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  DIP: 0004
  Title: Simplified Verification of Deterministic Masternode Lists
  Author: Alexander Block, Samuel Westrich, UdjinM6, Andy Freer
  Comments-Summary: No comments yet.
  Status: Proposed
  Type: Standard
  Created: 2018-04-30
  License: MIT License

Table of Contents

  1. Abstract
  2. Motivation
  3. Prior Work
  4. History of the Coinbase Transaction
  5. Coinbase Special Transaction
  6. Requesting the masternode lists
  7. Tracking/Updating and verifying masternode lists based on MNLISTDIFF
  8. Copyright

Abstract

This DIP provides SPV (Simplified Payment Verification) clients the ability to verify the correctness of a network provided deterministic masternode list. This assumes that DIP2 and DIP3 have been deployed or are deployed at the same time as this DIP.

Motivation

A verifiable and correct masternode list is foundational to many Dash features, including verification of an InstantSend transaction, mixing in PrivateSend and many features of Evolution. The deterministic masternode lists introduced by DIP3 enable full derivation and verification of a masternode list via on-chain data. This, however, requires the full chain to be available to construct or verify this list. A SPV client does not have the full chain and thus would have to rely on a list provided by one or more nodes in the network. This provided list must be verifiable by the SPV client without needing the full chain. This DIP proposes additions to the block’s coinbase transaction and new P2P messages to get and update a masternode list with additional proof data.

Prior Work

History of the Coinbase Transaction

Currently, the coinbase transaction is just a classic transaction with a single input that has the “prevout” and “index” (hash and index of previous transaction output) fields set to zero and 0xffffffff, respectively, and at least one output which generates new coins (the miner/masternode reward and budget payments). Initially, the “scriptSig” field of the coinbase input could contain arbitrary data, but it was later changed to at least include the block’s height as the first item in order to guarantee some variation in the coinbase. Without this variation, a miner could have created a coinbase which resulted in the same hash as an older coinbase transaction. This change was enforced by the deployment of BIP34.

More data could have been potentially added the same way as defined in BIP34, however changing the coinbase to a special transaction became preferable with the introduction of special transactions (DIP2). This is because it provided a much cleaner solution and allowed future changes to be deployed in an easier, more consistent way.

Coinbase Special Transaction

The Coinbase Transactions will become a special transaction (DIP2) to the network. We abbreviate this transaction as CbTx. Miners must calculate the correct values for each field of the CbTx while all other nodes must verify correctness of these fields. If a node receives a block with an invalid CbTx, it must reject the block.

This DIP proposes adding 2 fields to the CbTx. These are the “height” and “merkleRootMNList” fields. Future DIPs might add additional fields to the CbTx.

The special transaction type used for Coinbase Transactions is 5.

The transaction consists of the following data in the payload area:

Field Type Size Description
version uint16_t 2 CbTx version number. Currently set to 1.
height uint32_t 4 Height of the block
merkleRootMNList uint256 32 Merkle root of the masternode list

Height in CbTx and deprecation of BIP34

The CbTx contains the “height” field. It acts as a guaranteed variance in the CbTx so that each block’s CbTx gets a different hash. This is meant as a replacement for the height value currently found in the coinbase input (BIP34). With the deployment of this DIP, BIP34 becomes obsolete for new blocks and nodes should not enforce the presence of the block height in the coinbase input's “scriptSig” anymore.

Miners must set this field to the block height of the current block being generated. Other nodes should validate that the CbTx of received blocks contains the correct block height.

Calculating the merkle root of the Masternode list

The CbTx contains the “merkleRootMNList” field. This is the merkle root of all the hashes of the Simplified Masternode List (SML) entries. A SML entry is defined in the next section.

To calculate the merkle root:

  1. Get the full masternode list (including PoSe-banned) of the current block. This list must also include all the updates which would have been performed by the data (DIP3 special transactions, PoSe verification, etc.) in the current block.
  2. Sort this list in ascending order by the hash of the ProRegTx of each entry.
  3. For each entry in the list, create a SML entry and calculate the hash of this entry and add the hash into a new list.
  4. Calculate the merkle root from this list of hashes in the same way it is done when calculating the merkle root of the block transactions.

SML (Simplified Masternode List) entry

A SML entry is used to calculate the hashes for the merkleRootMNList. It is also used in the new P2P messages when a SPV client requests a full masternode list or updates to a masternode list.

A SML entry consists of the following fields:

Field Type Size Description
proRegTxHash uint256 32 The hash of the ProRegTx that identifies the masternode
confirmedHash uint256 32 The hash of the block at which the masternode got confirmed
ipAddress byte[] 16 IPv6 address in network byte order. Only IPv4 mapped addresses are allowed (to be extended in the future)
port uint_16 2 Port (network byte order)
pubKeyOperator BLSPubKey 48 The operators public key
keyIDVoting CKeyID 20 The public key hash used for voting.
isValid bool 1 True if a masternode is not PoSe-banned

Requesting the masternode lists

The P2P message GETMNLISTDIFF is introduced to request a full masternode list or an update to a previously requested masternode list. It expects a serialized object with the following structure as arguments:

Field Type Size Description
baseBlockHash uint256 32 Hash of a block the requestor already has a valid masternode list of. Can be all-zero to indicate that a full masternode list is requested.
blockHash uint256 32 Hash of the block for which the masternode list diff is requested

After receiving the GETMNLISTDIFF P2P message, a node is required to respond with a new P2P message called MNLISTDIFF, which is described later.

To request a full masternode list, a SPV client would set the “baseBlockHash” field of GETMNLISTDIFF to an all-zero hash. In this case, the MNLISTDIFF response would not contain any “deletedMNs” entries. After receiving an initial full masternode list, the SPV client can then send a GETMNLISTDIFF message with the “baseBlockHash” field set to the block hash of the last known masternode list.

The MNLISTDIFF message contains a serialized object with the following structure:

Field Type Size Description
baseBlockHash uint256 32 Hash of the block on which this diff is based on
blockHash uint256 32 Hash of the block for which the masternode list diff is returned
totalTransactions uint32_t 4 Number of total transactions in blockHash
merkleHashesCount compactSize uint 1-9 Number of Merkle hashes
merkleHashes uint256[] variable Merkle hashes in depth-first order
merkleFlagsCount compactSize uint 1-9 Number of Merkle flag bytes
merkleFlags uint8_t[] variable Merkle flag bits, packed per 8 in a byte, least significant bit first
cbTx CTransaction variable The fully serialized coinbase transaction of blockHash
deletedMNcount compactSize uint 1-9 Number of ProRegTx hashes which were deleted after baseBlockHash
deletedMNs uint256[] variable A list of ProRegTx hashes for masternode which were deleted after baseBlockHash
mnCount compactSize uint 1-9 Number of SML entries which were added or updated since baseBlockHash
mnList SMLEntry[] variable The list of SML entries which were added or updated since baseBlockHash

Tracking/Updating and verifying masternode lists based on MNLISTDIFF

With DIP3, each block in the chain might result in a different masternode list. SPV clients are required to keep track of these multiple masternode lists so they can properly verify quorum related messages when the lists change. Very old masternode lists can be pruned as it is very unlikely that they are necessary.

To achieve this, It is suggested to first request a full masternode list from an old block, and then request a diff for each subsequent block that specifies the last processed block as baseBlockHash. Each MNLISTDIFF message received can be processed and verified in the same way (including non-continuous ones):

  1. Create a copy of the masternode list which was valid at “baseBlockHash”. If “baseBlockHash” is all-zero, an empty list must be used.
  2. Delete all entries found in “deletedMNs” from this list. Please note that “deletedMNs” contains the ProRegTx hashes of the masternodes and NOT the hashes of the SML entries.
  3. Add or replace all entries found in “mnList” in the list
  4. Calculate the merkle root of the list by following the “Calculating the merkle root of the Masternode list” section
  5. Compare the calculated merkle root with what is found in “cbTx”. If it does not match, abort the process and ask for diffs from another node.
  6. Calculate the hash of “cbTx” and verify existence of this transaction in the block specified by “blockHash”. To do this, use the already received block header and the fields “totalTransactions”, “merkleHashes” and “merkleFlags” from the MNLISTDIFF message and perform a merkle verification the same way as done when a “MERKLEBLOCK” message is received. If the verification fails, abort the process and ask for diffs from another node.
  7. Store the resulting validated masternode list identified by “blockHash”

Copyright

Copyright (c) 2018 Dash Core Team. Licensed under the MIT License

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