Skip to content
master
Go to file
Code

Files

Permalink
Failed to load latest commit information.

README.md


XState
JavaScript state machines and statecharts

npm version Statecharts gitter chat

Black lives matter. Support the Equal Justice Initiative. ✊🏽✊🏾✊🏿

JavaScript and TypeScript finite state machines and statecharts for the modern web.

📖 Read the documentation 📑 Adheres to the SCXML specification.

Packages

  • 🤖 xstate - Core finite state machine and statecharts library + interpreter
  • 🔬 @xstate/fsm - Minimal finite state machine library
  • 📉 @xstate/graph - Graph traversal utilities for XState
  • ⚛️ @xstate/react - React hooks and utilities for using XState in React applications
  • 💚 @xstate/vue - Vue composition functions and utilities for using XState in Vue applications
  • @xstate/test - Model-based testing utilities for XState

Templates

Get started by forking one of these templates on CodeSandbox:

Super quick start

npm install xstate
import { createMachine, interpret } from 'xstate';

// Stateless machine definition
// machine.transition(...) is a pure function used by the interpreter.
const toggleMachine = createMachine({
  id: 'toggle',
  initial: 'inactive',
  states: {
    inactive: { on: { TOGGLE: 'active' } },
    active: { on: { TOGGLE: 'inactive' } }
  }
});

// Machine instance with internal state
const toggleService = interpret(toggleMachine)
  .onTransition((state) => console.log(state.value))
  .start();
// => 'inactive'

toggleService.send('TOGGLE');
// => 'active'

toggleService.send('TOGGLE');
// => 'inactive'

Promise example

📉 See the visualization on xstate.js.org/viz

import { createMachine, interpret, assign } from 'xstate';

const fetchMachine = createMachine({
  id: 'SWAPI',
  initial: 'idle',
  context: {
    user: null
  },
  states: {
    idle: {
      on: {
        FETCH: 'loading'
      }
    },
    loading: {
      invoke: {
        id: 'fetchLuke',
        src: (context, event) =>
          fetch('https://swapi.dev/api/people/1').then((res) => res.json()),
        onDone: {
          target: 'resolved',
          actions: assign({
            user: (_, event) => event.data
          })
        },
        onError: 'rejected'
      },
      on: {
        CANCEL: 'idle'
      }
    },
    resolved: {
      type: 'final'
    },
    rejected: {
      on: {
        FETCH: 'loading'
      }
    }
  }
});

const swService = interpret(fetchMachine)
  .onTransition((state) => console.log(state.value))
  .start();

swService.send('FETCH');

Visualizer

Visualize, simulate, and share your statecharts in XState Viz!

xstate visualizer

Why?

Statecharts are a formalism for modeling stateful, reactive systems. This is useful for declaratively describing the behavior of your application, from the individual components to the overall application logic.

Read 📽 the slides (🎥 video) or check out these resources for learning about the importance of finite state machines and statecharts in user interfaces:

Finite State Machines

Light Machine

import { Machine } from 'xstate';

const lightMachine = Machine({
  id: 'light',
  initial: 'green',
  states: {
    green: {
      on: {
        TIMER: 'yellow'
      }
    },
    yellow: {
      on: {
        TIMER: 'red'
      }
    },
    red: {
      on: {
        TIMER: 'green'
      }
    }
  }
});

const currentState = 'green';

const nextState = lightMachine.transition(currentState, 'TIMER').value;

// => 'yellow'

Hierarchical (Nested) State Machines

Hierarchical Light Machine

import { Machine } from 'xstate';

const pedestrianStates = {
  initial: 'walk',
  states: {
    walk: {
      on: {
        PED_TIMER: 'wait'
      }
    },
    wait: {
      on: {
        PED_TIMER: 'stop'
      }
    },
    stop: {}
  }
};

const lightMachine = Machine({
  id: 'light',
  initial: 'green',
  states: {
    green: {
      on: {
        TIMER: 'yellow'
      }
    },
    yellow: {
      on: {
        TIMER: 'red'
      }
    },
    red: {
      on: {
        TIMER: 'green'
      },
      ...pedestrianStates
    }
  }
});

const currentState = 'yellow';

const nextState = lightMachine.transition(currentState, 'TIMER').value;
// => {
//   red: 'walk'
// }

lightMachine.transition('red.walk', 'PED_TIMER').value;
// => {
//   red: 'wait'
// }

Object notation for hierarchical states:

// ...
const waitState = lightMachine.transition({ red: 'walk' }, 'PED_TIMER').value;

// => { red: 'wait' }

lightMachine.transition(waitState, 'PED_TIMER').value;

// => { red: 'stop' }

lightMachine.transition({ red: 'stop' }, 'TIMER').value;

// => 'green'

Parallel State Machines

Parallel state machine

const wordMachine = Machine({
  id: 'word',
  type: 'parallel',
  states: {
    bold: {
      initial: 'off',
      states: {
        on: {
          on: { TOGGLE_BOLD: 'off' }
        },
        off: {
          on: { TOGGLE_BOLD: 'on' }
        }
      }
    },
    underline: {
      initial: 'off',
      states: {
        on: {
          on: { TOGGLE_UNDERLINE: 'off' }
        },
        off: {
          on: { TOGGLE_UNDERLINE: 'on' }
        }
      }
    },
    italics: {
      initial: 'off',
      states: {
        on: {
          on: { TOGGLE_ITALICS: 'off' }
        },
        off: {
          on: { TOGGLE_ITALICS: 'on' }
        }
      }
    },
    list: {
      initial: 'none',
      states: {
        none: {
          on: { BULLETS: 'bullets', NUMBERS: 'numbers' }
        },
        bullets: {
          on: { NONE: 'none', NUMBERS: 'numbers' }
        },
        numbers: {
          on: { BULLETS: 'bullets', NONE: 'none' }
        }
      }
    }
  }
});

const boldState = wordMachine.transition('bold.off', 'TOGGLE_BOLD').value;

// {
//   bold: 'on',
//   italics: 'off',
//   underline: 'off',
//   list: 'none'
// }

const nextState = wordMachine.transition(
  {
    bold: 'off',
    italics: 'off',
    underline: 'on',
    list: 'bullets'
  },
  'TOGGLE_ITALICS'
).value;

// {
//   bold: 'off',
//   italics: 'on',
//   underline: 'on',
//   list: 'bullets'
// }

History States

Machine with history state

const paymentMachine = Machine({
  id: 'payment',
  initial: 'method',
  states: {
    method: {
      initial: 'cash',
      states: {
        cash: { on: { SWITCH_CHECK: 'check' } },
        check: { on: { SWITCH_CASH: 'cash' } },
        hist: { type: 'history' }
      },
      on: { NEXT: 'review' }
    },
    review: {
      on: { PREVIOUS: 'method.hist' }
    }
  }
});

const checkState = paymentMachine.transition('method.cash', 'SWITCH_CHECK');

// => State {
//   value: { method: 'check' },
//   history: State { ... }
// }

const reviewState = paymentMachine.transition(checkState, 'NEXT');

// => State {
//   value: 'review',
//   history: State { ... }
// }

const previousState = paymentMachine.transition(reviewState, 'PREVIOUS').value;

// => { method: 'check' }

Sponsors

Huge thanks to the following companies for sponsoring xstate. You can sponsor further xstate development on OpenCollective.

You can’t perform that action at this time.