Ora2Pg is a free tool used to migrate an Oracle database to a PostgreSQL compatible schema. It connects your Oracle database, scan it automaticaly and extracts its structure or data, it then generates SQL scripts that you can load into PostgreSQL.
Perl Shell


    Ora2Pg - Oracle to PostgreSQL database schema converter

    Ora2Pg is a free tool used to migrate an Oracle database to a PostgreSQL
    compatible schema. It connects your Oracle database, scan it
    automatically and extracts its structure or data, it then generates SQL
    scripts that you can load into your PostgreSQL database.

    Ora2Pg can be used from reverse engineering Oracle database to huge
    enterprise database migration or simply to replicate some Oracle data
    into a PostgreSQL database. It is really easy to used and doesn't need
    any Oracle database knowledge than providing the parameters needed to
    connect to the Oracle database.

    Ora2Pg consist of a Perl script (ora2pg) and a Perl module (Ora2Pg.pm),
    the only thing you have to modify is the configuration file ora2pg.conf
    by setting the DSN to the Oracle database and optionally the name of a
    schema. Once that's done you just have to set the type of export you
    want: TABLE with constraints, VIEW, MVIEW, TABLESPACE, SEQUENCE,

    By default Ora2Pg exports to a file that you can load into PostgreSQL
    with the psql client, but you can also import directly into a PostgreSQL
    database by setting its DSN into the configuration file. With all
    configuration options of ora2pg.conf you have full control of what
    should be exported and how.

    Features included:

            - Export full database schema (tables, views, sequences, indexes), with
              unique, primary, foreign key and check constraints.
            - Export grants/privileges for users and groups.
            - Export range/list partitions andi sub partitions.
            - Export a table selection (by specifying the table names).
            - Export Oracle schema to a PostgreSQL 8.4+ schema.
            - Export predefined functions, triggers, procedures, packages and
              package bodies.
            - Export full data or following a WHERE clause.
            - Full support of Oracle BLOB object as PG BYTEA.
            - Export Oracle views as PG tables.
            - Export Oracle user defined types.
            - Provide some basic automatic conversion of PLSQL code to PLPGSQL.
            - Works on any plateform.
            - Export Oracle tables as foreign data wrapper tables.
            - Export materialized view.
            - Show a detailled report of an Oracle database content.
            - Migration cost assessment of an Oracle database.
            - Migration difficulty level assessment of an Oracle database.
            - Migration cost assessment of PL/SQL code from a file.
            - Migration cost assessment of Oracle SQL queries stored in a file.
            - Generate XML ktr files to be used with Penthalo Data Integrator (Kettle)
            - Export Oracle locator and spatial geometries into PostGis.
            - Export DBLINK as Oracle FDW.
            - Export SYNONYMS as views.
            - Export DIRECTORY as external table or directory for external_file extension.
            - Full MySQL export just like Oracle database.
            - Dispatch a list of SQL orders over multiple PostgreSQL connections
            - Perform a diff between Oracle and PostgreSQL database for test purpose.

    Ora2Pg do its best to automatically convert your Oracle database to
    PostgreSQL but there's still manual works to do. The Oracle specific
    PL/SQL code generated for functions, procedures, packages and triggers
    has to be reviewed to match the PostgreSQL syntax. You will find some
    useful recommendations on porting Oracle PL/SQL code to PostgreSQL
    PL/PGSQL at "Converting from other Databases to PostgreSQL", section:
    Oracle (http://wiki.postgresql.org/wiki/Main_Page).

    See http://ora2pg.darold.net/report.html for a HTML sample of an Oracle
    database migration report.

    All Perl modules can always be found at CPAN (http://search.cpan.org/).
    Just type the full name of the module (ex: DBD::Oracle) into the search
    input box, it will brings you the page for download.

    Releases of Ora2Pg stay at SF.net

    Under Windows you should install Strawberry Perl
    (http://strawberryperl.com/) and the OSes corresponding Oracle clients.
    It seems that compiling DBD::Oracle from CPAN on Windows can be a
    struggle and there be little documentation on that (mostly outdated and
    not working). Installing the free version of ActiveState Perl
    (http://www.activestate.com/activeperl) could help as they seems to have
    an already packaged DBD::Oracle easy to install.

    You need a modern Perl distribution (perl 5.10 and more), the DBI >
    1.614 and DBD::Oracle Perl modules to be installed. These are used to
    connect to the Oracle database. To install DBD::Oracle and have it
    working you need to have the Oracle client libraries installed and the
    ORACLE_HOME environment variable must be defined.

    If you plan to export a MySQL database you need to install the Perl
    module DBD::mysql which require that the mysql client libraries are

    On some Perl distribution you may need to install the Time::HiRes Perl

    By default Ora2Pg dumps export to flat files, to load them into your
    PostgreSQL database you need the PostgreSQL client (psql). If you don't
    have it on the host running Ora2Pg you can always transfer these files
    to a host with the psql client installed. If you prefer to load export
    'on the fly', the perl module DBD::Pg is required.

    Ora2Pg allow to dump all output in a compressed gzip file, to do that
    you need the Compress::Zlib Perl module or if you prefer using bzip2
    compression, the program bzip2 must be available in your PATH.

  Installing Ora2Pg
    Like any other Perl Module Ora2Pg can be installed with the following

            tar xzf ora2pg-10.x.tar.gz
            cd ora2pg-10.x/
            perl Makefile.PL
            make && make install

    This will install Ora2Pg.pm into your site Perl repository, ora2pg into
    /usr/local/bin/ and ora2pg.conf into /etc/ora2pg/.

    On Windows(tm) OSes you may use instead:

            perl Makefile.PL
            dmake && dmake install

    This will install scripts and libraries into your Perl site installation
    directory and the ora2pg.conf file as well as all documentation files
    into C:\ora2pg\

    If you want to build binary package for your preferred Linux
    distribution take a look at the packaging/ directory of the source
    tarball. There's everything to build RPM, Slackware and Debian packages.
    See README file in that directory.

  Installing DBD::Oracle
    Ora2Pg need perl module DBD::Oracle for connectivity to an Oracle
    database from perl DBI. To get DBD::Oracle get it from CPAN a perl
    module repository.

    After setting ORACLE_HOME and LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variables as
    root user, install DBD::Oracle. Proceed as follow:

            export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/lib/oracle/11.2/client64/lib
            export ORACLE_HOME=/usr/lib/oracle/11.2/client64/
            perl -MCPAN -e 'install DBD::Oracle'

    If you are running for the first time it will ask so many questions
    which you can keep defaults by pressing ENTER key, but you need to give
    one appropriate i.e., mirror site for CPAN to download the modules. Or
    install through CPAN manually if the above don't works:

            #perl -MCPAN -e shell
            cpan> get DBD::Oracle
            cpan> quit
            cd ~/.cpan/build/DBD-Oracle*
            export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/lib/oracle/11.2/client64/lib
            export ORACLE_HOME=/usr/lib/oracle/11.2/client64/
            perl Makefile.PL
            make install

    Installing DBD::Oracle require that the three Oracle packages:
    instant-client, SDK and SQLplus are installed as well as the libaio1

    Ora2Pg configuration can be as simple as choose the Oracle database to
    export and choose the export type. This can be done in the minute.

    By reading this documentation you will also be able to:

            - Select only certain tables and/or column for export.
            - Rename some tables and/or column during export.
            - Select data to export following a WHERE clause per table.
            - Delay database constraints during data loading.
            - Compress exported data to save disk space.
            - and much more.

    The full control of the Oracle database migration is taken though a
    single configuration file named ora2pg.conf. The format of this file
    consist in a directive name in upper case followed by tab character and
    a value. Comments are lines beginning with a #.

    There's no specific order to place the configuration directives, they
    are set at the time they are read in the configuration file.

    For configuration directives that just take a single value, you can use
    them multiple time in the configuration file but only the last
    occurrence found in the file will be used. For configuration directives
    that allow a list of value, you can use it multiple time, the values
    will be appended to the list. If you use the IMPORT directive to load a
    custom configuration file, directives defined in this file will be
    stores from the place the IMPORT directive is found, so it is better to
    put it at the end of the configuration file.

    Values set in command line options will override values from the
    configuration file.

  Ora2Pg usage
    By default Ora2Pg will look for /etc/ora2pg/ora2pg.conf configuration
    file, if the file exist you can simply execute:


    or under Windows(tm) run ora2pg.bat file, located in your perl bin
    directory. Windows(tm) users may also find a template configuration file
    in C:\ora2pg

    If you want to call another configuration file, just give the path as
    command line argument:

            /usr/local/bin/ora2pg -c /etc/ora2pg/new_ora2pg.conf

    Here are all command line parameters available when using ora2pg:

    Usage: ora2pg [-dhpqv --estimate_cost --dump_as_html] [--option value]

        -a | --allow str  : coma separated list of objects to allow from export.
                            Can be used with SHOW_COLUMN too.
        -b | --basedir dir: Used to set the default output directory, where files
                            resulting from exports will be stored.
        -c | --conf file  : Used to set an alternate configuration file than the
                            default /etc/ora2pg/ora2pg.conf.
        -d | --debug      : Enable verbose output.
        -e | --exclude str: coma separated list of objects to exclude from export.
                            Can be used with SHOW_COLUMN too.
        -h | --help       : Print this short help.
        -i | --input file : File containing Oracle PL/SQL code to convert with
                            no Oracle database connection initiated.
        -j | --jobs num   : number of parallel process to send data to PostgreSQL.
        -J | --copies num : number of parallel connection to extract data from Oracle.
        -l | --log file   : Used to set a log file. Default is stdout.
        -L | --limit num  : number of tuples extracted from Oracle and stored in
                            memory before writing, default: 10000.
        -m | --mysql      : Export a MySQL database instead of an Oracle schema.
        -n | --namespace schema : Used to set the Oracle schema to extract from.
        -o | --out file   : Used to set the path to the output file where SQL will
                            be written. Default: output.sql in running directory.
        -p | --plsql      : Enable PLSQL to PLPSQL code conversion.
        -P | --parallel num: Number of parallel tables to extract at the same time.
        -q | --quiet      : disable progress bar.
        -s | --source DSN : Allow to set the Oracle DBI datasource.
        -t | --type export: Used to set the export type. It will override the one
                            given in the configuration file (TYPE).
        -T | --temp_dir DIR: use it to set a distinct temporary directory when two
                             or more ora2pg are run in parallel.
        -u | --user name  : Used to set the Oracle database connection user.
                            ORA2PG_USER environment variable can be used instead.
        -v | --version    : Show Ora2Pg Version and exit.
        -w | --password pwd : Used to set the password of the Oracle database user.
                            ORA2PG_PASSWD environment variable can be used instead.
        --forceowner: if set to 1 force ora2pg to set tables and sequences owner
                      like in Oracle database. If the value is set to a username this
                      one will be used as the objects owner. By default it's the user
                      used to connect to the Pg database that will be the owner.
        --nls_lang code: use this to set the Oracle NLS_LANG client encoding.
        --client_encoding code: Use this to set the PostgreSQL client encoding.
        --view_as_table str: coma separated list of view to export as table.
        --estimate_cost   : activate the migration cost evalution with SHOW_REPORT
        --cost_unit_value minutes: number of minutes for a cost evalution unit.
                      default: 5 minutes, correspond to a migration conducted by a
                      PostgreSQL expert. Set it to 10 if this is your first migration.
       --dump_as_html     : force ora2pg to dump report in HTML, used only with
                            SHOW_REPORT. Default is to dump report as simple text.
       --dump_as_csv      : as above but force ora2pg to dump report in CSV.
       --dump_as_sheet    : report migration assessment one CSV line per database.
       --init_project NAME: initialise a typical ora2pg project tree. Top directory
                            will be created under project base dir.
       --project_base DIR : define the base dir for ora2pg project trees. Default
                            is current directory.
       --print_header     : to be used with --dump_as_sheet to print the CSV header
                            especially for the first run of ora2pg.
       --human_days_limit num : set the number human-days limit where the migration
                            assessment level switch from B to C. Default is set to
                            5 human-days.
       --audit_user LIST  : comma separated list of username to filter queries in
                            the DBA_AUDIT_TRAIL table. Used only with SHOW_REPORT
                            and QUERY export type.
       --pg_dsn DSN       : set the datasource to PostgreSQL for direct import.
       --pg_user name     : set the PostgreSQL user to use.
       --pg_pwd password  : set the PostgreSQL password to use.
       --count_rows       : force ora2pg to perform a real row count in TEST action.

    See full documentation at http://ora2pg.darold.net/ for more help or see
    manpage with 'man ora2pg'.

    ora2pg will return 0 on success, 1 on error. It will return 2 when a
    child process have been interrupted and you've got the warning message:
    "WARNING: an error occurs during data export. Please check what's
    happen." Most of the time this is an OOM issue, you might first reduce
    DATA_LIMIT value.

    For developers, it is possible to add your own custom option(s) in the
    Perl script ora2pg as any configuration directive from ora2pg.conf can
    be passed in lower case to the new Ora2Pg object instance. See ora2pg
    code on how to add your own option.

  Generate a migration template
    The two options --project_base and --init_project when used indicate to
    ora2pg that he has to create a project template with a work tree, a
    configuration file and a script to export all objects from the Oracle
    database. Here a sample of the command usage:

            ora2pg --project_base /app/migration/ --init_project test_project
            Creating project test_project.

            Generating generic configuration file
            Creating script export_schema.sh to automate all exports.
            Creating script import_all.sh to automate all imports.

    It create a generic config file where you just have to define the Oracle
    database connection and a shell script called export_schema.sh. The
    sources/ directory will contains the Oracle code, the schema/ will
    contains the code ported to PostgreSQL. The reports/ directory will
    contains the html reports with the migration cost assessment.

    If you want to use your own default config file, use the -c option to
    give the path to that file. Rename it with .dist suffix if you want
    ora2pg to apply the generic configuration values otherwise, the
    configuration file will be copied untouched.

    Once you have set the connection to the Oracle Database you can execute
    the script export_schema.sh that will export all object type from your
    Oracle database and output DDL files into the schema's subdirectories.
    At end of the export it will give you the command to export data later
    when the import of the schema will be done and verified.

    You can choose to load by yourself the DDL files generated or use the
    second script import_all.sh to import those file interactively. If this
    kind of migration is not something current for you I really recommend
    you to use those scripts.

  Oracle database connection
    There's 5 configuration directives to control the access to the Oracle

        Used to set ORACLE_HOME environment variable to the Oracle libraries
        required by the DBD::Oracle Perl module.

        This directive is used to set the data source name in the form
        standard DBI DSN. For example:




        for the second notation the SID should be declared in the well known
        file $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/tnsnames.ora or in the path given to
        the TNS_ADMIN environment variable.

        These two directives are used to define the user and password for
        the Oracle database connection. Note that if you can it is better to
        login as Oracle super admin to avoid grants problem during the
        database scan and be sure that nothing is missing.

        Set this directive to 1 if you connect the Oracle database as simple
        user and do not have enough grants to extract things from the
        DBA_... tables. It will use tables ALL_... instead.

        Warning: if you use export type GRANT, you must set this
        configuration option to 0 or it will not works.

        This directive may be used if you want to change the default
        isolation level of the data export transaction. Default is now to
        set the level to a serializable transaction to ensure data
        consistency. The allowed values for this directive are:

                readonly: 'SET TRANSACTION READ ONLY',
                readwrite: 'SET TRANSACTION READ WRITE',

        Releases before 6.2 used to set the isolation level to READ ONLY
        transaction but in some case this was breaking data consistency so
        now default is set to SERIALIZABLE.

        This directive did not control the Oracle database connection or
        unless it purely disable the use of any Oracle database by accepting
        a file as argument. Set this directive to a file containing PL/SQL
        Oracle Code like function, procedure or full package body to prevent
        Ora2Pg from connecting to an Oracle database and just apply his
        conversion tool to the content of the file. This can be used with
        the most of export types: TABLE, TRIGGER, PROCEDURE, VIEW, FUNCTION
        or PACKAGE, etc.

        This directive can be used to send an initial command to Oracle,
        just after the connection. For example to unlock a policy before
        reading objects.

  Data encryption with Oracle server
    If your Oracle Client config file already includes the encryption
    method, then DBD:Oracle uses those settings to encrypt the connection
    while you extract the data. For example if you have configured the
    Oracle Client config file (sqlnet.or or .sqlnet) with the following

            # Configure encryption of connections to Oracle
            SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT = required
            SQLNET.CRYPTO_SEED = 'should be 10-70 random characters'

    Any tool that uses the Oracle client to talk to the database will be
    encrypted if you setup a session encryption like above.

    For example, Perl's DBI uses DBD-Oracle, which uses the Oracle client
    for actually handling database communication. If the installation of
    Oracle client used by Perl is setup to request encrypted connections,
    then your Perl connection to an Oracle database will also be encrypted.

    Full details at

  Testing connection
    Once you have set the Oracle database DSN you can execute ora2pg to see
    if it works:

            ora2pg -t SHOW_VERSION -c config/ora2pg.conf

    will show Oracle database server version. Take some time here to test
    your installation as most of the problem take place here, the other
    configuration steps are more technical.

  Trouble shooting
    If the output.sql file has not exported anything else than the Pg
    transaction header and footer there's two possible reasons. The perl
    script ora2pg dump an ORA-XXX error, that mean that you DSN or login
    information are wrong, check the error and your settings and try again.
    The perl script says nothing and the output file is empty: the user has
    not enough right to extract something from the database. Try to connect
    Oracle as super user or take a look at directive USER_GRANTS above and
    at next section, especially the SCHEMA directive.

        By default all message are sent to the standard output. If you give
        a file path to that directive, all output will be appended to this

  Oracle schema to export
    The Oracle database export can be limited to a specific Schema or
    Namespace, this can be mandatory following the database connection user.

        This directive is used to set the schema name to use during export.
        For example:

                SCHEMA  APPS

        will extract objects associated to the APPS schema.

        When no schema name is provided and EXPORT_SCHEMA is enabled, Ora2Pg
        will export all objects from all schema of the Oracle instance with
        their names prefixed with the scham name.

        By default the Oracle schema is not exported into the PostgreSQL
        database and all objects are created under the default Pg namespace.
        If you want to also export this schema and create all objects under
        this namespace, set the EXPORT_SCHEMA directive to 1. This will set
        the schema search_path at top of export SQL file to the schema name
        set in the SCHEMA directive with the default pg_catalog schema. If
        you want to change this path, use the directive PG_SCHEMA.

        Enable/disable the CREATE SCHEMA SQL order at starting of the output
        file. It is enable by default and concern on TABLE export type.

        By default Ora2Pg will only export valid PL/SQL code. You can force
        Oracle to compile again the invalidated code to get a chance to have
        it obtain the valid status and then be able to export it.

        Enable this directive to force Oracle to compile schema before
        exporting code. This will ask to Oracle to validate the PL/SQL that
        could have been invalidate after a export/import for example. If you
        set the value to 1 it will exec: DBMS_UTILITY.compile_schema(schema
        => sys_context('USERENV', 'SESSION_USER')); but if you provide the
        name of a particular schema it will use the following command:
        DBMS_UTILITY.compile_schema(schema => 'schemaname'); The 'VALID' or
        'INVALID' status applies to functions, procedures, packages and user
        defined types.

        If the above configuration directive is not enough to validate your
        PL/SQL code enable this configuration directive to allow export of
        all PL/SQL code even if it is marked as invalid. The 'VALID' or
        'INVALID' status applies to functions, procedures, packages and user
        defined types.

        Allow you to defined/force the PostgreSQL schema to use. The value
        can be a comma delimited list of schema name. By default if you set
        EXPORT_SCHEMA to 1, the PostgreSQL schema search_path will be set to
        the schema name set as value of the SCHEMA directive plus the
        default pg_catalog schema as follow:

                SET search_path = $SCHEMA, pg_catalog;

        If you set PG_SCHEMA to something like "user_schema, public" for
        example the search path will be set like this:

                SET search_path = user_schema, public;

        This will force to use an other schema than the one from Oracle
        schema and set in the SCHEMA directive.

        You can also set the default search_path for the connected
        PostgreSQL user by using: ALTER ROLE username SET search_path TO
        user_schema, public, pg_catalog;

        Without explicit schema, Ora2Pg will export all objects that not
        belongs to system schema or role:


        Following your Oracle installation you may have several other system
        role defined. To append these users to the schema exclusion list,
        just set the SYSUSERS configuration directive to a comma-separated
        list of system user to exclude. For example:


        will add users INTERNAL and SYSDBA to the schema exclusion list.

        By default the owner of the database objects is the one you're using
        to connect to PostgreSQL using the psql command. If you use an other
        user (postgres for exemple) you can force Ora2Pg to set the object
        owner to be the one used in the Oracle database by setting the
        directive to 1, or to a completely different username by setting the
        directive value to that username.

        When enabled this directive force ora2pg to export all tables,
        indexes constraint and indexes using the tablespace name defined in
        Oracle database. This works only with tablespace that are not TEMP,
        USERS and SYSTEM.

        Activating this directive will force Ora2Pg to add WITH (OIDS) when
        creating tables or views as tables. Default is same as PostgreSQL,

  Export type
    The export action is perform following a single configuration directive
    'TYPE', some other add more control on what should be really exported.

        Here are the different values of the TYPE directive, default is

                - TABLE: Extract all tables with indexes, primary keys, unique keys,
                  foreign keys and check constraints.
                - VIEW: Extract only views.
                - GRANT: Extract roles converted to Pg groups, users and grants on all
                - SEQUENCE: Extract all sequence and their last position.
                - TABLESPACE: Extract storage spaces for tables and indexes (Pg >= v8).
                - TRIGGER: Extract triggers defined following actions.
                - FUNCTION: Extract functions.
                - PROCEDURE: Extract procedures.
                - PACKAGE: Extract packages and package bodies.
                - INSERT: Extract data as INSERT statement.
                - COPY: Extract data as COPY statement.
                - PARTITION: Extract range and list Oracle partitions with subpartitions.
                - TYPE: Extract user defined Oracle type.
                - FDW: Export Oracle tables as foreign table for oracle_fdw.
                - MVIEW: Export materialized view.
                - QUERY: Try to automatically convert Oracle SQL queries.
                - KETTLE: Generate XML ktr template files to be used by Kettle.
                - DBLINK: Generate oracle foreign data wrapper server to use as dblink.
                - SYNONYM: Export Oracle's synonyms as views on other schema's objects.
                - DIRECTORY: Export Oracle's directories as external_file extension objects.
                - LOAD: Dispatch a list of queries over multiple PostgreSQl connections.
                - TEST: perform a diff between Oracle and PostgreSQL database.

        Only one type of export can be perform at the same time so the TYPE
        directive must be unique. If you have more than one only the last
        found in the file will be registered.

        Some export type can not or should not be load directly into the
        PostgreSQL database and still require little manual editing. This is
        QUERY and PACKAGE export types especially if you have PLSQL code or
        Oracle specific SQL in it.

        For TABLESPACE you must ensure that file path exist on the system
        and for SYNONYM you may ensure that the object's owners and schemas
        correspond to the new PostgreSQL database design.

        Note that you can chained multiple export by giving to the TYPE
        directive a comma-separated list of export type.

        Ora2Pg will convert Oracle partition using table inheritance,
        trigger and functions. See document at Pg site:

        The TYPE export allow export of user defined Oracle type. If you
        don't use the --plsql command line parameter it simply dump Oracle
        user type asis else Ora2Pg will try to convert it to PostgreSQL

        The KETTLE export type requires that the Oracle and PostgreSQL DNS
        are defined.

        Since Ora2Pg v8.1 there's three new export types:

                SHOW_VERSION : display Oracle version
                SHOW_SCHEMA  : display the list of schema available in the database.
                SHOW_TABLE   : display the list of tables available.
                SHOW_COLUMN  : display the list of tables columns available and the
                        Ora2PG conversion type from Oracle to PostgreSQL that will be
                        applied. It will also warn you if there's PostgreSQL reserved
                        words in Oracle object names.

        Here is an example of the SHOW_COLUMN output:

                [2] TABLE CURRENT_SCHEMA (1 rows) (Warning: 'CURRENT_SCHEMA' is a reserved word in PostgreSQL)
                        CONSTRAINT : NUMBER(22) => bigint (Warning: 'CONSTRAINT' is a reserved word in PostgreSQL)
                        FREEZE : VARCHAR2(25) => varchar(25) (Warning: 'FREEZE' is a reserved word in PostgreSQL)
                [6] TABLE LOCATIONS (23 rows)
                        LOCATION_ID : NUMBER(4) => smallint
                        STREET_ADDRESS : VARCHAR2(40) => varchar(40)
                        POSTAL_CODE : VARCHAR2(12) => varchar(12)
                        CITY : VARCHAR2(30) => varchar(30)
                        STATE_PROVINCE : VARCHAR2(25) => varchar(25)
                        COUNTRY_ID : CHAR(2) => char(2)

        Those extraction keyword are use to only display the requested
        information and exit. This allow you to quickly know on what you are
        going to work.

        The SHOW_COLUMN allow an other ora2pg command line option: '--allow
        relname' or '-a relname' to limit the displayed information to the
        given table.

        The SHOW_ENCODING export type will display the NLS_LANG and
        CLIENT_ENCODING values that Ora2Pg will used and the real encoding
        of the Oracle database with the corresponding client encoding that
        could be used with PostgreSQL

        Since release v8.12, Ora2Pg allow you to export your Oracle Table
        definition to be use with the oracle_fdw foreign data wrapper. By
        using type FDW your Oracle tables will be exported as follow:

                CREATE FOREIGN TABLE oratab (
                        id        integer           NOT NULL,
                        text      character varying(30),
                        floating  double precision  NOT NULL
                ) SERVER oradb OPTIONS (table 'ORATAB');

        Now you can use the table like a regular PostgreSQL table.

        See http://pgxn.org/dist/oracle_fdw/ for more information on this
        foreign data wrapper.

        Release 10 adds a new export type destined to evaluate the content
        of the database to migrate, in terms of objects and cost to end the

                SHOW_REPORT  : show a detailled report of the Oracle database content.

        Here is a sample of report: http://ora2pg.darold.net/report.html

        There also a more advanced report with migration cost. See the
        dedicated chapter about Migration Cost Evaluation.

        Activate the migration cost evaluation. Must only be used with
        Default is disabled. You may want to use the --estimate_cost command
        line option instead to activate this functionality. Note that
        enabling this directive will force PLSQL_PGSQL activation.

        Set the value in minutes of the migration cost evaluation unit.
        Default is five minutes per unit. See --cost_unit_value to change
        the unit value at command line.

        By default when using SHOW_REPORT the migration report is generated
        as simple text, enabling this directive will force ora2pg to create
        a report in HTML format.

        See http://ora2pg.darold.net/report.html for a sample report.

        Use this directive to redefined the number of human-days limit where
        the migration assessment level must switch from B to C. Default is
        set to 10 human-days.

        This configuration directive adds multiprocess support to data
        export type, the value is the number of process to use. Default is
        multiprocess disable.

        This directive is used to set the number of cores to used to
        parallelize data import into PostgreSQL. It replace the old code
        based on Perl Threads activated with the obsolete THREAD_COUNT
        configuration directive that was not very useful and is now replaced
        with fork() calls.

        There's no more limitation in parallel processing than the number of
        cores and the PostgreSQL I/O performance capabilities.

        Doesn't works under Windows Operating System, it is simply disabled.

        This configuration directive adds multiprocess support to extract
        data from Oracle. The value is the number of process to use to
        parallelize the select query. Default is parallel query disable.

        The parallelism is built on splitting the query following of the
        number of cores given as value to ORACLE_COPIES as follow:


        where COLUMN is a technical key like a primary or unique key where
        split will be based and the current core used by the query

        Doesn't works under Windows Operating System, it is simply disabled.

        This directive is used to defined the technical key to used to split
        the query between number of cores set with the ORACLE_COPIES
        variable. For example:

                DEFINED_PK      EMPLOYEES:employee_id

        The parallel query that will be used supposing that -J or
        ORACLE_COPIES is set to 8:

                SELECT * FROM EMPLOYEES WHERE ABS(MOD(employee_id, 8)) = N

        where N is the current process forked starting from 0.

        This directive is used to defined the number of tables that will be
        processed in parallel for data extraction. The limit is the number
        of cores on your machine. Ora2Pg will open one database connection
        for each parallel table extraction. This directive, when upper than
        1, will invalidate ORACLE_COPIES but not JOBS, so the real number of
        process that will be used is PARALLEL_TABLES * JOBS.

        Note that this directive when set upper that 1 will also
        automatically enable the FILE_PER_TABLE directive if your are
        exporting to files.

        This directive is used to set the name of the foreign data server
        that is used in the "CREATE SERVER name FOREIGN DATA WRAPPER
        oracle_fdw ..." command. This name will then be used in the "CREATE
        FOREIGN TABLE ..." SQL command. Default is arbitrary set to orcl.
        This only concern export type FDW.

        This directive, enabled by default, allow to export Oracle's
        External Tables as file_fdw foreign tables. To not export these
        tables at all, set the directive to 0.

        Internal timestamp retrieves from custom type are extracted in the
        following format: 01-JAN-77 AM. It is impossible to
        know the exact century that must be used, so by default any year
        below 49 will be added to 2000 and others to 1900. You can use this
        directive to change the default value 49. this is only relevant if
        you have user defined type with a column timestamp.

        Set the comma separated list of username that must be used to filter
        queries from the DBA_AUDIT_TRAIL table. Default is to not scan this
        table and to never look for queries. This parameter is used only
        with SHOW_REPORT and QUERY export type with no input file for
        queries. Note that queries will be normalized before output unlike
        when a file is given at input using the -i option or INPUT

  Limiting object to export
    You may want to export only a part of an Oracle database, here are a set
    of configuration directives that will allow you to control what parts of
    the database should be exported.

        This directive allow you to set a list of objects on witch the
        export must be limited, excluding all other objects in the same type
        of export. The value is a space or comma-separated list of objects
        name to export. You can include valid regex into the list. For

                ALLOW           EMPLOYEES SALE_.* COUNTRIES .*_GEOM_SEQ

        will export objects with name EMPLOYEES, COUNTRIES, all objects
        beginning with 'SALE_' and all objects with a name ending by
        '_GEOM_SEQ'. The object depends of the export type. Note that regex
        will not works with 8i database, you must use the % placeholder
        instead, Ora2Pg will use the LIKE operator.

        This is the manner to declare global filters that will be used with
        the current export type. You can also use extended filters that will
        be applied on specific objects or only on their related export type.
        For example:

                ora2pg -p -c ora2pg.conf -t TRIGGER -a 'TABLE[employees]'

        will limit export of trigger to those defined on table employees. If
        you want to extract all triggers but not some INSTEAD OF triggers:

                ora2pg -c ora2pg.conf -t TRIGGER -e 'VIEW[trg_view_.*]'

        Or a more complex form:

                ora2pg -p -c ora2pg.conf -t TABLE -a 'TABLE[EMPLOYEES]' \
                        -e 'INDEX[emp_.*];CKEY[emp_salary_min]'

        This command will export the definition of the employee table but
        will exclude all index beginning with 'emp_' and the CHECK
        constraint called 'emp_salary_min'.

        When exporting partition you can exclude some partition tables by

                ora2pg -p -c ora2pg.conf -t PARTITION -e 'PARTITION[PART_199.* PART_198.*]'

        This will exclude partitioned tables for year 1980 to 1999 from the
        export but not the main partition table. The trigger will also be
        adapted to exclude those table.

        With GRANT export you can use this extended form to exclude some
        users from the export or limit the export to some others:

                ora2pg -p -c ora2pg.conf -t GRANT -a 'USER1 USER2'


                ora2pg -p -c ora2pg.conf -t GRANT -a 'GRANT[USER1 USER2]'

        will limit export grants to users USER1 and USER2. But if you don't
        want to export grants on some functions for these users, for

                ora2pg -p -c ora2pg.conf -t GRANT -a 'USER1 USER2' -e 'FUNCTION[adm_.*];PROCEDURE[adm_.*]'

        Advanced filters may need some learning.

        This directive is the opposite of the previous, it allow you to
        define a space or comma-separated list of object name to exclude
        from the export. You can include valid regex into the list. For

                EXCLUDE         EMPLOYEES TMP_.* COUNTRIES

        will exclude object with name EMPLOYEES, COUNTRIES and all tables
        beginning with 'tmp_'.

        For example, you can ban from export some unwanted function with
        this directive:

                EXCLUDE         write_to_.* send_mail_.*

        this example will exclude all functions, procedures or functions in
        a package with the name beginning with those regex. Note that regex
        will not works with 8i database, you must use the % placeholder
        instead, Ora2Pg will use the NOT LIKE operator.

        See above (directive 'ALLOW') for the extended syntax.

        Set which view to export as table. By default none. Value must be a
        list of view name or regexp separated by space or comma. If the
        object name is a view and the export type is TABLE, the view will be
        exported as a create table statement. If export type is COPY or
        INSERT, the corresponding data will be exported.

        See chapter "Exporting views as PostgreSQL table" for more details.

        This directive allow you to specify a WHERE clause filter when
        dumping the contents of tables. Value is construct as follow:
        TABLE_NAME[WHERE_CLAUSE], or if you have only one where clause for
        each table just put the where clause as value. Both are possible
        too. Here are some examples:

                # Global where clause applying to all tables included in the export
                WHERE  1=1

                # Apply the where clause only on table TABLE_NAME
                WHERE  TABLE_NAME[ID1='001']

                # Applies two different clause on tables TABLE_NAME and OTHER_TABLE
                # and a generic where clause on DATE_CREATE to all other tables
                WHERE  TABLE_NAME[ID1='001' OR ID1='002] DATE_CREATE > '2001-01-01' OTHER_TABLE[NAME='test']

        Any where clause not included into a table name bracket clause will
        be applied to all exported table including the tables defined in the
        where clause. These WHERE clauses are very useful if you want to
        archive some data or at the opposite only export some recent data.

        To be able to quickly test data import it is useful to limit data
        export to the first thousand tuples of each table. For Oracle define
        the following clause:

                WHERE   ROWNUM < 1000

        and for MySQL, use the following:

                WHERE   1=1 LIMIT 1,1000

        This can also be restricted to some tables data export.

        This directive is used to limit the number of item shown in the top
        N lists like the top list of tables per number of rows and the top
        list of largest tables in megabytes. By default it is set to 10

        Enable this directive if you want to continue direct data import on
        error. When Ora2Pg received an error in the COPY or INSERT statement
        from PostgreSQL it will log the statement to a file called
        TABLENAME_error.log in the output directory and continue to next
        bulk of data. Like this you can try to fix the statement and
        manually reload the error log file. Default is disabled: abort
        import on error.

        Sometime you may want to extract data from an Oracle table but you
        need a a custom query for that. Not just a "SELECT * FROM table"
        like Ora2Pg do but a more complex query. This directive allow you to
        overwrite the query used by Ora2Pg to extract data. The format is
        TABLENAME[SQL_QUERY]. If you have multiple table to extract by
        replacing the Ora2Pg query, you can define multiple REPLACE_QUERY

                REPLACE_QUERY   EMPLOYEES[SELECT e.id,e.fisrtname,lastname FROM EMPLOYEES e JOIN EMP_UPDT u ON (e.id=u.id AND u.cdate>'2014-08-01 00:00:00')]

        Force Ora2Pg to translate Oracle Text indexes into PostgreSQL
        indexes using pg_trgm extension. Default is to translate CONTEXT
        indexes into FTS indexes and CTXCAT indexes using pg_trgm. Most of
        the time using pg_trgm is enough, this is why this directive stand

        By default Ora2Pg creates an extra tsvector column with a dedicated
        triggers for FTS indexes. Enable this directive if you just want a
        function-based index like:

                CREATE INDEX ON t_document USING gin(to_tsvector('pg_catalog.english', title));

        Use this directive to change default text search config:
        pg_catalog.english used with FTS to_tsvector() function. For
        example, set it to pg_catalog.french

  Modifying object structure
    One of the great usage of Ora2Pg is its flexibility to replicate Oracle
    database into PostgreSQL database with a different structure or schema.
    There's three configuration directives that allow you to map those

        Enable this directive to reordering columns and minimized the
        footprint on disc, so that more rows fit on a data page, which is
        the most important factor for speed. Default is disabled, that mean
        the same order than in Oracle tables definition, that's should be
        enough for most usage. This directive is only used with TABLE

        This directive allow you to limit the columns to extract for a given
        table. The value consist in a space-separated list of table name
        with a set of column between parenthesis as follow:

                MODIFY_STRUCT   NOM_TABLE(nomcol1,nomcol2,...) ...

        for example:

                MODIFY_STRUCT   T_TEST1(id,dossier) T_TEST2(id,fichier)

        This will only extract columns 'id' and 'dossier' from table T_TEST1
        and columns 'id' and 'fichier' from the T_TEST2 table. This
        directive is only used with COPY or INSERT export.

        Some time you need to force the destination type, for example a
        column exported as timestamp by Ora2Pg can be forced into type date.
        Value is a comma-separated list of TABLE:COLUMN:TYPE structure. If
        you need to use comma or space inside type definition you will have
        to backslash them.

                MODIFY_TYPE     TABLE1:COL3:varchar,TABLE1:COL4:decimal(9\,6)

        Type of table1.col3 will be replaced by a varchar and table1.col4 by
        a decimal with precision.

        This directive allow you to remap a list of Oracle table name to a
        PostgreSQL table name during export. The value is a list of
        space-separated values with the following structure:


        Oracle tables ORIG_TBNAME1 and ORIG_TBNAME2 will be respectively
        renamed into DEST_TBNAME1 and DEST_TBNAME2

        Like table name, the name of the column can be remapped to a
        different name using the following syntax:


        For example:

                REPLACE_COLS    T_TEST(dico:dictionary,dossier:folder)

        will rename Oracle columns 'dico' and 'dossier' from table T_TEST
        into new name 'dictionary' and 'folder'.

        If you want to change the type of some Oracle columns into
        PostgreSQL boolean during the export you can define here a list of
        tables and column separated by space as follow.


        The values set in the boolean columns list will be replaced with the
        't' and 'f' following the default replacement values and those
        additionally set in directive BOOLEAN_VALUES.

        You can also give a type and a precision to automatically convert
        all fields of that type as a boolean. For example:


        will also replace any field of type number(1) or char(1) as a
        boolean in all exported tables.

        Use this to add additional definition of the possible boolean values
        used in Oracle fields. You must set a space-separated list of
        TRUE:FALSE values. By default here are the values recognized by

                BOOLEAN_VALUES          yes:no y:n 1:0 true:false enabled:disabled

        Any values defined here will be added to the default list.

        When Ora2Pg find a "zero" date: 0000-00-00 00:00:00 it is replaced
        by a NULL. This could be a problem if your column is defined with
        NOT NULL constraint. If you can not remove the constraint, use this
        directive to set an arbitral date that will be used instead. You can
        also use -INFINITY if you don't want to use a fake date.

        Add the given value as suffix to indexes names. Useful if you have
        indexes with same name as tables. For example:

                INDEXES_SUFFIX          _idx

        will add _idx at ed of all index name. Not so common but can help.

        Enable this directive to rename all indexes using
        tablename_columns_names. Could be very useful for database that have
        multiple time the same index name or that use the same name than a
        table, which is not allowed by PostgreSQL Disabled by default.

        Operator classes text_pattern_ops, varchar_pattern_ops, and
        bpchar_pattern_ops support B-tree indexes on the corresponding
        types. The difference from the default operator classes is that the
        values are compared strictly character by character rather than
        according to the locale-specific collation rules. This makes these
        operator classes suitable for use by queries involving pattern
        matching expressions (LIKE or POSIX regular expressions) when the
        database does not use the standard "C" locale. If you enable, with
        value 1, this will force Ora2Pg to export all indexes defined on
        varchar2() and char() columns using those operators. If you set it
        to a value greater than 1 it will only change indexes on columns
        where the character limit is greater or equal than this value. For
        example, set it to 128 to create these kind of indexes on columns of
        type varchar2(N) where N >= 128.

        Enable this directive if you want that your partition table name
        will be exported using the parent table name. Disabled by default.
        If you have multiple partitioned table, when exported to PostgreSQL
        some partitions could have the same name but different parent
        tables. This is not allowed, table name must be unique.

        If you don't want to reproduce the partitioning like in Oracle and
        want to export all partitioned Oracle data into the main single
        table in PostgreSQL enable this directive. Ora2Pg will export all
        data into the main table name. Default is to use partitioning,
        Ora2Pg will export data from each partition and import them into the
        PostgreSQL dedicated partition table.

  Oracle Spatial to PostGis
    Ora2Pg fully export Spatial object from Oracle database. There's some
    configuration directives that could be used to control the export.

        By default Ora2Pg is looking at indexes to see the spatial
        constraint type and dimensions defined under Oracle. Those
        constraints are passed as at index creation using for example:

                PARAMETERS('sdo_indx_dims=2, layer_gtype=point');

        If those Oracle constraints parameters are not set, the default is
        to export those columns as generic type GEOMETRY to be able to
        receive any spatial type.

        The AUTODETECT_SPATIAL_TYPE directive allow to force Ora2Pg to
        autodetect the real spatial type and dimension used in a spatial
        column otherwise a non- constrained "geometry" type is used.
        Enabling this feature will force Ora2Pg to scan a sample of 50000
        column to look at the GTYPE used. You can increase or reduce the
        sample size by setting the value of AUTODETECT_SPATIAL_TYPE to the
        desired number of line to scan. The directive is enabled by default.

        For example, in the case of a column named shape and defined with
        Oracle type SDO_GEOMETRY, with AUTODETECT_SPATIAL_TYPE disabled it
        will be converted as:

            shape geometry(GEOMETRY) or shape geometry(GEOMETRYZ, 4326)

        and if the directive is enabled and the column just contains a
        single geometry type that use a single dimension:

            shape geometry(POLYGON, 4326) or shape geometry(POLYGONZ, 4326)

        with a two or three dimensional polygon.

        This directive allow you to control the automatically conversion of
        Oracle SRID to standard EPSG. If enabled, Ora2Pg will use the Oracle
        function sdo_cs.map_oracle_srid_to_epsg() to convert all SRID.
        Enabled by default.

        If the SDO_SRID returned by Oracle is NULL, it will be replaced by
        the default value 8307 converted to its EPSG value: 4326 (see

        If the value is upper than 1, all SRID will be forced to this value,
        in this case DEFAULT_SRID will not be used when Oracle returns a
        null value and the value will be forced to CONVERT_SRID.

        Note that it is also possible to set the EPSG value on Oracle side
        when sdo_cs.map_oracle_srid_to_epsg() return NULL if your want to
        force the value:

          system@db> UPDATE sdo_coord_ref_sys SET legacy_code=41014 WHERE srid = 27572;

        Use this directive to override the default EPSG SRID to used: 4326.
        Can be overwritten by CONVERT_SRID, see above.

        This directive can take three values: WKT (default), WKB and
        INTERNAL. When it is set to WKT, Ora2Pg will use
        SDO_UTIL.TO_WKTGEOMETRY() to extract the geometry data. When it is
        set to WKB, Ora2Pg will use the binary output using
        SDO_UTIL.TO_WKBGEOMETRY(). If those two extract type are calls at
        Oracle side, they are slow and you can easily reach Out Of Memory
        when you have lot of rows. Also WKB is not able to export 3D
        geometry and some geometries like CURVEPOLYGON. In this case you may
        use the INTERNAL extraction type. It will use a Pure Perl library to
        convert the SDO_GEOMETRY data into a WKT representation, the
        translation is done on Ora2Pg side. This is a work in progress,
        please validate your exported data geometries before use. Default
        spatial object extraction type is INTERNAL.

        Use this directive to add a specific schema to the search path to
        look for PostGis functions.

  PostgreSQL Import
    By default conversion to PostgreSQL format is written to file
    'output.sql'. The command:

            psql mydb < output.sql

    will import content of file output.sql into PostgreSQL mydb database.

        When you are performing INSERT/COPY export Ora2Pg proceed by chunks
        of DATA_LIMIT tuples for speed improvement. Tuples are stored in
        memory before being written to disk, so if you want speed and have
        enough system resources you can grow this limit to an upper value
        for example: 100000 or 1000000. Before release 7.0 a value of 0 mean
        no limit so that all tuples are stored in memory before being
        flushed to disk. In 7.x branch this has been remove and chunk will
        be set to the default: 10000

        When Ora2Pg detect a table with some BLOB it will automatically
        reduce the value of this directive by dividing it by 10 until his
        value is below 1000. You can control this value by setting
        BLOB_LIMIT. Exporting BLOB use lot of resources, setting it to a too
        high value can produce OOM.

        The Ora2Pg output filename can be changed with this directive.
        Default value is output.sql. if you set the file name with extension
        .gz or .bz2 the output will be automatically compressed. This
        require that the Compress::Zlib Perl module is installed if the
        filename extension is .gz and that the bzip2 system command is
        installed for the .bz2 extension.

        Since release 7.0, you can define a base directory where the file
        will be written. The directory must exists.

        This directive allow you to specify the full path to the bzip2
        program if it can not be found in the PATH environment variable.

        Allow object constraints to be saved in a separate file during
        schema export. The file will be named CONSTRAINTS_OUTPUT, where
        OUTPUT is the value of the corresponding configuration directive.
        You can use .gz xor .bz2 extension to enable compression. Default is
        to save all data in the OUTPUT file. This directive is usable only
        with TABLE export type.

        The constraints can be imported quickly into PostgreSQL using the
        LOAD export type to parallelize their creation over multiple (-j or
        JOBS) connections.

        Allow indexes to be saved in a separate file during schema export.
        The file will be named INDEXES_OUTPUT, where OUTPUT is the value of
        the corresponding configuration directive. You can use .gz xor .bz2
        file extension to enable compression. Default is to save all data in
        the OUTPUT file. This directive is usable only with TABLE AND
        TABLESPACE export type. With the TABLESPACE export, it is used to
        write "ALTER INDEX ... TABLESPACE ..." into a separate file named
        TBSP_INDEXES_OUPUT that can be loaded at end of the migration after
        the indexes creation to move the indexes.

        The indexes can be imported quickly into PostgreSQL using the LOAD
        export type to parallelize their creation over multiple (-j or JOBS)

        Allow data export to be saved in one file per table/view. The files
        will be named as tablename_OUTPUT, where OUTPUT is the value of the
        corresponding configuration directive. You can still use .gz xor
        .bz2 extension in the OUTPUT directive to enable compression.
        Default 0 will save all data in one file, set it to 1 to enable this
        feature. This is usable only during INSERT or COPY export type.

        Allow functions, procedures and triggers to be saved in one file per
        object. The files will be named as objectname_OUTPUT. Where OUTPUT
        is the value of the corresponding configuration directive. You can
        still use .gz xor .bz2 extension in the OUTPUT directive to enable
        compression. Default 0 will save all in one single file, set it to 1
        to enable this feature. This is usable only during the corresponding
        export type, the package body export has a special behavior.

        When export type is PACKAGE and you've enabled this directive,
        Ora2Pg will create a directory per package, named with the lower
        case name of the package, and will create one file per
        function/procedure into that directory. If the configuration
        directive is not enabled, it will create one file per package as
        packagename_OUTPUT, where OUTPUT is the value of the corresponding

        If this directive is set to 1, a TRUNCATE TABLE instruction will be
        add before loading data. This is usable only during INSERT or COPY
        export type.

        When activated, the instruction will be added only if there's no
        global DELETE clause or not one specific to the current table (see

        Support for include a DELETE FROM ... WHERE clause filter before
        importing data and perform a delete of some lines instead of
        truncatinf tables. Value is construct as follow:
        TABLE_NAME[DELETE_WHERE_CLAUSE], or if you have only one where
        clause for all tables just put the delete clause as single value.
        Both are possible too. Here are some examples:

                DELETE  1=1    # Apply to all tables and delete all tuples
                DELETE TABLE_TEST[ID1='001']   # Apply only on table TABLE_TEST
                DELETE TABLE_TEST[ID1='001' OR ID1='002] DATE_CREATE > '2001-01-01' TABLE_INFO[NAME='test']

        The last applies two different delete where clause on tables
        TABLE_TEST and TABLE_INFO and a generic delete where clause on
        DATE_CREATE to all other tables. If TRUNCATE_TABLE is enabled it
        will be applied to all tables not covered by the DELETE definition.

        These DELETE clauses might be useful with regular "updates".

        Set this parameter to 0 to not include the call to \set
        ON_ERROR_STOP ON in all SQL scripts generated by Ora2Pg. By default
        this order is always present so that the script will immediately
        abort when an error is encountered.

        Enable this directive to use COPY FREEZE instead of a simple COPY to
        export data with rows already frozen. This is intended as a
        performance option for initial data loading. Rows will be frozen
        only if the table being loaded has been created or truncated in the
        current subtransaction. This will only works with export to file and
        when -J or ORACLE_COPIES is not set or default to 1. It can be used
        with direct import into PostgreSQL under the same condition but -j
        or JOBS must also be unset or default to 1.

    If you want to import data on the fly to the PostgreSQL database you
    have three configuration directives to set the PostgreSQL database
    connection. This is only possible with COPY or INSERT export type as for
    database schema there's no real interest to do that.

        Use this directive to set the PostgreSQL data source namespace using
        DBD::Pg Perl module as follow:


        will connect to database 'pgdb' on localhost at tcp port 5432.

    PG_USER and PG_PWD
        These two directives are used to set the login user and password.

        Specifies whether transaction commit will wait for WAL records to be
        written to disk before the command returns a "success" indication to
        the client. This is the equivalent to set synchronous_commit
        directive of postgresql.conf file. This is only used when you load
        data directly to PostgreSQL, the default is off to disable
        synchronous commit to gain speed at writing data. Some modified
        version of PostgreSQL, like greenplum, do not have this setting, so
        in this set this directive to 1, ora2pg will not try to change the

  Taking export under control
    The following other configuration directives interact directly with the
    export process and give you fine granularity in database export control.

        For TABLE export you may not want to export all schema constraints,
        the SKIP configuration directive allow you to specify a
        space-separated list of constraints that should not be exported.
        Possible values are:

                - fkeys: turn off foreign key constraints
                - pkeys: turn off primary keys
                - ukeys: turn off unique column constraints
                - indexes: turn off all other index types
                - checks: turn off check constraints

        For example:

                SKIP    indexes,checks

        will removed indexes ans check constraints from export.

        Enable this directive if you want to add primary key definition
        inside the create table statement. If disabled (the default) primary
        key definition will be add with an alter table statement. Enable it
        if you are exporting to GreenPlum PostgreSQL database.

        By default names of the primary and unique key in the source Oracle
        database are ignored and key names are created in the target
        PostgreSQL database with the PostgreSQL internal default naming
        rules. If you want to preserve Oracle primary key names set this
        option to 1.

        This directive allow you to add an ON UPDATE CASCADE option to a
        foreign key when a ON DELETE CASCADE is defined or always. Oracle do
        not support this feature, you have to use trigger to operate the ON
        UPDATE CASCADE. As PostgreSQL has this feature, you can choose how
        to add the foreign key option. There is three value to this
        directive: never, the default that mean that foreign keys will be
        declared exactly like in Oracle. The second value is delete, that
        mean that the ON UPDATE CASCADE option will be added only if the ON
        DELETE CASCADE is already defined on the foreign Keys. The last
        value, always, will force all foreign keys to be defined using the
        update option.

        When exporting tables, Ora2Pg normally exports constraints as they
        are, if they are non-deferrable they are exported as non-deferrable.
        However, non-deferrable constraints will probably cause problems
        when attempting to import data to Pg. The FKEY_DEFERRABLE option set
        to 1 will cause all foreign key constraints to be exported as

        In addition when exporting data the DEFER_FKEY option set to 1 will
        add a command to defer all foreign key constraints during data
        export and the import will be done in a single transaction. This
        will work only if foreign keys have been exported as deferrable and
        you are not using direct import to PostgreSQL (PG_DSN is not
        defined). Constraints will then be checked at the end of the

        This directive can also be enabled if you want to force all foreign
        keys to be created as deferrable and initially deferred during
        schema export (TABLE export type).

        If deferring foreign keys is not possible due to the amount of data
        in a single transaction, you've not exported foreign keys as
        deferrable or you are using direct import to PostgreSQL, you can use
        the DROP_FKEY directive.

        It will drop all foreign keys before all data import and recreate
        them at the end of the import.

        This directive allow you to gain lot of speed improvement during
        data import by removing all indexes that are not an automatic index
        (indexes of primary keys) and recreate them at the end of data
        import. Of course it is far better to not import indexes and
        constraints before having imported all data.

        This directive is used to disable triggers on all tables in COPY or
        INSERT export modes. Available values are USER (disable user-defined
        triggers only) and ALL (includes RI system triggers). Default is 0:
        do not add SQL statements to disable trigger before data import.

        If you want to disable triggers during data migration, set the value
        to USER if your are connected as non superuser and ALL if you are
        connected as PostgreSQL superuser. A value of 1 is equal to USER.

        If set to 1 disables alter of sequences on all tables during COPY or
        INSERT export mode. This is used to prevent the update of sequence
        during data migration. Default is 0, alter sequences.

        By default all data that are not of type date or time are escaped.
        If you experience any problem with that you can set it to 1 to
        disable character escaping during data export. This directive is
        only used during a COPY export. See STANDARD_CONFORMING_STRINGS for
        enabling/disabling escape with INSERT statements.

        This controls whether ordinary string literals ('...') treat
        backslashes literally, as specified in SQL standard. This was the
        default before Ora2Pg v8.5 so that all strings was escaped first,
        now this is currently on, causing Ora2Pg to use the escape string
        syntax (E'...') if this parameter is not set to 0. This is the exact
        behavior of the same option in PostgreSQL. This directive is only
        used during data export to build INSERT statements. See NOESCAPE for
        enabling/disabling escape in COPY statements.

        If set to 1 replace portable numeric type into PostgreSQL internal
        type. Oracle data type NUMBER(p,s) is approximatively converted to
        real and float PostgreSQL data type. If you have monetary fields or
        don't want rounding issues with the extra decimals you should
        preserve the same numeric(p,s) PostgreSQL data type. Do that only if
        you need very good precision because using numeric(p,s) is slower
        than using real or double.

        If set to 1 replace portable numeric type into PostgreSQL internal
        type. Oracle data type NUMBER(p) or NUMBER are converted to
        smallint, integer or bigint PostgreSQL data type following the
        length of the precision. If NUMBER without precision are set to
        DEFAULT_NUMERIC (see bellow).

        NUMBER without precision are converted by default to bigint only if
        PG_INTEGER_TYPE is true. You can overwrite this value to any PG
        type, like integer or float.

        If you're experiencing any problem in data type schema conversion
        with this directive you can take full control of the correspondence
        between Oracle and PostgreSQL types to redefine data type
        translation used in Ora2pg. The syntax is a comma-separated list of
        "Oracle datatype:Postgresql datatype". Here are the default list

                DATA_TYPE       DATE:timestamp,LONG:text,LONG RAW:bytea,CLOB:text,NCLOB:text,BLOB:bytea,BFILE:bytea,RAW:bytea,ROWID:oid,FLOAT:double precision,DEC:decimal,DECIMAL:decimal,DOUBLE PRECISION:double precision,INT:numeric,INTEGER:numeric,REAL:real,SMALLINT:smallint,BINARY_FLOAT:double precision,BINARY_DOUBLE:double precision,TIMESTAMP:timestamp,XMLTYPE:xml,BINARY_INTEGER:integer,PLS_INTEGER:integer,TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE:timestamp with time zone,TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIME ZONE:timestamp with time zone

        Note that the directive and the list definition must be a single

        There's a special case with BFILE when they are converted to type
        TEXT, they will just contains the full path to the external file. If
        you set the destination type to BYTEA, the default, Ora2Pg will
        export the content of the BFILE as bytea. The third case is when you
        set the destination type to EFILE, in this case, Ora2Pg will export
        it as an EFILE record: (DIRECTORY, FILENAME). Use the DIRECTORY
        export type to export the existing directories as well as privileges
        on those directories.

        There's no SQL function available to retrieve the path to the BFILE,
        then Ora2Pg have to create one using the DBMS_LOB package.

                CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION ora2pg_get_bfilename( p_bfile IN BFILE )
                RETURN VARCHAR2
                    l_dir   VARCHAR2(4000);
                    l_fname VARCHAR2(4000);
                    l_path  VARCHAR2(4000);
                    dbms_lob.FILEGETNAME( p_bfile, l_dir, l_fname );
                    SELECT directory_path INTO l_path FROM all_directories
                        WHERE directory_name = l_dir;
                    l_dir := rtrim(l_path,'/');
                    RETURN l_dir || '/' || l_fname;

        This function is only created if Ora2Pg found a table with a BFILE
        column and that the destination type is TEXT. The function is
        dropped at the end of the export. This concern both, COPY and INSERT
        export type.

        There's no SQL function available to retrieve BFILE as an EFILE
        record, then Ora2Pg have to create one using the DBMS_LOB package.

                CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION ora2pg_get_efile( p_bfile IN BFILE )
                RETURN VARCHAR2
                    l_dir   VARCHAR2(4000);
                    l_fname VARCHAR2(4000);
                    dbms_lob.FILEGETNAME( p_bfile, l_dir, l_fname );
                    RETURN '(' || l_dir || ',' || l_fnamei || ')';

        This function is only created if Ora2Pg found a table with a BFILE
        column and that the destination type is EFILE. The function is
        dropped at the end of the export. This concern both, COPY and INSERT
        export type.

        To set the destination type, use the DATA_TYPE configuration

                DATA_TYPE       BFILE:EFILE

        for example.

        The EFILE type is a user defined type created by the PostgreSQL
        extension external_file that can be found here:
        https://github.com/darold/external_file This is a port of the BFILE
        Oracle type to PostgreSQL.

        If you want to convert CHAR(n) from Oracle into varchar(n) or text
        on PostgreSQL using directive DATA_TYPE, you might want to do some
        triming on the data. By default Ora2Pg will auto-detect this
        conversion and remove any whitespace at both leading and trailing
        position. If you just want to remove the leadings character set the
        value to LEADING. If you just want to remove the trailing character,
        set the value to TRAILING. Default value is BOTH.

        The default trimming character is space, use this directive if you
        need to change the character that will be removed. For example, set
        it to - if you have leading - in the char(n) field. To use space as
        trimming charger, comment this directive, this is the default value.

        If you want to preserve the case of Oracle object name set this
        directive to 1. By default Ora2Pg will convert all Oracle object
        names to lower case. I do not recommend to enable this unless you
        will always have to double-quote object names on all your SQL

        Allow escaping of column name using Oracle reserved words. Value is
        a list of comma-separated reserved word. Default is audit,comment.

        Enable this directive if you have table or column names that are a
        reserved word for PostgreSQL. Ora2Pg will double quote the name of
        the object.

        Set this directive to 1 to replace default password by a random
        password for all extracted user during a GRANT export.

        Since PostgreSQL 9.3, materialized view are supported with the SQL
        syntax 'CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW'. To force Ora2Pg to use the native
        PostgreSQL support you must enable this configuration - enable by
        default. If you want to use the old style with table and a set of
        function, you should disable it.

        PostgreSQL version below 9.x do not support IF EXISTS in DDL
        statements. Disabling the directive with value 0 will prevent Ora2Pg
        to add those keywords in all generated statements. Default value is
        1, enabled.

    PG_SUPPORTS_ROLE (Deprecated)
        This option is deprecated since Ora2Pg release v7.3.

        By default Oracle roles are translated into PostgreSQL groups. If
        you have PostgreSQL 8.1 or more consider the use of ROLES and set
        this directive to 1 to export roles.

    PG_SUPPORTS_INOUT (Deprecated)
        This option is deprecated since Ora2Pg release v7.3.

        If set to 0, all IN, OUT or INOUT parameters will not be used into
        the generated PostgreSQL function declarations (disable it for
        PostgreSQL database version lower than 8.1), This is now enable by

        This directive enable or disable the use of default parameter value
        in function export. Until PostgreSQL 8.4 such a default value was
        not supported, this feature is now enable by default.

    PG_SUPPORTS_WHEN (Deprecated)
        Add support to WHEN clause on triggers as PostgreSQL v9.0 now
        support it. This directive is enabled by default, set it to 0
        disable this feature.

        Add support to INSTEAD OF usage on triggers (used with PG >= 9.1),
        if this directive is disabled the INSTEAD OF triggers will be
        rewritten as Pg rules.

        When enabled, export views with CHECK OPTION. Disable it if you have
        PostgreSQL version prior to 9.4. Default: 1, enabled.

        If disabled, do not export object with IF EXISTS statements. Enabled
        by default.

        Use btree_gin extension to create bitmap like index with pg >= 9.4
        You will need to create the extension by yourself: create extension
        btree_gin; Default is to create GIN index, when disabled, a btree
        index will be created

        Use pg_background extension to create an autonomous transaction
        instead of using a dblink wrapper. With pg >= 9.5 only. Default is
        to use dblink. See https://github.com/vibhorkum/pg_background about
        this extension.

        Use this directive to set the database handle's 'LongReadLen'
        attribute to a value that will be the larger than the expected size
        of the LOBs. The default is 1MB witch may not be enough to extract
        BLOBs or CLOBs. If the size of the LOB exceeds the 'LongReadLen'
        DBD::Oracle will return a 'ORA-24345: A Truncation' error. Default:
        1023*1024 bytes.

        Take a look at this page to learn more:

        Important note: If you increase the value of this directive take
        care that DATA_LIMIT will probably needs to be reduced. Even if you
        only have a 1MB blob, trying to read 10000 of them (the default
        DATA_LIMIT) all at once will require 10GB of memory. You may extract
        data from those table separatly and set a DATA_LIMIT to 500 or
        lower, otherwise you may experience some out of memory.

        If you want to bypass the 'ORA-24345: A Truncation' error, set this
        directive to 1, it will truncate the data extracted to the
        LongReadLen value. Disable by default so that you will be warned if
        your LongReadLen value is not high enough.

        Disable this if you don't want to load full content of BLOB and CLOB
        and use LOB locators instead. This is useful to not having to set
        LONGREADLEN. Note that this will not improve speed of BLOB export as
        most of the time is always consumed by the bytea escaping and in
        this case data will be processed line by line and not by chunk of
        DATA_LIMIT rows. For more information on how it works, see
        ta_Interface_for_LOB_Locators Default is enabled, it will not use
        LOB locators for backward compatibility.

        Force the use getStringVal() instead of getClobVal() for XML data
        export. Default is 1, enabled for backward compatibility. Set it to
        0 to use extract method a la CLOB.

        Set it to O if you want to disable export of millisecond from Oracle
        timestamp columns. By default milliseconds are exported with the use
        of following format:

                'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS.FF'

        Disabling will force the use of the following Oracle format:

                to_char(..., 'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS')

        By default milliseconds are exported.

        Set this to 1 if you don't want to export comment associated to
        tables and columns definition. Default is enabled.

  Control MySQL export behavior
        Enable this if double pipe and double ampersand (|| and &&) should
        not be taken as equivalent to OR and AND. It depend of the variable
        @sql_mode, Use it only if Ora2Pg fail on auto detecting this

        Enable this directive if you want EXTRACT() replacement to use the
        internal format returned as an integer, for example DD HH24:MM:SS
        will be replaced with format; DDHH24MMSS::bigint, this depend of
        your apps usage.

  Special options to handle character encoding
        By default Ora2Pg will set NLS_LANG to AMERICAN_AMERICA.AL32UTF8 and
        NLS_NCHAR to AL32UTF8. It is not recommanded to change those
        settings but in some case it could be useful. Using your own
        settings with those configuration directive will change the client
        encoding at Oracle side by setting the environment variables
        $ENV{NLS_LANG} and $ENV{NLS_NCHAR}.

        By default Ora2Pg will force Perl to use utf8 I/O encoding. This is
        done through a call to the Perl pragma:

                use open ':utf8';

        You can override this encoding by using the BINMODE directive, for
        example you can set it to :locale to use your locale or iso-8859-7,
        it will respectively use

                use open ':locale';
                use open ':encoding(iso-8859-7)';

        If you have change the NLS_LANG in non UTF8 encoding, you might want
        to set this directive. See http://perldoc.perl.org/5.14.2/open.html
        for more information. Most of the time, leave this directive

        By default PostgreSQL client encoding is automatically set to UTF8
        to avoid encoding issue. If you have changed the value of NLS_LANG
        you might have to change the encoding of the PostgreSQL client.

        You can take a look at the PostgreSQL supported character sets here:

  PLSQL to PLPSQL convertion
    Automatic code conversion from Oracle PLSQL to PostgreSQL PLPGSQL is a
    work in progress in Ora2Pg and surely you will always have manual work.
    The Perl code used for automatic conversion is all stored in a specific
    Perl Module named Ora2Pg/PLSQL.pm feel free to modify/add you own code
    and send me patches. The main work in on function, procedure, package
    and package body headers and parameters rewrite.

        Enable/disable PLSQL to PLPSQL conversion. Enabled by default.

        Ora2Pg can replace all conditions with a test on NULL by a call to
        the coalesce() function to mimic the Oracle behavior where empty
        string are considered equal to NULL.

                (field1 IS NULL) is replaced by (coalesce(field1::text, '') = '')
                (field2 IS NOT NULL) is replaced by (field2 IS NOT NULL AND field2::text <> '')

        You might want this replacement to be sure that your application
        will have the same behavior but if you have control on you
        application a better way is to change it to transform empty string
        into NULL because PostgreSQL makes the difference.

        Force empty_clob() and empty_blob() to be exported as NULL instead
        as empty string for the first one and '\x' for the second. If NULL
        is allowed in your column this might improve data export speed if
        you have lot of empty lob. Default is to preserve the exact data
        from Oracle.

        If you don't want to export package as schema but as simple
        functions you might also want to replace all call to
        package_name.function_name. If you disable the PACKAGE_AS_SCHEMA
        directive then Ora2Pg will replace all call to
        package_name.function_name() by package_name_function_name().
        Default is to use a schema to emulate package.

        The replacement will be done in all kind of DDL or code that is
        parsed by the PLSQL to PLPGSQL converter. PLSQL_PGSQL must be
        enabled or -p used in command line.

  Materialized view
    Since PostgreSQL 9.3, materialized view are supported with the CREATE
    MATERIALIZED VIEW syntax, to force Ora2Pg to use the native PostgreSQL
    support you must enable the configuration directive PG_SUPPORTS_MVIEW.

    In other case Ora2Pg will export all materialized views as "Snapshot
    Materialized Views" as explain in this document:

    When exporting materialized view Ora2Pg will first add the SQL code to
    create the "materialized_views" table:

            CREATE TABLE materialized_views (
                    mview_name text NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
                    view_name text NOT NULL,
                    iname text,
                    last_refresh TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE

    all materialized views will have an entry in this table. It then adds
    the plpgsql code to create tree functions:

            create_materialized_view(text, text, text) used to create a materialized view
            drop_materialized_view(text) used to delete a materialized view
            refresh_full_materialized_view(text) used to refresh a view

    then it adds the SQL code to create the view and the materialized view:

            CREATE VIEW mviewname_mview AS
            SELECT ... FROM ...;

            SELECT create_materialized_view('mviewname','mviewname_mview', change with the name of the column to used for the index);

    The first argument is the name of the materialized view, the second the
    name of the view on which the materialized view is based and the third
    is the column name on which the index should be build (aka most od the
    time the primary key). This column is not automatically deduced so you
    need to replace its name.

    As said above Ora2Pg only supports snapshot materialized views so the
    table will be entirely refreshed by issuing first a truncate of the
    table and then by load again all data from the view:


    To drop the materialized view you just have to call the
    drop_materialized_view() function with the name of the materialized view
    as parameter.

  Other configuration directives
        Set it to 1 will enable verbose output.

        You can define common Ora2Pg configuration directives into a single
        file that can be imported into other configuration files with the
        IMPORT configuration directive as follow:

                IMPORT  commonfile.conf

        will import all configuration directives defined into
        commonfile.conf into the current configuration file.

  Exporting views as PostgreSQL tables
    You can export any Oracle view as a PostgreSQL table simply by setting
    TYPE configuration option to TABLE to have the corresponding create
    table statement. Or use type COPY or INSERT to export the corresponding
    data. To allow that you have to specify your views in the VIEW_AS_TABLE
    configuration option.

    Then if Ora2Pg finds the view it will extract its schema (if TYPE=TABLE)
    into a PG create table form, then it will extract the data (if TYPE=COPY
    or INSERT) following the view schema.

    For example, with the following view:

            CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW product_prices (category_id, product_count, low_price, high_price) AS
            SELECT  category_id, COUNT(*) as product_count,
                MIN(list_price) as low_price,
                MAX(list_price) as high_price
             FROM   product_information
            GROUP BY category_id;

    Setting VIEW_AS_TABLE to product_prices and using export type TABLE,
    will force Ora2Pg to detect columns returned types and to generate a
    create table statement:

            CREATE TABLE product_prices (
                    category_id bigint,
                    product_count integer,
                    low_price numeric,
                    high_price numeric

    Data will be loaded following the COPY or INSERT export type and the
    view declaration.

    You can use the ALLOW and EXCLUDE directive in addition to filter other
    objects to export.

  Export as Kettle transformation XML files
    The KETTLE export type is useful if you want to use Penthalo Data
    Integrator (Kettle) to import data to PostgreSQL. With this type of
    export Ora2Pg will generate one XML Kettle transformation files (.ktr)
    per table and add a line to manually execute the transformation in the
    output.sql file. For example:

            ora2pg -c ora2pg.conf -t KETTLE -j 12 -a MYTABLE -o load_mydata.sh

    will generate one file called 'HR.MYTABLE.ktr' and add a line to the
    output file (load_mydata.sh):



            JAVAMAXMEM=4096 ./pan.sh -file $KETTLE_TEMPLATE_PATH/HR.MYTABLE.ktr -level Detailed

    The -j 12 option will create a template with 12 processes to insert data
    into PostgreSQL. It is also possible to specify the number of parallel
    queries used to extract data from the Oracle with the -J command line
    option as follow:

            ora2pg -c ora2pg.conf -t KETTLE -J 4 -j 12 -a EMPLOYEES -o load_mydata.sh

    This is only possible if you have defined the technical key to used to
    split the query between cores in the DEFINED_PKEY configuration
    directive. For example:

            DEFINED_PK      EMPLOYEES:employee_id

    will force the number of Oracle connection copies to 4 and defined the
    SQL query as follow in the Kettle XML transformation file:

            <sql>SELECT * FROM HR.EMPLOYEES WHERE ABS(MOD(employee_id,${Internal.Step.Unique.Count}))=${Internal.Step.Unique.Number}</sql>

    The KETTLE export type requires that the Oracle and PostgreSQL DSN are
    defined. You can also activate the TRUNCATE_TABLE directive to force a
    truncation of the table before data import.

    The KETTLE export type is an original work of Marc Cousin.

  Migration cost assessment
    Estimating the cost of a migration process from Oracle to PostgreSQL is
    not easy. To obtain a good assessment of this migration cost, Ora2Pg
    will inspect all database objects, all functions and stored procedures
    to detect if there's still some objects and PL/SQL code that can not be
    automatically converted by Ora2Pg.

    Ora2Pg has a content analysis mode that inspect the Oracle database to
    generate a text report on what the Oracle database contains and what can
    not be exported.

    To activate the "analysis and report" mode, you have to use the export
    de type SHOW_REPORT like in the following command:

            ora2pg -t SHOW_REPORT

    Here is a sample report obtained with this command:

            Ora2Pg: Oracle Database Content Report
            Version Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release
            Schema  HR
            Size  880.00 MB
            Object  Number  Invalid Comments
            CLUSTER   2 0 Clusters are not supported and will not be exported.
            FUNCTION  40  0 Total size of function code: 81992.
            INDEX     435 0 232 index(es) are concerned by the export, others are automatically generated and will
                                            do so on PostgreSQL. 1 bitmap index(es). 230 b-tree index(es). 1 reversed b-tree index(es)
                                            Note that bitmap index(es) will be exported as b-tree index(es) if any. Cluster, domain,
                                            bitmap join and IOT indexes will not be exported at all. Reverse indexes are not exported
                                            too, you may use a trigram-based index (see pg_trgm) or a reverse() function based index
                                            and search. You may also use 'varchar_pattern_ops', 'text_pattern_ops' or 'bpchar_pattern_ops'
                                            operators in your indexes to improve search with the LIKE operator respectively into
                                            varchar, text or char columns.
            MATERIALIZED VIEW 1 0 All materialized view will be exported as snapshot materialized views, they
                                            are only updated when fully refreshed.
            PACKAGE BODY  2 1 Total size of package code: 20700.
            PROCEDURE 7 0 Total size of procedure code: 19198.
            SEQUENCE  160 0 Sequences are fully supported, but all call to sequence_name.NEXTVAL or sequence_name.CURRVAL
                                            will be transformed into NEXTVAL('sequence_name') or CURRVAL('sequence_name').
            TABLE     265 0 1 external table(s) will be exported as standard table. See EXTERNAL_TO_FDW configuration
                                            directive to export as file_fdw foreign tables or use COPY in your code if you just
                                            want to load data from external files. 2 binary columns. 4 unknown types.
            TABLE PARTITION 8 0 Partitions are exported using table inheritance and check constraint. 1 HASH partitions.
                                            2 LIST partitions. 6 RANGE partitions. Note that Hash partitions are not supported.
            TRIGGER   30  0 Total size of trigger code: 21677.
            TYPE      7 1 5 type(s) are concerned by the export, others are not supported. 2 Nested Tables.
                                            2 Object type. 1 Subtype. 1 Type Boby. 1 Type inherited. 1 Varrays. Note that Type
                                            inherited and Subtype are converted as table, type inheritance is not supported.
            TYPE BODY 0 3 Export of type with member method are not supported, they will not be exported.
            VIEW      7 0 Views are fully supported, but if you have updatable views you will need to use
                                            INSTEAD OF triggers.
            DATABASE LINK 1 0 Database links will not be exported. You may try the dblink perl contrib module or use
                                            the SQL/MED PostgreSQL features with the different Foreign Data Wrapper (FDW) extensions.
            Note: Invalid code will not be exported unless the EXPORT_INVALID configuration directive is activated.

    Once the database can be analysed, Ora2Pg, by his ability to convert SQL
    and PL/SQL code from Oracle syntax to PostgreSQL, can go further by
    estimating the code difficulties and estimate the time necessary to
    operate a full database migration.

    To estimate the migration cost in man-days, Ora2Pg allow you to use a
    configuration directive called ESTIMATE_COST that you can also enabled
    at command line:


    This feature can only be used with the SHOW_REPORT, FUNCTION, PROCEDURE,
    PACKAGE and QUERY export type.

            ora2pg -t SHOW_REPORT  --estimate_cost

    The generated report is same as above but with a new 'Estimated cost'
    column as follow:

            Ora2Pg: Oracle Database Content Report
            Version Oracle Database 10g Express Edition Release
            Schema  HR
            Size  890.00 MB
            Object  Number  Invalid Estimated cost  Comments
            DATABASE LINK  3 0 9 Database links will be exported as SQL/MED PostgreSQL's Foreign Data Wrapper (FDW) extensions
                                            using oracle_fdw.
            FUNCTION  2 0 7 Total size of function code: 369 bytes. HIGH_SALARY: 2, VALIDATE_SSN: 3.
            INDEX 21  0 11  11 index(es) are concerned by the export, others are automatically generated and will do so
                                            on PostgreSQL. 11 b-tree index(es). Note that bitmap index(es) will be exported as b-tree
                                            index(es) if any. Cluster, domain, bitmap join and IOT indexes will not be exported at all.
                                            Reverse indexes are not exported too, you may use a trigram-based index (see pg_trgm) or a
                                            reverse() function based index and search. You may also use 'varchar_pattern_ops', 'text_pattern_ops'
                                            or 'bpchar_pattern_ops' operators in your indexes to improve search with the LIKE operator
                                            respectively into varchar, text or char columns.
            JOB 0 0 0 Job are not exported. You may set external cron job with them.
            MATERIALIZED VIEW 1 0 3 All materialized view will be exported as snapshot materialized views, they
                                                    are only updated when fully refreshed.
            PACKAGE BODY  0 2 54  Total size of package code: 2487 bytes. Number of procedures and functions found
                                                    inside those packages: 7. two_proc.get_table: 10, emp_mgmt.create_dept: 4,
                                                    emp_mgmt.hire: 13, emp_mgmt.increase_comm: 4, emp_mgmt.increase_sal: 4,
                                                    emp_mgmt.remove_dept: 3, emp_mgmt.remove_emp: 2.
            PROCEDURE 4 0 39  Total size of procedure code: 2436 bytes. TEST_COMMENTAIRE: 2, SECURE_DML: 3,
                                                    PHD_GET_TABLE: 24, ADD_JOB_HISTORY: 6.
            SEQUENCE  3 0 0 Sequences are fully supported, but all call to sequence_name.NEXTVAL or sequence_name.CURRVAL
                                                    will be transformed into NEXTVAL('sequence_name') or CURRVAL('sequence_name').
            SYNONYM   3 0 4 SYNONYMs will be exported as views. SYNONYMs do not exists with PostgreSQL but a common workaround
                                                    is to use views or set the PostgreSQL search_path in your session to access
                                                    object outside the current schema.
                                                    user1.emp_details_view_v is an alias to hr.emp_details_view.
                                                    user1.emp_table is an alias to hr.employees@other_server.
                                                    user1.offices is an alias to hr.locations.
            TABLE 17  0 8.5 1 external table(s) will be exported as standard table. See EXTERNAL_TO_FDW configuration
                                            directive to export as file_fdw foreign tables or use COPY in your code if you just want to
                                            load data from external files. 2 binary columns. 4 unknown types.
            TRIGGER 1 1 4 Total size of trigger code: 123 bytes. UPDATE_JOB_HISTORY: 2.
            TYPE  7 1 5 5 type(s) are concerned by the export, others are not supported. 2 Nested Tables. 2 Object type.
                                            1 Subtype. 1 Type Boby. 1 Type inherited. 1 Varrays. Note that Type inherited and Subtype are
                                            converted as table, type inheritance is not supported.
            TYPE BODY 0 3 30  Export of type with member method are not supported, they will not be exported.
            VIEW  1 1 1 Views are fully supported, but if you have updatable views you will need to use INSTEAD OF triggers.
            Total 65  8 162.5 162.5 cost migration units means approximatively 2 man day(s).

    The last line shows the total estimated migration code in man-days
    following the number of migration units estimated for each object. This
    migration unit represent around five minutes for a PostgreSQL expert. If
    this is your first migration you can get it higher with the
    configuration directive COST_UNIT_VALUE or the --cost_unit_value command
    line option:

            ora2pg -t SHOW_REPORT  --estimate_cost --cost_unit_value 10

    Ora2Pg is also able to give you a migration difficulty level assessment,
    here a sample:

    Migration level: B-5

        Migration levels:
            A - Migration that might be run automatically
            B - Migration with code rewrite and a human-days cost up to 10 days
            C - Migration with code rewrite and a human-days cost above 10 days
        Technical levels:
            1 = trivial: no stored functions and no triggers
            2 = easy: no stored functions but with triggers, no manual rewriting
            3 = simple: stored functions and/or triggers, no manual rewriting
            4 = manual: no stored functions but with triggers or views with code rewriting
            5 = difficult: stored functions and/or triggers with code rewriting

    This assessment consist in a letter A or B to specify if the migration
    needs manual rewriting or not. And a number from 1 up to 5 to give you a
    technical difficulty level. You have an additional option
    --human_days_limit to specify the number of human-days limit where the
    migration level should be set to C to indicate that it need a huge
    amount of work and a full project management with migration support.
    Default is 10 human-days. You can use the configuration directive
    HUMAN_DAYS_LIMIT to change this default value permanently.

    This feature has been developped to help you or your boss to decide
    which database to migrate first and the team that must be mobilized to
    operate the migration.

  Global Oracle and MySQL migraton assessment
    Ora2Pg come with a script ora2pg_scanner that can be used when you have
    a huge number of instances and schema to scan for migration assessment.

    Usage: ora2pg_scanner -l CSVFILE [-o OUTDIR]

       -l | --list FILE : CSV file containing a list of database to scan with
                    all requiered information. The first line of the file
                    can contains the following header that describe the
                    format that must be used:


       -o | --outdir DIR : (optional) by default all reports will be dumped to a
                    directory named 'output', it will be created automatically.
                    If you want to change the name of this directory, set the name
                    at second argument.

       -t | --test : just try all connection by retrieving the requiered schema
                     or database name. Useful to validate your CSV list file.

       Here is a full example of a CSV database list file:


       The CSV field separator must be a comma.

    It will generate a CSV file with the assessment result, one line per
    schema or database and a detailed HTML report for each database scanned.

    Hint: Use the -t | --test option before to test all your connections in
    your CSV file.

  Migration assessment method
    Migration unit scores given to each type of Oracle database object are
    defined in the Perl library lib/Ora2Pg/PLSQL.pm in the %OBJECT_SCORE
    variable definition.

    The number of PL/SQL lines associated to a migration unit is also
    defined in this file in the $SIZE_SCORE variable value.

    The number of migration units associated to each PL/SQL code
    difficulties can be found in the same Perl library lib/Ora2Pg/PLSQL.pm
    in the hash %UNCOVERED_SCORE initialization.

    This assessment method is a work in progress so I'm expecting feedbacks
    on migration experiences to polish the scores/units attributed in those

  Improving indexes and constraints creation speed
    Using the LOAD export type and a file containing SQL orders to perform,
    it is possible to dispatch those orders over multiple PostgreSQL
    connections. To be able to use this feature, the PG_DSN, PG_USER and
    PG_PWD must be set. Then:

            ora2pg -t LOAD -c config/ora2pg.conf -i schema/tables/INDEXES_table.sql -j 4

    will dispatch indexes creation over 4 simultaneous PostgreSQL

    This will considerably accelerate this part of the migration process
    with huge data size.

  Exporting LONG RAW
    If you still have columns defined as LONG RAW, Ora2Pg will not be able
    to export these kind of data. The OCI library fail to export them and
    always return the same first record. To be able to export the data you
    need to transform the field as BLOB by creating a temporary table before
    migrating data. For example, the Oracle table:

             Name                 NULL ?   Type
             -------------------- -------- ----------------------------
             ID                            NUMBER
             C1                            LONG RAW

    need to be "translated" into a table using BLOB as follow:

            CREATE TABLE test_blob (id NUMBER, c1 BLOB);

    And then copy the data with the following INSERT query:

            INSERT INTO test_blob SELECT id, to_lob(c1) FROM test_longraw;

    Then you just have to exclude the original table from the export (see
    EXCLUDE directive) and to renamed the new temporary table on the fly
    using the REPLACE_TABLES configuration directive.

    Converting your queries with Oracle style outer join (+) syntax to ANSI
    standard SQL at the Oracle side can save you lot of time for the
    migration. You can use TOAD Query Builder can re-write these using the
    proper ANSI syntax, see:

    There's also an alternative with SQL Developer Data Modeler, see

    Toad is also able to rewrite the native Oracle DECODE() syntax into ANSI
    standard SQL CASE statement. You can find some slide about this in a
    presentation given at PgConf.RU:

  Test the migration
    The type of action called TEST allow you to check that all objects from
    Oracle database have been created under PostgreSQL. Of course PG_DSN
    must be set to be able to check PostgreSQL side. Note that this feature
    will respect the schema name limitation if EXPORT_SCHEMA and SCHEMA or
    PG_SCHEMA are defined.

            ora2pg -t TEST -c config/ora2pg.conf > migration_diff.txt

    Will create a file containing the report of all object and row count on
    both side, Oracle and PostgreSQL, with an error section giving you the
    detail of the differences for each kind of object. Here is a sample

            [TEST ROWS COUNT]
            [ERRORS ROWS COUNT]
            Table ptab2 does not exists in PostgreSQL database.

            [TEST INDEXES COUNT]
            Table departments doesn't have the same number of indexes in Oracle (2) and in PostgreSQL (1).

            [TEST VIEW COUNT]
            [ERRORS VIEW COUNT]
            OK, Oracle and PostgreSQL have the same number of VIEW.

            [TEST MVIEW COUNT]
            [ERRORS MVIEW COUNT]
            OK, Oracle and PostgreSQL have the same number of MVIEW.

            SEQUENCE does not have the same count in Oracle (1) and in PostgreSQL (0).

            [TEST TYPE COUNT]
            [ERRORS TYPE COUNT]
            TYPE does not have the same count in Oracle (1) and in PostgreSQL (0).

            [TEST FDW COUNT]
            [ERRORS FDW COUNT]
            OK, Oracle and PostgreSQL have the same number of FDW.

    Here we can see that one table, one index, one sequence and one user
    defined type have not been imported yet or have encountered an error.

  Author / Maintainer
    Gilles Darold <gilles AT darold DOT net>

    Please report any bugs, patches, help, etc. to <gilles AT darold DOT

  Feature request
    If you need new features let me know at <gilles AT darold DOT net>. This
    help a lot to develop a better/useful tool.

  How to contribute ?
    Any contribution to build a better tool is welcome, you just have to
    send me your ideas, features request or patches and there will be

    Copyright (c) 2000-2016 Gilles Darold - All rights reserved.

            This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
            it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
            the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
            any later version.

            This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
            but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
            GNU General Public License for more details.

            You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
            along with this program.  If not, see < http://www.gnu.org/licenses/ >.

    I must thanks a lot all the great contributors, see changelog for all