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binaryanalysis-ng

Binary Analysis Next Generation (BANG)

BANG is a framework for unpacking files (like firmware) recursively and running checks on the unpacked files. Its intended use is to be able to find out the provenance of the unpacked files and classify/label files, making them available for further analysis.

Requirements

  • a recent Linux distribution (Fedora 32 or higher, or equivalent)
  • Python 3.6.x or higher (as some Python 3.6 specific features are used)
  • pillow (possibly named python3-pillow), a drop in replacement for PIL ( http://python-pillow.github.io/ )
  • GNU binutils (for 'ar')
  • squashfs-tools (for 'unsquashfs')
  • cabextract
  • 7z
  • e2tools (for 'e2ls' and 'e2cp')
  • zstd
  • python-lz4 (possibly named python3-lz4)
  • qemu-img (for VMDK files)
  • psycopg2 (possibly named python3-psycopg2)
  • python-snappy (possibly named python3-snappy)
  • python-tlsh (possibly named python3-tlsh)
  • tinycss2 (possibly named python3-tinycss2, not available on Fedora 26 and earlier)
  • dockerfile-parse (possibly named python3-dockerfile-parse)
  • openssl
  • rzip
  • libxml2 (for 'xmllint')
  • mailcap (for mime.types)
  • lzop
  • OpenJDK (for 'unpack200')
  • defusedxml (possibly named python3-defusedxml)
  • icalendar (possibly named python3-icalendar)
  • pyyaml (possibly named python3-pyyaml)
  • ncompress
  • util-linux (for 'fsck.cramfs')
  • lz4 (for 'lz4c')
  • elasticsearch (possibly named python3-elasticsearch)

or if you are fortunate enough to be using nix, run nix-shell to load all the dependencies during development.

Additionally install "sasquatch"

https://github.com/devttys0/sasquatch

Supported hardware

It is assumed that BANG is run on little endian hardware (such as x86 or x86-64).

Unsupported distributions

  • Fedora 31 and earlier
  • Ubuntu 16.04 and lower (Python version too old)

Docker container

docker image build -t bang .
docker container run --rm -it bang

or from the src directory, type

make dockerbuild

Supported file types

The following files can be unpacked, or verified, including carving from a larger file, unless stated otherwise.

  1. WebP
  2. WAV
  3. ANI
  4. gzip
  5. LZMA
  6. XZ
  7. timezone files
  8. tar
  9. Apple Double encoded files
  10. ICC (colour profile)
  11. ZIP (store, deflate, bzip2, but lzma needs some more testing), also JAR and other ZIP-based formats
  12. APK (same as ZIP, but possibly with extra Android signing bytes)
  13. XAR (no compression, gzip, bzip2, XZ, LZMA)
  14. ISO9660 (including RockRidge and zisofs)
  15. lzip
  16. WOFF (Web Open Font Format)
  17. TrueType fonts/sfnt-housed fonts
  18. OpenType fonts
  19. Vim swap files (whole file only)
  20. Android sparse data image
  21. Android backup files
  22. ICO (MS Windows icons)
  23. Chrome PAK (version 4 & 5, only if offset starts at 0)
  24. GNU message catalog
  25. RPM (gzip, XZ, bzip2, LZMA, zstd, not: delta RPM)
  26. AIFF/AIFF-C
  27. terminfo (little endian, including ncurses extension, does not recognize some wide character versions)
  28. AU (Sun/NeXT audio)
  29. JFFS2 (uncompressed, zlib, LZMA from OpenWrt)
  30. CPIO (various flavours, little endian)
  31. Sun Raster files (standard type only)
  32. Intel Hex (text files only)
  33. Motorola SREC (text files only)
  34. MNG
  35. Android sparse image files
  36. Java class file
  37. Android Dex/Odex (not OAT, just carving)
  38. ELF
  39. SWF (uncompressed, zlib, LZMA)
  40. Android resource files (table type, but possibly not all types, binary XML)
  41. Java/Android MANIFEST.MF files (whole file)
  42. Linux kernel configuration files (whole file)
  43. Dockerfile files (whole file)
  44. Python PKG-INFO files (whole file)
  45. base64/32/16 (whole file)
  46. SSH known hosts files (whole file)
  47. FLV (Macromedia Flash Video)
  48. Git index files
  49. Linux Software Map files (whole file)
  50. JSON (whole file)
  51. D-Link ROMFS
  52. Unix passwd files (whole file)
  53. Unix shadow files (whole file)
  54. bzip2
  55. GIF (needs PIL)
  56. JPEG (needs PIL)
  57. Microsoft Cabinet archives (needs cabextract)
  58. RZIP (requires rzip)
  59. 7z (requires external tools), single frame(?)
  60. Windows Compiled HTML Help (needs external tools, version 3 only)
  61. Windows Imaging file format (needs external tools, single image only)
  62. ext2/3/4 (missing: symbolic link support)
  63. zstd (needs zstd package)
  64. SGI image files (needs PIL)
  65. Apple Icon Image (needs PIL)
  66. LZ4 (requires LZ4 Python bindings), LZ4 legacy (requires 'lz4c')
  67. VMware VMDK (needs qemu-img, whole file only)
  68. QEMU qcow2 (needs qemu-img, whole file only)
  69. VirtualBox VDI (needs qemu-img, whole file only, Oracle flavour only)
  70. XML (whole file)
  71. Snappy (needs python-snappy)
  72. various certificates (PEM, private key, etc., needs openssl)
  73. lzop
  74. CSS
  75. PNG/APNG (needs PIL)
  76. ar/deb (needs binutils)
  77. squashfs (needs squashfs-tools), only regular squashfs, vendor specific exotic variants need sasquatch
  78. BMP (needs PIL)
  79. PDF (simple verification, no object streams, incremental updates at end of the file)
  80. pack200 (needs unpack200)
  81. GIMP brush (needs PIL)
  82. ZIM (Wikipedia archive format)
  83. MIDI
  84. Android tzdata
  85. Java key store (version 2 only)
  86. XG3D (proprietary file format from 3D Studio Max, labeling only)
  87. ACDB (audio callibration database, proprietary file format from Qualcomm, labeling only)
  88. Microsoft DirectDraw Surface (structure checks and very limited sanity checking)
  89. Khronos KTX files (version 1)
  90. Android verified boot image
  91. SQLite 3
  92. Linux fstab files
  93. Linux flattened device tree
  94. Broadcom TRX
  95. Photoshop PSD (raw bytes and RLE encoding only)
  96. pkg-config files
  97. minidump files
  98. PPM files ('raw' PPM only)
  99. PGM files ('raw' PGM only)
  100. PBM files ('raw' PBM only)
  101. Android bootloader for Qualcomm Snapdragon
  102. Android bootloader image (also a Lttle Kernel based variant)
  103. Android bootloader for Huawei devices
  104. FAT16 file systems (8.3 file names)
  105. iCalendar (RFC 5545) files (whole file only)
  106. Coreboot images
  107. Minix V1 file system (Linux variant)
  108. Unix compress (needs 'uncompress'), only if end of the file is compress'd data
  109. Unix group files (whole file)
  110. TRANS.TBL files
  111. romfs
  112. cramfs (version 2 only)
  113. nb0 Android updates
  114. Quake PAK files
  115. Doom WAD files (IWAD only)
  116. Ambarella firmware files
  117. Ambarella romfs (used in Ambarella firmware files)
  118. bFLT
  119. Samba password files
  120. UBI (not UBIFS!), fastmap not supported
  121. GRUB2 font files
  122. BitTorrent files (subset)
  123. pcapng (carving, structural checks, little endian only)
  124. pcap (carving, structural checks)
  125. serialized Java (block data only, carving, structural checks)
  126. mapsforge map files (very basic structural checks)
  127. Parrot PLF files
  128. Windows INI files (text only)
  129. Subversion hash files (wcprops, all-wcprops, etc.)
  130. PFS file system
  131. YAFFS2 (including inband tags)
  132. Qualcomm QCDT files
  133. Chrome extensions (.crx)
  134. Windows shell link file (.lnk)
  135. PCF fonts (that actually follow the specification)
  136. DS_Store
  137. Qualcomm Snapdragon MSM bootloader files

Invocation

$ python3 bang-scanner -c bang.config -f /path/to/binary

License

GNU Affero General Public License, version 3 (AGPL-3.0)

The code for unpacking D-Link ROMFS file systems was heavily inspired by binwalk and modified (and improved) for use with BANG.

The original license for the binwalk code:

The MIT License (MIT)

Copyright (c) 2010-2015 Craig Heffner

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of
this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in
the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to
use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of
the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so,
subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all
copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR
COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER
IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN
CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

The code for verifying and labeling Android Verified Boot images was heavily inspired by code from Android (avbtool) found at:

https://android.googlesource.com/platform/external/avb/+/master/avbtool

The original license for avbtool:

Copyright 2016, The Android Open Source Project

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person
obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation
files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without
restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy,
modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies
of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be
included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS
BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN
ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN
CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE
SOFTWARE.

Developing

The recommended coding style is described in PEP 8:

https://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0008/

It is recommended to run PEP 8 verification tools, for example python3-flake8 (on Fedora).

Another tool that is highly recommended is pylint.

Acknowledgement

This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme within the framework of the NGI-POINTER Project funded under grant agreement No. 871528.

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