (git checkout -b my-new-feature)
  3. Commit your changes (git commit -am 'Add some feature')
  4. Push to the branch (git push origin my-new-feature)
  5. Create new Pull Request


  • Certificate Transparency - Bargad in Verifiable Log mode can implement the certificate transparency protocol mentioned in RFC6962.

  • Blockchain - Merkle trees and its derivatives form the basis of blockchains. Bargad in the Verifiable Log mode coupled with the multiple tree support can form the basis of a blockchain.

  • Distributed Databases - Databases use Merkle trees to efficiently synchronize replicas of a database. Riak and Cassandra are using merkle trees to successfully achieve this. Bargad can do this in the Verifiable Log mode by synchronsing two tree heads, one of which would be primary and the other out of date secondary.

  • Secure and Distributed Filesystems - ZFS by Oracle and InterPlanetary File System ( IPFS ) and peer to peer sharing networks like BitTorrent use merkle trees.


Faraz Haider (@farazhaider)


See the license.md file for license details.