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Teuthology -- The Ceph integration test framework

teuthology is an automation framework for Ceph, written in Python. It is used to run the vast majority of its tests and was developed because the unique requirements of testing such a highly distributed system with active kernel development meant that no other framework existed that could do its job.

The name 'teuthology' refers to the study of cephalopods.


The general mode of operation of teuthology is to remotely orchestrate operations on remote hosts over SSH, as implemented by Paramiko. A typical job consists of multiple nested tasks, each of which perform operations on a remote host over the network.

When testing, it is common to group many jobs together to form a test run.

Provided Utilities

  • teuthology - Run individual jobs
  • teuthology-coverage - Analyze code coverage via lcov
  • teuthology-kill - Kill running jobs or entire runs
  • teuthology-lock - Lock, unlock, and update status of machines
  • teuthology-ls - List job results by examining an archive directory
  • teuthology-openstack - Use OpenStack backend (wrapper around teuthology-suite)
  • teuthology-nuke - Attempt to return a machine to a pristine state
  • teuthology-queue - List, or delete, jobs in the queue
  • teuthology-report - Submit test results to a web service (we use paddles)
  • teuthology-results - Examing a finished run and email results
  • teuthology-schedule - Schedule a single job
  • teuthology-suite - Schedule a full run based on a suite (see suites in ceph-qa-suite)
  • teuthology-updatekeys - Update SSH host keys for a mchine
  • teuthology-worker - Worker daemon to monitor the queue and execute jobs

For a description of the distinct services that utilities interact with see :ref:`components`.


See :ref:`installation_and_setup`.


The examples in this document are based on the lab machine configuration used by the Red Hat Ceph development and quality assurance teams (see :ref:`lab_setup`). Other instances of a Ceph Lab being used in a development or testing environment may differ from these examples.

Test configuration

An integration test run takes three items of configuration:

  • targets: what hosts to run on; this is a dictionary mapping hosts to ssh host keys, like: " ssh-rsa long_hostkey_here" It is possible to configure your installation so that if the targets line and host keys are omitted and teuthology is run with the --lock option, then teuthology will grab machines from a pool of available test machines.
  • roles: how to use the hosts; this is a list of lists, where each entry lists all the roles to be run on a single host. For example, a single entry might say [mon.1, osd.1].
  • tasks: how to set up the cluster and what tests to run on it; see below for examples

The format for this configuration is YAML, a structured data format that is still human-readable and editable.

For example, a full config for a test run that sets up a three-machine cluster, mounts Ceph via ceph-fuse, and leaves you at an interactive Python prompt for manual exploration (and enabling you to SSH in to the nodes & use the live cluster ad hoc), might look like this:

- [mon.0, mds.0, osd.0]
- [mon.1, osd.1]
- [mon.2, client.0]
targets: ssh-rsa host07_ssh_key ssh-rsa host08_ssh_key ssh-rsa host09_ssh_key
- install:
- ceph:
- ceph-fuse: [client.0]
- interactive:

The number of entries under roles and targets must match.

Note the colon after every task name in the tasks section. Also note the dashes before each task. This is the YAML syntax for an ordered list and specifies the order in which tasks are executed.

The install task needs to precede all other tasks.

The listed targets need resolvable hostnames. If you do not have a DNS server running, you can add entries to /etc/hosts. You also need to be able to SSH in to the listed targets without passphrases, and the remote user needs to have passwordless sudo access. Note that the ssh keys at the end of the targets entries are the public ssh keys for the hosts. These are located in /etc/ssh/

If you saved the above file as example.yaml, you could run teuthology on it like this:

./virtualenv/bin/teuthology example.yaml

You could also pass the -v option for more verbose execution. See teuthology --help for more options.

Multiple config files

You can pass multiple files as arguments to teuthology. Each one will be read as a config file, and their contents will be merged. This allows you to share definitions of what a "simple 3 node cluster" is. The source tree comes with roles/3-simple.yaml, so we could skip the roles section in the above example.yaml and then run:

./virtualenv/bin/teuthology roles/3-simple.yaml example.yaml

Reserving target machines

Teuthology automatically locks nodes for you if you specify the --lock option. Without this option, you must specify machines to run on in a targets.yaml file, and lock them using teuthology-lock.

Note that the default owner of a machine is of the form: USER@HOST where USER is the user who issued the lock command and host is the machine on which the lock command was run.

You can override this with the --owner option when running teuthology or teuthology-lock.

With teuthology-lock you can also add a description, so you can remember which tests you were running. This can be done when locking or unlocking machines, or as a separate action with the --update option. To lock 3 machines and set a description, run:

./virtualenv/bin/teuthology-lock --lock-many 3 --desc 'test foo'

If machines become unusable for some reason, you can mark them down:

./virtualenv/bin/teuthology-lock --update --status down machine1 machine2

To see the status of all machines, use the --list option. This can be restricted to particular machines as well:

./virtualenv/bin/teuthology-lock --list machine1 machine2

Choosing machines for a job

It is possible to run jobs against machines of one or more machine_type values. It is also possible to tell teuthology to only select those machines which match the following criteria specified in the job's YAML:

  • os_type (e.g. 'rhel', 'ubuntu')
  • os_version (e.g. '7.0', '14.04')
  • arch (e.g. 'x86_64')


A task is a Python module in the teuthology.task package, with a callable named task. It gets the following arguments:

  • ctx: a context that is available through the lifetime of the test run, and has useful attributes such as cluster, letting the task access the remote hosts. Tasks can also store their internal state here. (TODO beware of namespace collisions.)
  • config: the data structure after the colon in the config file, e.g. for the above ceph-fuse example, it would be a list like ["client.0"].

Tasks can be simple functions, called once in the order they are listed in tasks. But sometimes it makes sense for a task to be able to clean up after itself: for example, unmounting the filesystem after a test run. A task callable that returns a Python context manager will have the manager added to a stack, and the stack will be unwound at the end of the run. This means the cleanup actions are run in reverse order, both on success and failure. A nice way of writing context managers is the contextlib.contextmanager decorator; look for that string in the existing tasks to see examples, and note where they use yield.

Further details on some of the more complex tasks such as install or workunit can be obtained via python help. For example:

>>> import teuthology.task.workunit
>>> help(teuthology.task.workunit)

displays a page of more documentation and more concrete examples.

Some of the more important / commonly used tasks include:

  • ansible: Run the ansible task.

  • install: by default, the install task goes to gitbuilder and installs the results of the latest build. You can, however, add additional parameters to the test configuration to cause it to install any branch, SHA, archive or URL. The following are valid parameters.

    • branch: specify a branch (firefly, giant...)
    • flavor: specify a flavor (next, unstable...). Flavors can be thought of as subsets of branches. Sometimes (unstable, for example) they may have a predefined meaning.
    • project: specify a project (ceph, samba...)
    • sha1: install the build with this sha1 value.
    • tag: specify a tag/identifying text for this build (v47.2, v48.1...)
  • ceph: Bring up Ceph

  • overrides: override behavior. Typically, this includes sub-tasks being overridden. Overrides technically is not a task (there is no 'def task' in an file), but from a user's standpoint can be described as behaving like one. Sub-tasks can nest further information. For example, overrides of install tasks are project specific, so the following section of a yaml file would cause all ceph installations to default to using the cuttlefish branch:

          branch: cuttlefish
  • workunit: workunits are a way of grouping tasks and behavior on targets.

  • sequential: group the sub-tasks into a unit where the sub-tasks run sequentially as listed.

  • parallel: group the sub-tasks into a unit where the sub-tasks all run in parallel.

Sequential and parallel tasks can be nested. Tasks run sequentially unless specified otherwise.

The above list is a very incomplete description of the tasks available on teuthology. The teuthology/task subdirectory contains the teuthology-specific python files that implement tasks.

Extra tasks used by teuthology can be found in ceph-qa-suite/tasks. These tasks are not needed for teuthology to run, but do test specific independent features. A user who wants to define a test for a new feature can implement new tasks in this directory.

Many of these tasks are used to run shell scripts that are defined in the ceph/ceph-qa-suite.

If machines were locked as part of the run (with the --lock switch), teuthology normally leaves them locked when there is any task failure for investigation of the machine state. When developing new teuthology tasks, sometimes this behavior is not useful. The unlock_on_failure global option can be set to true to make the unlocking happen unconditionally.


Sometimes when a bug triggers, instead of automatic cleanup, you want to explore the system as is. Adding a top-level:

interactive-on-error: true

as a config file for teuthology will make that possible. With that option, any task that fails, will have the interactive task called after it. This means that before any cleanup happens, you get a chance to inspect the system -- both through Teuthology and via extra SSH connections -- and the cleanup completes only when you choose so. Just exit the interactive Python session to continue the cleanup.

Interactive task facilities

The interactive task presents a prompt for you to interact with the teuthology configuration. The ctx variable is available to explore, and a pprint.PrettyPrinter().pprint object is added for convenience as pp, so you can do things like pp(dict-of-interest) to see a formatted view of the dict.

This is also useful to pause the execution of the test between two tasks, either to perform ad hoc operations, or to examine the state of the cluster. Hit control-D to continue when done.

You need to nest interactive underneath tasks in your config. You can have has many interactive tasks as needed in your task list.

An example:

- ceph:
- interactive:

Test Sandbox Directory

Teuthology currently places most test files and mount points in a sandbox directory, defaulting to /home/$USER/cephtest. To change the location of the sandbox directory, the following option can be specified in $HOME/.teuthology.yaml:

test_path: <directory>

OpenStack backend

The teuthology-openstack command is a wrapper around teuthology-suite that transparently creates the teuthology cluster using OpenStack virtual machines.


An OpenStack tenant with access to the nova and cinder API. If the cinder API is not available, some jobs won't run because they expect volumes attached to each instance.

Setup OpenStack at OVH

Each instance has a public IP by default.


  • Get and configure teuthology:

    $ git clone
    $ cd teuthology ; ./bootstrap install
    $ source virtualenv/bin/activate

Get OpenStack credentials and test it

  • follow the OpenStack API Quick Start

  • source $HOME/

  • verify the OpenStack client works:

    $ nova list
    | ID | Name       | Status | Task State | Power State | Networks                |
  • create a passwordless ssh public key with:

    $ openstack keypair create myself > myself.pem
    | Field       | Value                                           |
    | fingerprint | e0:a3:ab:5f:01:54:5c:1d:19:40:d9:62:b4:b3:a1:0b |
    | name        | myself                                          |
    | user_id     | 5cf9fa21b2e9406b9c4108c42aec6262                |
    $ chmod 600 myself.pem


  • Create a passwordless ssh public key:

    $ openstack keypair create myself > myself.pem
    $ chmod 600 myself.pem
  • Run the dummy suite. It does nothing useful but shows all works as expected. Note that the first time it is run, it can take a long time (from a few minutes to half an hour or so) because it downloads and uploads a cloud image to the OpenStack provider.

    $ teuthology-openstack --key-filename myself.pem --key-name myself --suite dummy
    Job scheduled with name ubuntu-2015-07-24_09:03:29-dummy-master---basic-openstack and ID 1
    2015-07-24 09:03:30,520.520 INFO:teuthology.suite:ceph sha1: dedda6245ce8db8828fdf2d1a2bfe6163f1216a1
    2015-07-24 09:03:31,620.620 INFO:teuthology.suite:ceph version: v9.0.2-829.gdedda62
    2015-07-24 09:03:31,620.620 INFO:teuthology.suite:teuthology branch: master
    2015-07-24 09:03:32,196.196 INFO:teuthology.suite:ceph-qa-suite branch: master
    2015-07-24 09:03:32,197.197 INFO:teuthology.repo_utils:Fetching from upstream into /home/ubuntu/src/ceph-qa-suite_master
    2015-07-24 09:03:33,096.096 INFO:teuthology.repo_utils:Resetting repo at /home/ubuntu/src/ceph-qa-suite_master to branch master
    2015-07-24 09:03:33,157.157 INFO:teuthology.suite:Suite dummy in /home/ubuntu/src/ceph-qa-suite_master/suites/dummy generated 1 jobs (not yet filtered)
    2015-07-24 09:03:33,158.158 INFO:teuthology.suite:Scheduling dummy/{all/nop.yaml}
    2015-07-24 09:03:34,045.045 INFO:teuthology.suite:Suite dummy in /home/ubuntu/src/ceph-qa-suite_master/suites/dummy scheduled 1 jobs.
    2015-07-24 09:03:34,046.046 INFO:teuthology.suite:Suite dummy in /home/ubuntu/src/ceph-qa-suite_master/suites/dummy -- 0 jobs were filtered out.
    2015-07-24 11:03:34,104.104 INFO:teuthology.openstack:
    web interface:
    ssh access   : ssh ubuntu@ # logs in /usr/share/nginx/html
  • Visit the web interface (the URL is displayed at the end of the teuthology-openstack output) to monitor the progress of the suite.

  • The virtual machine running the suite will persist for forensic analysis purposes. To destroy it run:

    $ teuthology-openstack --key-filename myself.pem --key-name myself --teardown
  • The test results can be uploaded to a publicly accessible location with the --upload flag:

    $ teuthology-openstack --key-filename myself.pem --key-name myself \
                           --suite dummy --upload


Debian Jessie users may face the following error:

NameError: name 'PROTOCOL_SSLv3' is not defined

The workaround suggesting to replace PROTOCOL_SSLv3 with PROTOCOL_SSLv23 in the has been reported to work.

Running the OpenStack backend integration tests

The easiest way to run the integration tests is to first run a dummy suite:

$ teuthology-openstack --key-name myself --suite dummy
ssh access   : ssh ubuntu@

This will create a virtual machine suitable for the integration test. Login wih the ssh access displayed at the end of the teuthology-openstack command and run the following:

$ pkill -f teuthology-worker
$ cd teuthology ; pip install "tox>=1.9"
$ tox -v -e openstack-integration
integration/ PASSED
========= 9 passed in 2545.51 seconds ========
$ tox -v -e openstack
integration/ PASSED
========= 1 passed in 204.35 seconds =========

Defining instances flavor and volumes

Each target (i.e. a virtual machine or instance in the OpenStack parlance) created by the OpenStack backend are exactly the same. By default they have at least 8GB RAM, 20GB disk, 1 cpus and no disk attached. It is equivalent to having the following in the ~/.teuthology.yaml file:

    disk: 20 # GB
    ram: 8000 # MB
    cpus: 1
    count: 0
    size: 1 # GB

If a job needs more RAM or disk etc. the following can be included in an existing facet (yaml file in the teuthology parlance):

  - machine:
      disk: 100 # GB
      count: 4
      size: 10 # GB

Teuthology interprets this as the minimimum requirements, on top of the defaults found in the ~/.teuthology.yaml file and the job will be given instances with at least 100GB root disk, 8GB RAM, 1 cpus and four 10GB volumes attached. The highest value wins: if the job claims to need 4GB RAM and the defaults are 8GB RAM, the targets will all have 8GB RAM.

Note the dash before the machine key: the openstack element is an array with one value. If the dash is missing, it is a dictionary instead. It matters because there can be multiple entries per job such as:

  - machine:
      disk: 40 # GB
      ram: 8000 # MB

  - machine:
      ram: 32000 # MB

  - volumes: # attached to each instance
      count: 3
      size: 200 # GB

When a job is composed with these, theuthology aggregates them as:

  - machine:
      disk: 40 # GB
      ram: 8000 # MB
  - machine:
      ram: 32000 # MB
  - volumes: # attached to each instance
      count: 3
      size: 200 # GB

i.e. all entries are grouped in a list in the same fashion tasks are. The resource requirement is the maximum of the resources found in each element (including the default values). In the example above it is equivalent to:

    disk: 40 # GB
    ram: 32000 # MB
  volumes: # attached to each instance
    count: 3
    size: 200 # GB


Teuthology also supports virtual machines, which can function like physical machines but differ in the following ways:


The following description is based on the Red Hat lab used by the Ceph development and quality assurance teams.

The teuthology database of available machines contains a vpshost field. For physical machines, this value is null. For virtual machines, this entry is the name of the physical machine that that virtual machine resides on.

There are fixed "slots" for virtual machines that appear in the teuthology database. These slots have a machine type of vps and can be locked like any other machine. The existence of a vpshost field is how teuthology knows whether or not a database entry represents a physical or a virtual machine.

In order to get the right virtual machine associations, the following needs to be set in ~/.config/libvirt/libvirt.conf or for some older versions of libvirt (like ubuntu precise) in ~/.libvirt/libvirt.conf:

uri_aliases = [


When a virtual machine is locked, downburst is run on that machine to install a new image. This allows the user to set different virtual OSes to be installed on the newly created virtual machine. Currently the default virtual machine is ubuntu (precise). A different vm installation can be set using the --os-type and --os-version options in teuthology.lock.

When a virtual machine is unlocked, downburst destroys the image on the machine.

Temporary yaml files are used to downburst a virtual machine. A typical yaml file will look like this:

  cpus: 1
  disk-size: 30G
  distro: centos
  - {source: front}
  ram: 4G

These values are used by downburst to create the virtual machine.

When locking a file, a downburst meta-data yaml file can be specified by using the downburst-conf parameter on the command line.

To find the downburst executable, teuthology first checks the PATH environment variable. If not defined, teuthology next checks for src/downburst/virtualenv/bin/downburst executables in the user's home directory, /home/ubuntu, and /home/teuthology. This can all be overridden if the user specifies a downburst field in the user's .teuthology.yaml file.


Because teuthology reinstalls a new machine, a new hostkey is generated. After locking, once a connection is established to the new machine, teuthology-lock with the --list or --list-targets options will display the new keys. When vps machines are locked using the --lock-many option, a message is displayed indicating that --list-targets should be run later.


It is assumed that downburst is on the user's $PATH.

Test Suites

Most of the current teuthology test suite execution scripts automatically download their tests from the master branch of the appropriate github repository. People who want to run experimental test suites usually modify the download method in the teuthology/task script to use some other branch or repository. This should be generalized in later teuthology releases. Teuthology QA suites can be found in src/ceph-qa-suite. Make sure that this directory exists in your source tree before running the test suites.

Each suite name is determined by the name of the directory in ceph-qa-suite that contains that suite. The directory contains subdirectories and yaml files, which, when assembled, produce valid tests that can be run. The test suite application generates combinations of these files and thus ends up running a set of tests based off the data in the directory for the suite.

To run a suite, enter:

teuthology-suite -s <suite> [-c <ceph>] [-k <kernel>] [-e email] [-f flavor] [-t <teuth>] [-m <mtype>]


  • suite: the name of the suite (the directory in ceph-qa-suite).
  • ceph: ceph branch to be used.
  • kernel: version of the kernel to be used.
  • email: email address to send the results to.
  • flavor: the kernel flavor to run against
  • teuth: version of teuthology to run
  • mtype: machine type of the run
  • templates: template file used for further modifying the suite (optional)

For example, consider:

teuthology-suite -s rbd -c wip-fix -k cuttlefish -e -f basic -t cuttlefish -m plana

The above command runs the rbd suite using the wip-fix branch of ceph, the cuttlefish kernel, with a 'basic' kernel flavor, and the teuthology cuttlefish branch will be used. It will run on plana machines and send an email to when it's completed. For more details on teuthology-suite, please consult the output of teuthology-suite --help.

In order for a queued task to be run, a teuthworker thread on needs to remove the task from the queue. On, run ps aux | grep teuthology-worker to view currently running tasks. If no processes are reading from the test version that you are running, additonal teuthworker tasks need to be started. To start these tasks:

  • copy your build tree to /home/teuthworker on

  • Give it a unique name (in this example, xxx)

  • start up some number of worker threads (as many as machines you are testing with, there are 60 running for the default queue):

    /var/lib/teuthworker/archive --tube xxx
    --log-dir /var/lib/teuthworker/archive/worker_logs
    Note: The threads on are started via
    ~/teuthworker/  You can use that file as a model for your
    own threads, or add to this file if you want your threads to be
    more permanent.

Once the suite completes, an email message is sent to the users specified, and a large amount of information is left on in /var/lib/teuthworker/archive.

This is symbolically linked to /a for convenience. A new directory is created whose name consists of a concatenation of the date and time that the suite was started, the name of the suite, the ceph branch tested, the kernel used, and the flavor. For every test run there is a directory whose name is the pid number of the pid of that test. Each of these directory contains a copy of the teuthology.log for that process. Other information from the suite is stored in files in the directory, and task-specific yaml files and other logs are saved in the subdirectories.

These logs are also publically available at

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