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""" Broadly applicable NGS processing/analysis functionality """
import os
import re
import subprocess
import errno
from attmap import AttMapEcho
from yacman import load_yaml
from .exceptions import UnsupportedFiletypeException
from .utils import is_fastq, is_gzipped_fastq, is_sam_or_bam
class NGSTk(AttMapEcho):
Class to hold functions to build command strings used during pipeline runs.
Object can be instantiated with a string of a path to a yaml `pipeline config file`.
Since NGSTk inherits from `AttMapEcho`, the passed config file and its elements
will be accessible through the NGSTk object as attributes under `config` (e.g.
``). In case no `config_file` argument is passed, all commands will
be returned assuming the tool is in the user's $PATH.
:param str config_file: Path to pipeline yaml config file (optional).
:param pypiper.PipelineManager pm: A PipelineManager with which to associate this toolkit instance;
that is, essentially a source from which to grab paths to tools,
resources, etc.
from pypiper.ngstk import NGSTk as tk
tk = NGSTk()
# returns: samtools index sample.bam
# Using a configuration file (custom executable location):
from pypiper.ngstk import NGSTk
tk = NGSTk("pipeline_config_file.yaml")
# returns: /home/.local/samtools/bin/samtools index sample.bam
def __init__(self, config_file=None, pm=None):
# parse yaml into the project's attributes
# self.add_entries(**config)
super(NGSTk, self).__init__(
None if config_file is None else load_yaml(config_file))
# Keep a link to the pipeline manager, if one is provided.
# if None is provided, instantiate "tools" and "parameters" with empty AttMaps
# this allows the usage of the same code for a command with and without using a pipeline manager
if pm is not None: = pm
if hasattr(pm.config, "tools"): =
else: = AttMapEcho()
if hasattr(pm.config, "parameters"):
self.parameters =
self.parameters = AttMapEcho()
else: = AttMapEcho()
self.parameters = AttMapEcho()
# If pigz is available, use that. Otherwise, default to gzip.
if hasattr(, "cores") and > 1 and self.check_command("pigz"):
self.ziptool_cmd = "pigz -f -p {}".format(
self.ziptool_cmd = "gzip -f"
def _ensure_folders(self, *paths):
Ensure that paths to folder(s) exist.
Some command-line tools will not attempt to create folder(s) needed
for output path to exist. They instead assume that they already are
present and will fail if that assumption does not hold.
:param Iterable[str] paths: Collection of path for which
for p in paths:
# Only provide assurance for absolute paths.
if not p or not os.path.isabs(p):
# See if what we're assuring is file- or folder-like.
fpath, fname = os.path.split(p)
base, ext = os.path.splitext(fname)
# If there's no extension, ensure that we have the whole path.
# Otherwise, just ensure that we have path to file's folder.
self.make_dir(fpath if ext else p)
def ziptool(self):
Returns the command to use for compressing/decompressing.
:return str: Either 'gzip' or 'pigz' if installed and multiple cores
return self.ziptool_cmd
def make_dir(self, path):
Forge path to directory, creating intermediates as needed.
:param str path: Path to create.
except OSError as exception:
if exception.errno != errno.EEXIST:
def make_sure_path_exists(self, path):
""" Alias for make_dir """
# Borrowed from looper
def check_command(self, command):
Check if command can be called.
# Use `command` to see if command is callable, store exit code
code = os.system("command -v {0} >/dev/null 2>&1 || {{ exit 1; }}".format(command))
# If exit code is not 0, report which command failed and return False, else return True
if code != 0:
print("Command is not callable: {0}".format(command))
return False
return True
def get_file_size(self, filenames):
Get size of all files in string (space-separated) in megabytes (Mb).
:param str filenames: a space-separated string of filenames
# use (1024 ** 3) for gigabytes
# equivalent to: stat -Lc '%s' filename
# If given a list, recurse through it.
if type(filenames) is list:
return sum([self.get_file_size(filename) for filename in filenames])
return round(sum([float(os.stat(f).st_size) for f in filenames.split(" ")]) / (1024 ** 2), 4)
def mark_duplicates(self, aligned_file, out_file, metrics_file, remove_duplicates="True"):
cmd =
if # If a memory restriction exists.
cmd += " -Xmx" +
cmd += " -jar " + + " MarkDuplicates"
cmd += " INPUT=" + aligned_file
cmd += " OUTPUT=" + out_file
cmd += " METRICS_FILE=" + metrics_file
cmd += " REMOVE_DUPLICATES=" + remove_duplicates
return cmd
def bam2fastq(self, input_bam, output_fastq,
output_fastq2=None, unpaired_fastq=None):
Create command to convert BAM(s) to FASTQ(s).
:param str input_bam: Path to sequencing reads file to convert
:param output_fastq: Path to FASTQ to write
:param output_fastq2: Path to (R2) FASTQ to write
:param unpaired_fastq: Path to unpaired FASTQ to write
:return str: Command to convert BAM(s) to FASTQ(s)
self._ensure_folders(output_fastq, output_fastq2, unpaired_fastq)
cmd = + " -Xmx" +
cmd += " -jar " + + " SamToFastq"
cmd += " INPUT={0}".format(input_bam)
cmd += " FASTQ={0}".format(output_fastq)
if output_fastq2 is not None and unpaired_fastq is not None:
cmd += " SECOND_END_FASTQ={0}".format(output_fastq2)
cmd += " UNPAIRED_FASTQ={0}".format(unpaired_fastq)
return cmd
def bam_to_fastq(self, bam_file, out_fastq_pre, paired_end):
Build command to convert BAM file to FASTQ file(s) (R1/R2).
:param str bam_file: path to BAM file with sequencing reads
:param str out_fastq_pre: path prefix for output FASTQ file(s)
:param bool paired_end: whether the given file contains paired-end
or single-end sequencing reads
:return str: file conversion command, ready to run
cmd = + " -Xmx" +
cmd += " -jar " + + " SamToFastq"
cmd += " I=" + bam_file
cmd += " F=" + out_fastq_pre + "_R1.fastq"
if paired_end:
cmd += " F2=" + out_fastq_pre + "_R2.fastq"
cmd += " INCLUDE_NON_PF_READS=true"
cmd += " QUIET=true"
return cmd
def bam_to_fastq_awk(self, bam_file, out_fastq_pre, paired_end, zipmode=False):
This converts bam file to fastq files, but using awk. As of 2016, this is much faster
than the standard way of doing this using Picard, and also much faster than the
bedtools implementation as well; however, it does no sanity checks and assumes the reads
(for paired data) are all paired (no singletons), in the correct order.
:param bool zipmode: Should the output be zipped?
fq1 = out_fastq_pre + "_R1.fastq"
fq2 = out_fastq_pre + "_R2.fastq"
if zipmode:
fq1 = fq1 + ".gz"
fq2 = fq2 + ".gz"
fq1_target = " | \"" + self.ziptool + " -c > " + fq1 + '"'
fq2_target = " | \"" + self.ziptool + " -c > " + fq2 + '"'
fq1_target = ' > "' + fq1 + '"'
fq2_target = ' > "' + fq2 + '"'
if paired_end:
cmd = + " view " + bam_file + " | awk '"
cmd += r'{ if (NR%2==1) print "@"$1"/1\n"$10"\n+\n"$11' + fq1_target + ';'
cmd += r' else print "@"$1"/2\n"$10"\n+\n"$11' + fq2_target + '; }'
cmd += "'" # end the awk command
fq2 = None
cmd = + " view " + bam_file + " | awk '"
cmd += r'{ print "@"$1"\n"$10"\n+\n"$11' + fq1_target + '; }'
cmd += "'"
return cmd, fq1, fq2
def bam_to_fastq_bedtools(self, bam_file, out_fastq_pre, paired_end):
Converts bam to fastq; A version using bedtools
fq1 = out_fastq_pre + "_R1.fastq"
fq2 = None
cmd = + " bamtofastq -i " + bam_file + " -fq " + fq1 + ".fastq"
if paired_end:
fq2 = out_fastq_pre + "_R2.fastq"
cmd += " -fq2 " + fq2
return cmd, fq1, fq2
def get_input_ext(self, input_file):
Get the extension of the input_file. Assumes you're using either
.bam or .fastq/.fq or .fastq.gz/.fq.gz.
if input_file.endswith(".bam"):
input_ext = ".bam"
elif input_file.endswith(".fastq.gz") or input_file.endswith(".fq.gz"):
input_ext = ".fastq.gz"
elif input_file.endswith(".fastq") or input_file.endswith(".fq"):
input_ext = ".fastq"
errmsg = "'{}'; this pipeline can only deal with .bam, .fastq, " \
"or .fastq.gz files".format(input_file)
raise UnsupportedFiletypeException(errmsg)
return input_ext
def merge_or_link(self, input_args, raw_folder, local_base="sample"):
Standardizes various input possibilities by converting either .bam,
.fastq, or .fastq.gz files into a local file; merging those if multiple
files given.
:param list input_args: This is a list of arguments, each one is a
class of inputs (which can in turn be a string or a list).
Typically, input_args is a list with 2 elements: first a list of
read1 files; second an (optional!) list of read2 files.
:param str raw_folder: Name/path of folder for the merge/link.
:param str local_base: Usually the sample name. This (plus file
extension) will be the name of the local file linked (or merged)
by this function.
if not isinstance(input_args, list):
raise Exception("Input must be a list")
if any(isinstance(i, list) for i in input_args):
# We have a list of lists. Process each individually.
local_input_files = list()
n_input_files = len(filter(bool, input_args))
print("Number of input file sets: " + str(n_input_files))
for input_i, input_arg in enumerate(input_args):
# Count how many non-null items there are in the list;
# we only append _R1 (etc.) if there are multiple input files.
if n_input_files > 1:
local_base_extended = local_base + "_R" + str(input_i + 1)
local_base_extended = local_base
if input_arg:
out = self.merge_or_link(
input_arg, raw_folder, local_base_extended)
print("Local input file: '{}'".format(out))
# Make sure file exists:
if not os.path.isfile(out):
print("Not a file: '{}'".format(out))
return local_input_files
# We have a list of individual arguments. Merge them.
if len(input_args) == 1:
# Only one argument in this list. A single input file; we just link
# it, regardless of file type:
# Pull the value out of the list
input_arg = input_args[0]
input_ext = self.get_input_ext(input_arg)
# Convert to absolute path
if not os.path.isabs(input_arg):
input_arg = os.path.abspath(input_arg)
# Link it to into the raw folder
local_input_abs = os.path.join(raw_folder, local_base + input_ext)
"ln -sf " + input_arg + " " + local_input_abs,
# return the local (linked) filename absolute path
return local_input_abs
# Otherwise, there are multiple inputs.
# If more than 1 input file is given, then these are to be merged
# if they are in bam format.
if all([self.get_input_ext(x) == ".bam" for x in input_args]):
sample_merged = local_base + ".merged.bam"
output_merge = os.path.join(raw_folder, sample_merged)
cmd = self.merge_bams_samtools(input_args, output_merge)"cmd: {}".format(cmd)), output_merge)
cmd2 = self.validate_bam(output_merge), output_merge, nofail=True)
return output_merge
# if multiple fastq
if all([self.get_input_ext(x) == ".fastq.gz" for x in input_args]):
sample_merged_gz = local_base + ".merged.fastq.gz"
output_merge_gz = os.path.join(raw_folder, sample_merged_gz)
#cmd1 = self.ziptool + "-d -c " + " ".join(input_args) + " > " + output_merge
#cmd2 = self.ziptool + " " + output_merge[cmd1, cmd2], output_merge_gz)
# you can save yourself the decompression/recompression:
cmd = "cat " + " ".join(input_args) + " > " + output_merge_gz, output_merge_gz)
return output_merge_gz
if all([self.get_input_ext(x) == ".fastq" for x in input_args]):
sample_merged = local_base + ".merged.fastq"
output_merge = os.path.join(raw_folder, sample_merged)
cmd = "cat " + " ".join(input_args) + " > " + output_merge, output_merge)
return output_merge
# At this point, we don't recognize the input file types or they
# do not match.
raise NotImplementedError(
"Input files must be of the same type, and can only "
"merge bam or fastq.")
def input_to_fastq(
self, input_file, sample_name, paired_end, fastq_folder,
output_file=None, multiclass=False, zipmode=False):
Builds a command to convert input file to fastq, for various inputs.
Takes either .bam, .fastq.gz, or .fastq input and returns
commands that will create the .fastq file, regardless of input type.
This is useful to made your pipeline easily accept any of these input
types seamlessly, standardizing you to fastq which is still the
most common format for adapter trimmers, etc. You can specify you want
output either zipped or not.
Commands will place the output fastq file in given `fastq_folder`.
:param str input_file: filename of input you want to convert to fastq
:param bool multiclass: Are both read1 and read2 included in a single
file? User should not need to set this; it will be inferred and used
in recursive calls, based on number files, and the paired_end arg.
:param bool zipmode: Should the output be .fastq.gz? Otherwise, just fastq
:return str: A command (to be run with PipelineManager) that will ensure
your fastq file exists.
fastq_prefix = os.path.join(fastq_folder, sample_name)
# this expects a list; if it gets a string, wrap it in a list.
if type(input_file) != list:
input_file = [input_file]
# If multiple files were provided, recurse on each file individually
if len(input_file) > 1:
cmd = []
output_file = []
for in_i, in_arg in enumerate(input_file):
output = fastq_prefix + "_R" + str(in_i + 1) + ".fastq"
result_cmd, uf, result_file = \
self.input_to_fastq(in_arg, sample_name, paired_end,
fastq_folder, output, multiclass=True,
# There was only 1 input class.
# Convert back into a string
input_file = input_file[0]
if not output_file:
output_file = fastq_prefix + "_R1.fastq"
if zipmode:
output_file = output_file + ".gz"
input_ext = self.get_input_ext(input_file) # handles .fq or .fastq
if input_ext == ".bam":
print("Found .bam file")
#cmd = self.bam_to_fastq(input_file, fastq_prefix, paired_end)
cmd, fq1, fq2 = self.bam_to_fastq_awk(input_file, fastq_prefix, paired_end, zipmode)
#, output_file, follow=check_fastq)
if fq2:
output_file = [fq1, fq2]
output_file = fq1
elif input_ext == ".fastq.gz":
print("Found .fastq.gz file")
if paired_end and not multiclass:
if zipmode:
raise NotImplementedError("Can't use zipmode on interleaved fastq data.")
# For paired-end reads in one fastq file, we must split the
# file into 2. The pipeline author will need to include this
# python script in the scripts directory.
# TODO: make this self-contained in pypiper. This is a rare
# use case these days, as fastq files are almost never
# interleaved anymore.
script_path = os.path.join(, "")
cmd = + " -u " + script_path
cmd += " -i " + input_file
cmd += " -o " + fastq_prefix
# Must also return the set of output files
output_file = [fastq_prefix + "_R1.fastq", fastq_prefix + "_R2.fastq"]
if zipmode:
# we do nothing!
cmd = "ln -sf " + input_file + " " + output_file
print("Found .fq.gz file; no conversion necessary")
# For single-end reads, we just unzip the fastq.gz file.
# or, paired-end reads that were already split.
cmd = self.ziptool + " -d -c " + input_file + " > " + output_file
# a non-shell version
# cmd1 = "gunzip --force " + input_file
# cmd2 = "mv " + os.path.splitext(input_file)[0] + " " + output_file
# cmd = [cmd1, cmd2]
elif input_ext == ".fastq":
if zipmode:
cmd = self.ziptool + " -c " + input_file + " > " + output_file
cmd = "ln -sf " + input_file + " " + output_file
print("Found .fastq file; no conversion necessary")
return [cmd, fastq_prefix, output_file]
def check_fastq(self, input_files, output_files, paired_end):
Returns a follow sanity-check function to be run after a fastq conversion.
Run following a command that will produce the fastq files.
This function will make sure any input files have the same number of reads as the
output files.
# Define a temporary function which we will return, to be called by the
# pipeline.
# Must define default parameters here based on the parameters passed in. This locks
# these values in place, so that the variables will be defined when this function
# is called without parameters as a follow function by
# This is AFTER merge, so if there are multiple files it means the
# files were split into read1/read2; therefore I must divide by number
# of files for final reads.
def temp_func(input_files=input_files, output_files=output_files,
if type(input_files) != list:
input_files = [input_files]
if type(output_files) != list:
output_files = [output_files]
n_input_files = len(filter(bool, input_files))
n_output_files = len(filter(bool, output_files))
total_reads = sum([int(self.count_reads(input_file, paired_end))
for input_file in input_files])
raw_reads = int(total_reads / n_input_files)"Raw_reads", str(raw_reads))
total_fastq_reads = sum(
[int(self.count_reads(output_file, paired_end))
for output_file in output_files])
fastq_reads = int(total_fastq_reads / n_output_files)"Fastq_reads", fastq_reads)
input_ext = self.get_input_ext(input_files[0])
# We can only assess pass filter reads in bam files with flags.
if input_ext == ".bam":
num_failed_filter = sum(
[int(self.count_fail_reads(f, paired_end))
for f in input_files])
pf_reads = int(raw_reads) - num_failed_filter"PF_reads", str(pf_reads))
if fastq_reads != int(raw_reads):
raise Exception("Fastq conversion error? Number of input reads "
"doesn't number of output reads.")
return fastq_reads
return temp_func
def check_trim(self, trimmed_fastq, paired_end, trimmed_fastq_R2=None, fastqc_folder=None):
Build function to evaluate read trimming, and optionally run fastqc.
This is useful to construct an argument for the 'follow' parameter of
a PipelineManager's 'run' method.
:param str trimmed_fastq: Path to trimmed reads file.
:param bool paired_end: Whether the processing is being done with
paired-end sequencing data.
:param str trimmed_fastq_R2: Path to read 2 file for the paired-end case.
:param str fastqc_folder: Path to folder within which to place fastqc
output files; if unspecified, fastqc will not be run.
:return callable: Function to evaluate read trimming and possibly run
def temp_func():
print("Evaluating read trimming")
if paired_end and not trimmed_fastq_R2:
print("WARNING: specified paired-end but no R2 file")
n_trim = float(self.count_reads(trimmed_fastq, paired_end))"Trimmed_reads", int(n_trim))
rr = float("Raw_reads"))
print("Can't calculate trim loss rate without raw read result.")
"Trim_loss_rate", round((rr - n_trim) * 100 / rr, 2))
# Also run a fastqc (if installed/requested)
if fastqc_folder:
if fastqc_folder and os.path.isabs(fastqc_folder):
cmd = self.fastqc(trimmed_fastq, fastqc_folder), lock_name="trimmed_fastqc", nofail=True)
fname, ext = os.path.splitext(os.path.basename(trimmed_fastq))
fastqc_html = os.path.join(fastqc_folder, fname + "_fastqc.html")"FastQC report r1", fastqc_html)
if paired_end and trimmed_fastq_R2:
cmd = self.fastqc(trimmed_fastq_R2, fastqc_folder), lock_name="trimmed_fastqc_R2", nofail=True)
fname, ext = os.path.splitext(os.path.basename(trimmed_fastq_R2))
fastqc_html = os.path.join(fastqc_folder, fname + "_fastqc.html")"FastQC report r2", fastqc_html)
return temp_func
def validate_bam(self, input_bam):
Wrapper for Picard's ValidateSamFile.
:param str input_bam: Path to file to validate.
:return str: Command to run for the validation.
cmd = + " -Xmx" +
cmd += " -jar " + + " ValidateSamFile"
cmd += " INPUT=" + input_bam
return cmd
def merge_bams(self, input_bams, merged_bam, in_sorted="TRUE", tmp_dir=None):
Combine multiple files into one.
The tmp_dir parameter is important because on poorly configured
systems, the default can sometimes fill up.
:param Iterable[str] input_bams: Paths to files to combine
:param str merged_bam: Path to which to write combined result.
:param bool | str in_sorted: Whether the inputs are sorted
:param str tmp_dir: Path to temporary directory.
if not len(input_bams) > 1:
print("No merge required")
return 0
outdir, _ = os.path.split(merged_bam)
if outdir and not os.path.exists(outdir):
print("Creating path to merge file's folder: '{}'".format(outdir))
# Handle more intuitive boolean argument.
if in_sorted in [False, True]:
in_sorted = "TRUE" if in_sorted else "FALSE"
input_string = " INPUT=" + " INPUT=".join(input_bams)
cmd = + " -Xmx" +
cmd += " -jar " + + " MergeSamFiles"
cmd += input_string
cmd += " OUTPUT=" + merged_bam
cmd += " ASSUME_SORTED=" + str(in_sorted)
if tmp_dir:
cmd += " TMP_DIR=" + tmp_dir
return cmd
def merge_bams_samtools(self, input_bams, merged_bam):
cmd = + " merge -f "
cmd += " -@ " + str(
cmd += " " + merged_bam + " "
cmd += " ".join(input_bams)
return cmd
def merge_fastq(self, inputs, output, run=False, remove_inputs=False):
Merge FASTQ files (zipped or not) into one.
:param Iterable[str] inputs: Collection of paths to files to merge.
:param str output: Path to single output file.
:param bool run: Whether to run the command.
:param bool remove_inputs: Whether to keep the original files.
:return NoneType | str: Null if running the command, otherwise the
command itself
:raise ValueError: Raise ValueError if the call is such that
inputs are to be deleted but command is not run.
if remove_inputs and not run:
raise ValueError("Can't delete files if command isn't run")
cmd = "cat {} > {}".format(" ".join(inputs), output)
if run:
subprocess.check_call(cmd.split(), shell=True)
if remove_inputs:
cmd = "rm {}".format(" ".join(inputs))
subprocess.check_call(cmd.split(), shell=True)
return cmd
def count_lines(self, file_name):
Uses the command-line utility wc to count the number of lines in a file. For MacOS, must strip leading whitespace from wc.
:param str file_name: name of file whose lines are to be counted
x = subprocess.check_output("wc -l " + file_name + " | sed -E 's/^[[:space:]]+//' | cut -f1 -d' '", shell=True)
return x.decode().strip()
def count_lines_zip(self, file_name):
Uses the command-line utility wc to count the number of lines in a file. For MacOS, must strip leading whitespace from wc.
For compressed files.
:param file: file_name
x = subprocess.check_output(self.ziptool + " -d -c " + file_name + " | wc -l | sed -E 's/^[[:space:]]+//' | cut -f1 -d' '", shell=True)
return x.decode().strip()
def get_chrs_from_bam(self, file_name):
Uses samtools to grab the chromosomes from the header that are contained
in this bam file.
x = subprocess.check_output( + " view -H " + file_name + " | grep '^@SQ' | cut -f2| sed s'/SN://'", shell=True)
# Chromosomes will be separated by newlines; split into list to return
return x.decode().split()
# Read counting functions
# In these functions, A paired-end read, with 2 sequences, counts as a two reads
def count_unique_reads(self, file_name, paired_end):
Sometimes alignment software puts multiple locations for a single read; if you just count
those reads, you will get an inaccurate count. This is _not_ the same as multimapping reads,
which may or may not be actually duplicated in the bam file (depending on the alignment
This function counts each read only once.
This accounts for paired end or not for free because pairs have the same read name.
In this function, a paired-end read would count as 2 reads.
if file_name.endswith("sam"):
param = "-S"
if file_name.endswith("bam"):
param = ""
if paired_end:
r1 = self.samtools_view(file_name, param=param + " -f64", postpend=" | cut -f1 | sort -k1,1 -u | wc -l | sed -E 's/^[[:space:]]+//'")
r2 = self.samtools_view(file_name, param=param + " -f128", postpend=" | cut -f1 | sort -k1,1 -u | wc -l | sed -E 's/^[[:space:]]+//'")
r1 = self.samtools_view(file_name, param=param + "", postpend=" | cut -f1 | sort -k1,1 -u | wc -l | sed -E 's/^[[:space:]]+//'")
r2 = 0
return int(r1) + int(r2)
def count_unique_mapped_reads(self, file_name, paired_end):
For a bam or sam file with paired or or single-end reads, returns the
number of mapped reads, counting each read only once, even if it appears
mapped at multiple locations.
:param str file_name: name of reads file
:param bool paired_end: True/False paired end data
:return int: Number of uniquely mapped reads.
_, ext = os.path.splitext(file_name)
ext = ext.lower()
if ext == ".sam":
param = "-S -F4"
elif ext == "bam":
param = "-F4"
raise ValueError("Not a SAM or BAM: '{}'".format(file_name))
if paired_end:
r1 = self.samtools_view(file_name, param=param + " -f64", postpend=" | cut -f1 | sort -k1,1 -u | wc -l | sed -E 's/^[[:space:]]+//'")
r2 = self.samtools_view(file_name, param=param + " -f128", postpend=" | cut -f1 | sort -k1,1 -u | wc -l | sed -E 's/^[[:space:]]+//'")
r1 = self.samtools_view(file_name, param=param + "", postpend=" | cut -f1 | sort -k1,1 -u | wc -l | sed -E 's/^[[:space:]]+//'")
r2 = 0
return int(r1) + int(r2)
def count_flag_reads(self, file_name, flag, paired_end):
Counts the number of reads with the specified flag.
:param str file_name: name of reads file
:param str flag: sam flag value to be read
:param bool paired_end: This parameter is ignored; samtools automatically correctly responds depending
on the data in the bamfile. We leave the option here just for consistency, since all the other
counting functions require the parameter. This makes it easier to swap counting functions during
pipeline development.
param = " -c -f" + str(flag)
if file_name.endswith("sam"):
param += " -S"
return self.samtools_view(file_name, param=param)
def count_multimapping_reads(self, file_name, paired_end):
Counts the number of reads that mapped to multiple locations. Warning:
currently, if the alignment software includes the reads at multiple locations, this function
will count those more than once. This function is for software that randomly assigns,
but flags reads as multimappers.
:param str file_name: name of reads file
:param paired_end: This parameter is ignored; samtools automatically correctly responds depending
on the data in the bamfile. We leave the option here just for consistency, since all the other
counting functions require the parameter. This makes it easier to swap counting functions during
pipeline development.
return int(self.count_flag_reads(file_name, 256, paired_end))
def count_uniquelymapping_reads(self, file_name, paired_end):
Counts the number of reads that mapped to a unique position.
:param str file_name: name of reads file
:param bool paired_end: This parameter is ignored.
param = " -c -F256"
if file_name.endswith("sam"):
param += " -S"
return self.samtools_view(file_name, param=param)
def count_fail_reads(self, file_name, paired_end):
Counts the number of reads that failed platform/vendor quality checks.
:param paired_end: This parameter is ignored; samtools automatically correctly responds depending
on the data in the bamfile. We leave the option here just for consistency, since all the other
counting functions require the parameter. This makes it easier to swap counting functions during
pipeline development.
return int(self.count_flag_reads(file_name, 512, paired_end))
def samtools_view(self, file_name, param, postpend=""):
Run samtools view, with flexible parameters and post-processing.
This is used internally to implement the various count_reads functions.
:param str file_name: file_name
:param str param: String of parameters to pass to samtools view
:param str postpend: String to append to the samtools command;
useful to add cut, sort, wc operations to the samtools view output.
cmd = "{} view {} {} {}".format(, param, file_name, postpend)
# in python 3, check_output returns a byte string which causes issues.
# with python 3.6 we could use argument: "encoding='UTF-8'""
return subprocess.check_output(cmd, shell=True).decode().strip()
def count_reads(self, file_name, paired_end):
Count reads in a file.
Paired-end reads count as 2 in this function.
For paired-end reads, this function assumes that the reads are split
into 2 files, so it divides line count by 2 instead of 4.
This will thus give an incorrect result if your paired-end fastq files
are in only a single file (you must divide by 2 again).
:param str file_name: Name/path of file whose reads are to be counted.
:param bool paired_end: Whether the file contains paired-end reads.
_, ext = os.path.splitext(file_name)
if not (is_sam_or_bam(file_name) or is_fastq(file_name)):
# TODO: make this an exception and force caller to handle that
# rather than relying on knowledge of possibility of negative value.
return -1
if is_sam_or_bam(file_name):
param_text = "-c" if ext == ".bam" else "-c -S"
return self.samtools_view(file_name, param=param_text)
num_lines = self.count_lines_zip(file_name) \
if is_gzipped_fastq(file_name) \
else self.count_lines(file_name)
divisor = 2 if paired_end else 4
return int(num_lines) / divisor
def count_concordant(self, aligned_bam):
Count only reads that "aligned concordantly exactly 1 time."
:param str aligned_bam: File for which to count mapped reads.
cmd = + " view " + aligned_bam + " | "
cmd += "grep 'YT:Z:CP'" + " | uniq -u | wc -l | sed -E 's/^[[:space:]]+//'"
return subprocess.check_output(cmd, shell=True).decode().strip()
def count_mapped_reads(self, file_name, paired_end):
Mapped_reads are not in fastq format, so this one doesn't need to accommodate fastq,
and therefore, doesn't require a paired-end parameter because it only uses samtools view.
Therefore, it's ok that it has a default parameter, since this is discarded.
:param str file_name: File for which to count mapped reads.
:param bool paired_end: This parameter is ignored; samtools automatically correctly responds depending
on the data in the bamfile. We leave the option here just for consistency, since all the other
counting functions require the parameter. This makes it easier to swap counting functions during
pipeline development.
:return int: Either return code from samtools view command, or -1 to indicate an error state.
if file_name.endswith("bam"):
return self.samtools_view(file_name, param="-c -F4")
if file_name.endswith("sam"):
return self.samtools_view(file_name, param="-c -F4 -S")
return -1
def sam_conversions(self, sam_file, depth=True):
Convert sam files to bam files, then sort and index them for later use.
:param bool depth: also calculate coverage over each position
cmd = + " view -bS " + sam_file + " > " + sam_file.replace(".sam", ".bam") + "\n"
cmd += + " sort " + sam_file.replace(".sam", ".bam") + " -o " + sam_file.replace(".sam", "_sorted.bam") + "\n"
cmd += + " index " + sam_file.replace(".sam", "_sorted.bam") + "\n"
if depth:
cmd += + " depth " + sam_file.replace(".sam", "_sorted.bam") + " > " + sam_file.replace(".sam", "_sorted.depth") + "\n"
return cmd
def bam_conversions(self, bam_file, depth=True):
Sort and index bam files for later use.
:param bool depth: also calculate coverage over each position
cmd = + " view -h " + bam_file + " > " + bam_file.replace(".bam", ".sam") + "\n"
cmd += + " sort " + bam_file + " -o " + bam_file.replace(".bam", "_sorted.bam") + "\n"
cmd += + " index " + bam_file.replace(".bam", "_sorted.bam") + "\n"
if depth:
cmd += + " depth " + bam_file.replace(".bam", "_sorted.bam") + " > " + bam_file.replace(".bam", "_sorted.depth") + "\n"
return cmd
def fastqc(self, file, output_dir):
Create command to run fastqc on a FASTQ file
:param str file: Path to file with sequencing reads
:param str output_dir: Path to folder in which to place output
:return str: Command with which to run fastqc
# You can find the fastqc help with fastqc --help
pm =
except AttributeError:
# Do nothing, this is just for path construction.
if not os.path.isabs(output_dir) and pm is not None:
output_dir = os.path.join(pm.outfolder, output_dir)
return "{} --noextract --outdir {} {}".\
format(, output_dir, file)
def fastqc_rename(self, input_bam, output_dir, sample_name):
Create pair of commands to run fastqc and organize files.
The first command returned is the one that actually runs fastqc when
it's executed; the second moves the output files to the output
folder for the sample indicated.
:param str input_bam: Path to file for which to run fastqc.
:param str output_dir: Path to folder in which fastqc output will be
written, and within which the sample's output folder lives.
:param str sample_name: Sample name, which determines subfolder within
output_dir for the fastqc files.
:return list[str]: Pair of commands, to run fastqc and then move the files to
their intended destination based on sample name.
cmds = list()
initial = os.path.splitext(os.path.basename(input_bam))[0]
cmd1 = self.fastqc(input_bam, output_dir)
cmd2 = "if [[ ! -s {1}_fastqc.html ]]; then mv {0}_fastqc.html {1}_fastqc.html; mv {0} {1}; fi".format(
os.path.join(output_dir, initial), os.path.join(output_dir, sample_name))
return cmds
def samtools_index(self, bam_file):
"""Index a bam file."""
cmd = + " index {0}".format(bam_file)
return cmd
def slurm_header(
self, job_name, output, queue="shortq", n_tasks=1, time="10:00:00",
cpus_per_task=8, mem_per_cpu=2000, nodes=1, user_mail="", mail_type="end"):
cmd = """ #!/bin/bash
#SBATCH --partition={0}
#SBATCH --ntasks={1}
#SBATCH --time={2}
#SBATCH --cpus-per-task={3}
#SBATCH --mem-per-cpu={4}
#SBATCH --nodes={5}
#SBATCH --job-name={6}
#SBATCH --output={7}
#SBATCH --mail-type={8}
#SBATCH --mail-user={9}
# Start running the job
queue, n_tasks, time, cpus_per_task, mem_per_cpu,
nodes, job_name, output, mail_type, user_mail)
return cmd
def slurm_footer(self):
return " date"
def slurm_submit_job(self, job_file):
return os.system("sbatch %s" % job_file)
def remove_file(self, file_name):
return "rm {0}".format(file_name)
def move_file(self, old, new):
return "mv {0} {1}".format(old, new)
def preseq_curve(self, bam_file, output_prefix):
return """
preseq c_curve -B -P -o {0}.yield.txt {1}
""".format(output_prefix, bam_file)
def preseq_extrapolate(self, bam_file, output_prefix):
return """
preseq lc_extrap -v -B -P -e 1e+9 -o {0}.future_yield.txt {1}
""".format(output_prefix, bam_file)
def preseq_coverage(self, bam_file, output_prefix):
return """
preseq gc_extrap -o {0}.future_coverage.txt {1}
""".format(output_prefix, bam_file)
def trimmomatic(
self, input_fastq1, output_fastq1, cpus, adapters, log,
input_fastq2=None, output_fastq1_unpaired=None,
output_fastq2=None, output_fastq2_unpaired=None):
PE = False if input_fastq2 is None else True
pe = "PE" if PE else "SE"
cmd = + " -Xmx" +
cmd += " -jar " +
cmd += " {0} -threads {1} -trimlog {2} {3}".format(pe, cpus, log, input_fastq1)
if PE:
cmd += " {0}".format(input_fastq2)
cmd += " {0}".format(output_fastq1)
if PE:
cmd += " {0} {1} {2}".format(output_fastq1_unpaired, output_fastq2, output_fastq2_unpaired)
cmd += " ILLUMINACLIP:{0}:1:40:15:8:true".format(adapters)
cmd += " LEADING:3 TRAILING:3"
cmd += " SLIDINGWINDOW:4:10"
cmd += " MINLEN:36"
return cmd
def skewer(
self, input_fastq1, output_prefix, output_fastq1,
log, cpus, adapters, input_fastq2=None, output_fastq2=None):
Create commands with which to run skewer.
:param str input_fastq1: Path to input (read 1) FASTQ file
:param str output_prefix: Prefix for output FASTQ file names
:param str output_fastq1: Path to (read 1) output FASTQ file
:param str log: Path to file to which to write logging information
:param int | str cpus: Number of processing cores to allow
:param str adapters: Path to file with sequencing adapters
:param str input_fastq2: Path to read 2 input FASTQ file
:param str output_fastq2: Path to read 2 output FASTQ file
:return list[str]: Sequence of commands to run to trim reads with
skewer and rename files as desired.
pe = input_fastq2 is not None
mode = "pe" if pe else "any"
cmds = list()
cmd1 = + " --quiet"
cmd1 += " -f sanger"
cmd1 += " -t {0}".format(cpus)
cmd1 += " -m {0}".format(mode)
cmd1 += " -x {0}".format(adapters)
cmd1 += " -o {0}".format(output_prefix)
cmd1 += " {0}".format(input_fastq1)
if input_fastq2 is None:
cmd1 += " {0}".format(input_fastq2)
if input_fastq2 is None:
cmd2 = "mv {0} {1}".format(output_prefix + "-trimmed.fastq", output_fastq1)
cmd2 = "mv {0} {1}".format(output_prefix + "-trimmed-pair1.fastq", output_fastq1)
cmd3 = "mv {0} {1}".format(output_prefix + "-trimmed-pair2.fastq", output_fastq2)
cmd4 = "mv {0} {1}".format(output_prefix + "-trimmed.log", log)
return cmds
def bowtie2_map(self, input_fastq1, output_bam, log, metrics, genome_index, max_insert, cpus, input_fastq2=None):
# Admits 2000bp-long fragments (--maxins option)
cmd = + " --very-sensitive --no-discordant -p {0}".format(cpus)
cmd += " -x {0}".format(genome_index)
cmd += " --met-file {0}".format(metrics)
if input_fastq2 is None:
cmd += " {0} ".format(input_fastq1)
cmd += " --maxins {0}".format(max_insert)
cmd += " -1 {0}".format(input_fastq1)
cmd += " -2 {0}".format(input_fastq2)
cmd += " 2> {0} | samtools view -S -b - | samtools sort -o {1} -".format(log, output_bam)
return cmd
def topHat_map(self, input_fastq, output_dir, genome, transcriptome, cpus):
# Allow paired input
cmd = + " --GTF {0} --b2-L 15 --library-type fr-unstranded --mate-inner-dist 120".format(transcriptome)
cmd += " --max-multihits 100 --no-coverage-search"
cmd += " --num-threads {0} --output-dir {1} {2} {3}".format(cpus, output_dir, genome, input_fastq)
return cmd
def picard_mark_duplicates(self, input_bam, output_bam, metrics_file, temp_dir="."):
transient_file = re.sub("\.bam$", "", output_bam) + ".dups.nosort.bam"
output_bam = re.sub("\.bam$", "", output_bam)
cmd1 = + " -Xmx" +
cmd1 += " -jar `which MarkDuplicates.jar`"
cmd1 += " INPUT={0}".format(input_bam)
cmd1 += " OUTPUT={0}".format(transient_file)
cmd1 += " METRICS_FILE={0}".format(metrics_file)
cmd1 += " TMP_DIR={0}".format(temp_dir)
# Sort bam file with marked duplicates
cmd2 = + " sort {0} {1}".format(transient_file, output_bam)
# Remove transient file
cmd3 = "if [[ -s {0} ]]; then rm {0}; fi".format(transient_file)
return [cmd1, cmd2, cmd3]
def sambamba_remove_duplicates(self, input_bam, output_bam, cpus=16):
cmd = + " markdup -t {0} -r {1} {2}".format(cpus, input_bam, output_bam)
return cmd
def get_mitochondrial_reads(self, bam_file, output, cpus=4):
tmp_bam = bam_file + "tmp_rmMe"
cmd1 = + " index -t {0} {1}".format(cpus, bam_file)
cmd2 = + " slice {0} chrM | {1} markdup -t 4 /dev/stdin {2} 2> {3}".format(bam_file,, tmp_bam, output)
cmd3 = "rm {}".format(tmp_bam)
return [cmd1, cmd2, cmd3]
def filter_reads(self, input_bam, output_bam, metrics_file, paired=False, cpus=16, Q=30):
Remove duplicates, filter for >Q, remove multiple mapping reads.
For paired-end reads, keep only proper pairs.
nodups = re.sub("\.bam$", "", output_bam) + ".nodups.nofilter.bam"
cmd1 = + " markdup -t {0} -r --compression-level=0 {1} {2} 2> {3}".format(cpus, input_bam, nodups, metrics_file)
cmd2 = + ' view -t {0} -f bam --valid'.format(cpus)
if paired:
cmd2 += ' -F "not (unmapped or mate_is_unmapped) and proper_pair'
cmd2 += ' -F "not unmapped'
cmd2 += ' and not (secondary_alignment or supplementary) and mapping_quality >= {0}"'.format(Q)
cmd2 += ' {0} |'.format(nodups)
cmd2 += + " sort -t {0} /dev/stdin -o {1}".format(cpus, output_bam)
cmd3 = "if [[ -s {0} ]]; then rm {0}; fi".format(nodups)
cmd4 = "if [[ -s {0} ]]; then rm {0}; fi".format(nodups + ".bai")
return [cmd1, cmd2, cmd3, cmd4]
def shift_reads(self, input_bam, genome, output_bam):
# output_bam = re.sub("\.bam$", "", output_bam)
cmd = + " view -h {0} |".format(input_bam)
cmd += " {0} |".format(genome)
cmd += " " + + " view -S -b - |"
cmd += " " + + " sort -o {0} -".format(output_bam)
return cmd
def sort_index_bam(self, input_bam, output_bam):
tmp_bam = re.sub("\.bam", ".sorted", input_bam)
cmd1 = + " sort {0} {1}".format(input_bam, tmp_bam)
cmd2 = "mv {0}.bam {1}".format(tmp_bam, output_bam)
cmd3 = + " index {0}".format(output_bam)
return [cmd1, cmd2, cmd3]
def index_bam(self, input_bam):
cmd = + " index {0}".format(input_bam)
return cmd
def run_spp(self, input_bam, output, plot, cpus):
Run the SPP read peak analysis tool.
:param str input_bam: Path to reads file
:param str output: Path to output file
:param str plot: Path to plot file
:param int cpus: Number of processors to use
:return str: Command with which to run SPP
base = "{} {} -rf -savp".format(,
cmd = base + " -savp={} -s=0:5:500 -c={} -out={} -p={}".format(
plot, input_bam, output, cpus)
return cmd
def get_fragment_sizes(self, bam_file):
import pysam
import numpy as np
frag_sizes = list()
bam = pysam.Samfile(bam_file, 'rb')
for read in bam:
if bam.getrname(read.tid) != "chrM" and read.tlen < 1500:
return np.array(frag_sizes)
def plot_atacseq_insert_sizes(self, bam, plot, output_csv, max_insert=1500, smallest_insert=30):
Heavy inspiration from here:
import pysam
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.mlab as mlab
from scipy.optimize import curve_fit
from scipy.integrate import simps
import matplotlib
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
print("Necessary Python modules couldn't be loaded.")
import seaborn as sns
def get_fragment_sizes(bam, max_insert=1500):
frag_sizes = list()
bam = pysam.Samfile(bam, 'rb')
for i, read in enumerate(bam):
if read.tlen < max_insert:
return np.array(frag_sizes)
def mixture_function(x, *p):
Mixture function to model four gaussian (nucleosomal)
and one exponential (nucleosome-free) distributions.
m1, s1, w1, m2, s2, w2, m3, s3, w3, m4, s4, w4, q, r = p
nfr = expo(x, 2.9e-02, 2.8e-02)
nfr[:smallest_insert] = 0
return (mlab.normpdf(x, m1, s1) * w1 +
mlab.normpdf(x, m2, s2) * w2 +
mlab.normpdf(x, m3, s3) * w3 +
mlab.normpdf(x, m4, s4) * w4 +
def expo(x, q, r):
Exponential function.
return q * np.exp(-r * x)
# get fragment sizes
frag_sizes = get_fragment_sizes(bam)
# bin
numBins = np.linspace(0, max_insert, max_insert + 1)
y, scatter_x = np.histogram(frag_sizes, numBins, density=1)
# get the mid-point of each bin
x = (scatter_x[:-1] + scatter_x[1:]) / 2
# Parameters are empirical, need to check
paramGuess = [
200, 50, 0.7, # gaussians
400, 50, 0.15,
600, 50, 0.1,
800, 55, 0.045,
2.9e-02, 2.8e-02 # exponential
popt3, pcov3 = curve_fit(
mixture_function, x[smallest_insert:], y[smallest_insert:],
p0=paramGuess, maxfev=100000)
print("Nucleosomal fit could not be found.")
m1, s1, w1, m2, s2, w2, m3, s3, w3, m4, s4, w4, q, r = popt3
# Plot
plt.figure(figsize=(12, 12))
# Plot distribution
plt.hist(frag_sizes, numBins, histtype="step", ec="k", normed=1, alpha=0.5)
# Plot nucleosomal fits
plt.plot(x, mlab.normpdf(x, m1, s1) * w1, 'r-', lw=1.5, label="1st nucleosome")
plt.plot(x, mlab.normpdf(x, m2, s2) * w2, 'g-', lw=1.5, label="2nd nucleosome")
plt.plot(x, mlab.normpdf(x, m3, s3) * w3, 'b-', lw=1.5, label="3rd nucleosome")
plt.plot(x, mlab.normpdf(x, m4, s4) * w4, 'c-', lw=1.5, label="4th nucleosome")
# Plot nucleosome-free fit
nfr = expo(x, 2.9e-02, 2.8e-02)
nfr[:smallest_insert] = 0
plt.plot(x, nfr, 'k-', lw=1.5, label="nucleosome-free")
# Plot sum of fits
ys = mixture_function(x, *popt3)
plt.plot(x, ys, 'k--', lw=3.5, label="fit sum")
plt.xlabel("Fragment size (bp)")
plt.savefig(plot, bbox_inches="tight")
# Integrate curves and get areas under curve
areas = [
["fraction", "area under curve", "max density"],
["Nucleosome-free fragments", simps(nfr), max(nfr)],
["1st nucleosome", simps(mlab.normpdf(x, m1, s1) * w1), max(mlab.normpdf(x, m1, s1) * w1)],
["2nd nucleosome", simps(mlab.normpdf(x, m2, s2) * w1), max(mlab.normpdf(x, m2, s2) * w2)],
["3rd nucleosome", simps(mlab.normpdf(x, m3, s3) * w1), max(mlab.normpdf(x, m3, s3) * w3)],
["4th nucleosome", simps(mlab.normpdf(x, m4, s4) * w1), max(mlab.normpdf(x, m4, s4) * w4)]
import csv
with open(output_csv, "w") as f:
writer = csv.writer(f)
# TODO: parameterize in terms of normalization factor.
def bam_to_bigwig(
self, input_bam, output_bigwig, genome_sizes, genome,
tagmented=False, normalize=False, norm_factor=1000):
Convert a BAM file to a bigWig file.
:param str input_bam: path to BAM file to convert
:param str output_bigwig: path to which to write file in bigwig format
:param str genome_sizes: path to file with chromosome size information
:param str genome: name of genomic assembly
:param bool tagmented: flag related to read-generating protocol
:param bool normalize: whether to normalize coverage
:param int norm_factor: number of bases to use for normalization
:return list[str]: sequence of commands to execute
# addjust fragment length dependent on read size and real fragment size
# (right now it asssumes 50bp reads with 180bp fragments)
cmds = list()
transient_file = os.path.abspath(re.sub("\.bigWig", "", output_bigwig))
cmd1 = + " bamtobed -i {0} |".format(input_bam)
if not tagmented:
cmd1 += " " + + " slop -i stdin -g {0} -s -l 0 -r 130 |".format(genome_sizes)
cmd1 += " {0} |".format(genome)
cmd1 += " " + + " {0}-bg -g {1} -i stdin > {2}.cov".format(
"-5 " if tagmented else "",
if normalize:
cmds.append("""awk 'NR==FNR{{sum+= $4; next}}{{ $4 = ($4 / sum) * {1}; print}}' {0}.cov {0}.cov | sort -k1,1 -k2,2n > {0}.normalized.cov""".format(transient_file, norm_factor))
cmds.append( + " {0}{1}.cov {2} {3}".format(transient_file, ".normalized" if normalize else "", genome_sizes, output_bigwig))
# remove tmp files
cmds.append("if [[ -s {0}.cov ]]; then rm {0}.cov; fi".format(transient_file))
if normalize:
cmds.append("if [[ -s {0}.normalized.cov ]]; then rm {0}.normalized.cov; fi".format(transient_file))
cmds.append("chmod 755 {0}".format(output_bigwig))
return cmds
def add_track_to_hub(self, sample_name, track_url, track_hub, colour, five_prime=""):
cmd1 = """echo "track type=bigWig name='{0} {1}' description='{0} {1}'""".format(sample_name, five_prime)
cmd1 += """ height=32 visibility=full maxHeightPixels=32:32:25 bigDataUrl={0} color={1}" >> {2}""".format(track_url, colour, track_hub)
cmd2 = "chmod 755 {0}".format(track_hub)
return [cmd1, cmd2]
def link_to_track_hub(self, track_hub_url, file_name, genome):
import textwrap
db = "org" if genome == "hg19" else "db" # different database call for human
genome = "human" if genome == "hg19" else genome # change hg19 to human
html = """
<meta http-equiv="refresh" content="0; url="""
html += """{db}={genome}&hgt.customText={track_hub_url}" />
""".format(track_hub_url=track_hub_url, genome=genome, db=db)
with open(file_name, 'w') as handle:
def htseq_count(self, input_bam, gtf, output):
sam = input_bam.replace("bam", "sam")
cmd1 = "samtools view {0} > {1}".format(input_bam, sam)
cmd2 = "htseq-count -f sam -t exon -i transcript_id -m union {0} {1} > {2}".format(sam, gtf, output)
cmd3 = "rm {0}".format(sam)
return [cmd1, cmd2, cmd3]
def kallisto(self, input_fastq, output_dir, output_bam, transcriptome_index, cpus, input_fastq2=None, size=180, b=200):
cmd1 = + " quant --bias --pseudobam -b {0} -l {1} -i {2} -o {3} -t {4}".format(b, size, transcriptome_index, output_dir, cpus)
if input_fastq2 is None:
cmd1 += " --single {0}".format(input_fastq)
cmd1 += " {0} {1}".format(input_fastq, input_fastq2)
cmd1 += " | " + + " view -Sb - > {0}".format(output_bam)
cmd2 = + " h5dump -o {0} {0}/abundance.h5".format(output_dir)
return [cmd1, cmd2]
def genome_wide_coverage(self, input_bam, genome_windows, output):
cmd = + " coverage -counts -abam {0} -b {1} > {2}".format(input_bam, genome_windows, output)
return cmd
def calc_frip(self, input_bam, input_bed, threads=4):
Calculate fraction of reads in peaks.
A file of with a pool of sequencing reads and a file with peak call
regions define the operation that will be performed. Thread count
for samtools can be specified as well.
:param str input_bam: sequencing reads file
:param str input_bed: file with called peak regions
:param int threads: number of threads samtools may use
:return float: fraction of reads in peaks defined in given peaks file
cmd = self.simple_frip(input_bam, input_bed, threads)
return subprocess.check_output(cmd.split(" "), shell=True).decode().strip()
def simple_frip(self, input_bam, input_bed, threads=4):
cmd = "{} view".format(
cmd += " -@ {} -c -L {}".format(threads, input_bed)
cmd += " " + input_bam
return cmd
def calculate_frip(self, input_bam, input_bed, output, cpus=4):
cmd = + " depth region -t {0}".format(cpus)
cmd += " -L {0}".format(input_bed)
cmd += " {0}".format(input_bam)
cmd += " | awk '{{sum+=$5}} END {{print sum}}' > {0}".format(output)
return cmd
def macs2_call_peaks(
self, treatment_bams, output_dir, sample_name, genome,
control_bams=None, broad=False, paired=False,
pvalue=None, qvalue=None, include_significance=None):
Use MACS2 to call peaks.
:param str | Iterable[str] treatment_bams: Paths to files with data to
regard as treatment.
:param str output_dir: Path to output folder.
:param str sample_name: Name for the sample involved.
:param str genome: Name of the genome assembly to use.
:param str | Iterable[str] control_bams: Paths to files with data to
regard as control
:param bool broad: Whether to do broad peak calling.
:param bool paired: Whether reads are paired-end
:param float | NoneType pvalue: Statistical significance measure to
pass as --pvalue to peak calling with MACS
:param float | NoneType qvalue: Statistical significance measure to
pass as --qvalue to peak calling with MACS
:param bool | NoneType include_significance: Whether to pass a
statistical significance argument to peak calling with MACS; if
omitted, this will be True if the peak calling is broad or if
either p-value or q-value is specified; default significance
specification is a p-value of 0.001 if a significance is to be
specified but no value is provided for p-value or q-value.
:return str: Command to run.
sizes = {"hg38": 2.7e9, "hg19": 2.7e9, "mm10": 1.87e9, "dr7": 1.412e9, "mm9": 1.87e9}
# Whether to specify to MACS2 a value for statistical significance
# can be either directly indicated, but if not, it's determined by
# whether the mark is associated with broad peaks. By default, we
# specify a significance value to MACS2 for a mark associated with a
# broad peak.
if include_significance is None:
include_significance = broad
cmd = + " callpeak -t {0}".format(treatment_bams if type(treatment_bams) is str else " ".join(treatment_bams))
if control_bams is not None:
cmd += " -c {0}".format(control_bams if type(control_bams) is str else " ".join(control_bams))
if paired:
cmd += " -f BAMPE "
# Additional settings based on whether the marks is associated with
# broad peaks
if broad:
cmd += " --broad --nomodel --extsize 73"
cmd += " --fix-bimodal --extsize 180 --bw 200"
if include_significance:
# Allow significance specification via either p- or q-value,
# giving preference to q-value if both are provided but falling
# back on a default p-value if neither is provided but inclusion
# of statistical significance measure is desired.
if qvalue is not None:
cmd += " --qvalue {}".format(qvalue)
cmd += " --pvalue {}".format(pvalue or 0.00001)
cmd += " -g {0} -n {1} --outdir {2}".format(sizes[genome], sample_name, output_dir)
return cmd
def macs2_call_peaks_atacseq(self, treatment_bam, output_dir, sample_name, genome):
genome_sizes = {"hg38": 2.7e9, "hg19": 2.7e9, "mm10": 1.87e9, "dr7": 1.412e9, "mm9": 1.87e9}
cmd = + " callpeak -t {0}".format(treatment_bam)
cmd += " --nomodel --extsize 147 -g {0} -n {1} --outdir {2}".format(genome_sizes[genome], sample_name, output_dir)
return cmd
def macs2_plot_model(self, r_peak_model_file, sample_name, output_dir):
# run macs r script
cmd1 = "{} {}".format(, r_peak_model_file)
# move output plot to sample dir
cmd2 = "mv {0}/{1}_model.pdf {2}/{1}_model.pdf".format(os.getcwd(), sample_name, output_dir)
return [cmd1, cmd2]
def spp_call_peaks(
self, treatment_bam, control_bam, treatment_name, control_name,
output_dir, broad, cpus, qvalue=None):
Build command for R script to call peaks with SPP.
:param str treatment_bam: Path to file with data for treatment sample.
:param str control_bam: Path to file with data for control sample.
:param str treatment_name: Name for the treatment sample.
:param str control_name: Name for the control sample.
:param str output_dir: Path to folder for output.
:param str | bool broad: Whether to specify broad peak calling mode.
:param int cpus: Number of cores the script may use.
:param float qvalue: FDR, as decimal value
:return str: Command to run.
broad = "TRUE" if broad else "FALSE"
cmd = + " `which spp_peak_calling.R` {0} {1} {2} {3} {4} {5} {6}".format(
treatment_bam, control_bam, treatment_name, control_name, broad, cpus, output_dir
if qvalue is not None:
cmd += " {}".format(qvalue)
return cmd
def bam_to_bed(self, input_bam, output_bed):
cmd = + " bamtobed -i {0} > {1}".format(input_bam, output_bed)
return cmd
def zinba_call_peaks(self, treatment_bed, control_bed, cpus, tagmented=False):
fragmentLength = 80 if tagmented else 180
cmd = + " `which zinba.R` -l {0} -t {1} -c {2}".format(fragmentLength, treatment_bed, control_bed)
return cmd
def filter_peaks_mappability(self, peaks, alignability, filtered_peaks):
cmd = + " intersect -wa -u -f 1"
cmd += " -a {0} -b {1} > {2} ".format(peaks, alignability, filtered_peaks)
return cmd
def homer_find_motifs(self, peak_file, genome, output_dir, size=150, length="8,10,12,14,16", n_motifs=12):
cmd = " {0} {1} {2}".format(peak_file, genome, output_dir)
cmd += " -mask -size {0} -len {1} -S {2}".format(size, length, n_motifs)
return cmd
def homer_annotate_pPeaks(self, peak_file, genome, motif_file, output_bed):
cmd = " {0} {1} -mask -mscore -m {2} |".format(peak_file, genome, motif_file)
cmd += "tail -n +2 | cut -f 1,5,22 > {3}".format(output_bed)
return cmd
def center_peaks_on_motifs(self, peak_file, genome, window_width, motif_file, output_bed):
cmd = " {0} {1} -size {2} -center {3} |".format(peak_file, genome, window_width, motif_file)
cmd += " awk -v OFS='\t' '{print $2, $3, $4, $1, $6, $5}' |"
cmd += """ awk -v OFS='\t' -F '\t' '{ gsub("0", "+", $6) ; gsub("1", "-", $6) ; print }' |"""
cmd += " {0} | sortBed > {1}".format(genome, output_bed)
return cmd
def get_read_type(self, bam_file, n=10):
Gets the read type (single, paired) and length of bam file.
:param str bam_file: Bam file to determine read attributes.
:param int n: Number of lines to read from bam file.
:return str, int: tuple of read type and read length
from collections import Counter
p = subprocess.Popen([, 'view', bam_file],
# Count paired alignments
paired = 0
read_length = Counter()
while n > 0:
line ="\t")
flag = int(line[1])
read_length[len(line[9])] += 1
if 1 & flag: # check decimal flag contains 1 (paired)
paired += 1
n -= 1
except IOError("Cannot read provided bam file.") as e:
raise e
# Get most abundant read read_length
read_length = sorted(read_length)[-1]
# If at least half is paired, return True
if paired > (n / 2.):
return "PE", read_length
return "SE", read_length
def parse_bowtie_stats(self, stats_file):
Parses Bowtie2 stats file, returns series with values.
:param str stats_file: Bowtie2 output file with alignment statistics.
import pandas as pd
stats = pd.Series(index=["readCount", "unpaired", "unaligned", "unique", "multiple", "alignmentRate"])
with open(stats_file) as handle:
content = handle.readlines() # list of strings per line
return stats
# total reads
line = [i for i in range(len(content)) if " reads; of these:" in content[i]][0]
stats["readCount"] = re.sub("\D.*", "", content[line])
if 7 > len(content) > 2:
line = [i for i in range(len(content)) if "were unpaired; of these:" in content[i]][0]
stats["unpaired"] = re.sub("\D", "", re.sub("\(.*", "", content[line]))
line = [i for i in range(len(content)) if "were paired; of these:" in content[i]][0]
stats["unpaired"] = stats["readCount"] - int(re.sub("\D", "", re.sub("\(.*", "", content[line])))
line = [i for i in range(len(content)) if "aligned 0 times" in content[i]][0]
stats["unaligned"] = re.sub("\D", "", re.sub("\(.*", "", content[line]))
line = [i for i in range(len(content)) if "aligned exactly 1 time" in content[i]][0]
stats["unique"] = re.sub("\D", "", re.sub("\(.*", "", content[line]))
line = [i for i in range(len(content)) if "aligned >1 times" in content[i]][0]
stats["multiple"] = re.sub("\D", "", re.sub("\(.*", "", content[line]))
line = [i for i in range(len(content)) if "overall alignment rate" in content[i]][0]
stats["alignmentRate"] = re.sub("\%.*", "", content[line]).strip()
except IndexError:
return stats
def parse_duplicate_stats(self, stats_file):
Parses sambamba markdup output, returns series with values.
:param str stats_file: sambamba output file with duplicate statistics.
import pandas as pd
series = pd.Series()
with open(stats_file) as handle:
content = handle.readlines() # list of strings per line
return series
line = [i for i in range(len(content)) if "single ends (among them " in content[i]][0]
series["single-ends"] = re.sub("\D", "", re.sub("\(.*", "", content[line]))
line = [i for i in range(len(content)) if " end pairs... done in " in content[i]][0]
series["paired-ends"] = re.sub("\D", "", re.sub("\.\.\..*", "", content[line]))
line = [i for i in range(len(content)) if " duplicates, sorting the list... done in " in content[i]][0]
series["duplicates"] = re.sub("\D", "", re.sub("\.\.\..*", "", content[line]))
except IndexError:
return series
def parse_qc(self, qc_file):
Parse phantompeakqualtools (spp) QC table and return quality metrics.
:param str qc_file: Path to phantompeakqualtools output file, which
contains sample quality measurements.
import pandas as pd
series = pd.Series()
with open(qc_file) as handle:
line = handle.readlines()[0].strip().split("\t") # list of strings per line
series["NSC"] = line[-3]
series["RSC"] = line[-2]
series["qualityTag"] = line[-1]
return series
def get_peak_number(self, sample):
Counts number of peaks from a sample's peak file.
:param pipelines.Sample sample: Sample object with "peaks" attribute.
proc = subprocess.Popen(["wc", "-l", sample.peaks], stdout=subprocess.PIPE)
out, err = proc.communicate()
sample["peakNumber"] = re.sub("\D.*", "", out)
return sample
def get_frip(self, sample):
Calculates the fraction of reads in peaks for a given sample.
:param pipelines.Sample sample: Sample object with "peaks" attribute.
import pandas as pd
with open(sample.frip, "r") as handle:
content = handle.readlines()
reads_in_peaks = int(re.sub("\D", "", content[0]))
mapped_reads = sample["readCount"] - sample["unaligned"]
return pd.Series(reads_in_peaks / mapped_reads, index="FRiP")
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